Kim Gu known by his pen name Baekbeom, was a Korean nationalist politician. He was the sixth and the last Premier of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, a leader of the Korean independence movement against the Japanese Empire, a reunification activist after 1945. Kim was born on August 29, 1876, in Teot-gol, Baek-un-bang, South Hwanghae Province, the only son of a farmer Kim Soon-young and his wife Kwak Nack-won, his name at birth was Kim Changahm. When he was nine years old, he started to study Chinese classic texts such as Zizhi Tongjian, Great Learning at local seodangs. Kim was a descendant of Kim Suk-seung, his 31 Great-grandfather, the founder of the Andong Kim clan who are famous for being descendants of King Kyung Soon. Kim's 21G-grandfather Kim Sa-hyeong was one of the meritorious retainer at the founding of the Joseon dynasty, his 11G-grandfather Kim Dae-chung escaped to Hanyang to Haeju and concealed his identity. Kim Ja-jeom was his 11 Great-grandfather, Kim Dae-chung's third cousin.
At the age of 16, Kim failed. After that, he joined the Donghak Movement, a rebellion against government and foreign oppressions in 1893 and changed his name to Kim Changsoo; as the organization grew he was appointed the district leader of Palbong at the age of 17 and a Donghak army regiment. Under the instruction of Donghak leader Choi Si-hyung, Kim's troops stormed the Haeju fort in Hwanghae-do, but the army was defeated by governmental forces. After that, he was defeated by his companion, Lee Dong-yeop in the turf war of Donghak's organization. Thereafter, the Royal Army's General An Tae-hun (안태훈. At 20, with I-eon Kim whom he had met around Yalu River, Kim attacked the Royal Army unit holding the Gang-gye fort, supported by the Qing dynasty's army. However, the attack failed and he went into hiding. In February 1896, Kim stayed at an inn in Chihapo, Hwanghae Province while traveling to southern regions. There he found a Japanese man named Tsuchida Josuke, a trader from Tsushima, Nagasaki and killed him believing that he was a Japanese army lieutenant involved in the assassination of the queen.
In his autobiography,'Baekbeom Ilji', Kim describes his motivation at the time as follows: Since many Japaneses go through Chihapo every day, there is no reason for him to disguise as a Korean if he were an ordinary merchant or workman. Could he be Miura or one of his accomplices who killed the queen, fled from Seoul and hiding here? If he is not, a Japanese man with a disguise and a sword can do nothing but harm to my country and people. I will revenge for my queen by killing this Japanese man; the following morning, Kim attacked Tsuchida, killed him. The "Report from acting administrator Hagihara Moriichi of Incheon Consulate on the current situation of Incheon" describes Tsuchida as a "commoner from Nagasaki Prefecture" and an "employee of a Nagasaki trader on a business trip". However, Kim argued in his autobiography that Tsuchida was concealing a sword and had identification papers that showed him to be a Japanese army lieutenant. Kim was tortured and sentenced to death. According to'Baekbeom Ilji', many Korean people were sympathetic and admired him for his patriotism and bravery, as shown by the facts that his execution was suspended by order of Emperor Gwangmu, that Korean judicial officials behaved politely to him despite Japanese pressure to execute him promptly, that influential Koreans at the time made efforts to rescue him by repeated petitions to Korean Justice Department Officials and by collecting money for his ransom before his scheduled execution date.
In prison, Kim had a chance to read newly published textbooks about Western culture and science such as Taeseo Shinsa and Saegye Jiji. He was impressed by the strengths of the new Western science and recognized the importance of education for the Korean people, he started to teach about 100 illiterate fellow prisoners. The Korean newspaper Hwhangsung Shinbo reported at the time that by his teaching of prisoners Kim Chang Soo changed the Incheon Prison into a school. In 1898 he broke out of prison and escaped into Magoksa, a Buddhist temple in Gongju, Chungcheong province, entered the Buddhist priesthood. A year Kim left the priesthood and returned to Hwanghae, where he devoted himself to the enlightenment and education of the Korean people, founding Jangyeon School and the Yangsan School in 1907, becoming the principal of the Yangsan School. In 1904, he married Choi Jun-rye from Hwanghae Province. In 1905, the Eulsa Treaty was made between Korea, making Korea a protectorate of Japan. Kim participated in a mass protest against the treaty in Seoul and presented a memorial to Emperor Gwangmu urging him to withdraw from the treaty.
In 1908, Kim joined New People's Association, a national-level underground organization established by Ahn Changho for nonviolent Korean independence movement. In 1910, the Japanese colonial government arrested An Myung-geun for plotting to assassinate Governor-General Terauchi Masatake. Kim, a close friend of An, was suspected of being an accomplice and arrested as well. Like other jailed suspects, Kim was severe
Charter of the United Nations
The Charter of the United Nations of 1945 is the foundational treaty of the United Nations, an intergovernmental organization. The UN Charter articulated a commitment to uphold human rights of citizens and outlined a broad set of principles relating to achieving ‘higher standards of living’, addressing ‘economic, social and related problems,’ and ‘universal respect for, observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, language, or religion.’ As a charter, it is a constituent treaty, all members are bound by its articles. Furthermore, Article 103 of the Charter states that obligations to the United Nations prevail over all other treaty obligations; the Charter was opened for signature on 26 June 1945 and was signed at the San Francisco War Memorial and Performing Arts Center in San Francisco, United States, on 26 June 1945, by 50 of the 51 original member countries. It entered into force on 24 October 1945, after being ratified by the original five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council—the Republic of China, the Provisional Government of the French Republic, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom, the United States—and a majority of the other signatories.
In the meantime, the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki took place on 6 and 9 August, respectively. Most countries in the world have now ratified the Charter. 24 October was declared as United Nations Day by the United Nations General Assembly. The Charter consists of a series of articles grouped into chapters; the preamble consists of two principal parts. The first part contains a general call for the maintenance of peace and international security and respect for human rights; the second part of the preamble is a declaration in a contractual style that the governments of the peoples of the United Nations have agreed to the Charter and it is the first international document regarding human rights. Chapter I sets forth the purposes of the United Nations, including the important provisions of the maintenance of international peace and security. Chapter II defines the criteria for membership in the United Nations. Chapters III–XV, the bulk of the document, describe the organs and institutions of the UN and their respective powers.
Chapters XVI and Chapter XVII describe arrangements for integrating the UN with established international law. Chapters XVIII and Chapter XIX provide for ratification of the Charter; the following chapters deal with the enforcement powers of UN bodies: Chapter VI describes the Security Council's power to investigate and mediate disputes. Chapters XVI through Chapter XIX deal with XVI: miscellaneous provisions, XVII: transitional security arrangements related to World War II, XVIII: the charter amendment process, XIX: ratification of the charter The Preamble to the treaty reads as follows: WE THE PEOPLES OF THE UNITED NATIONS DETERMINEDto save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind, to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small, to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained, to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,AND FOR THESE ENDSto practice tolerance and live together in peace with one another as good neighbours, to unite our strength to maintain international peace and security, to ensure, by the acceptance of principles and the institution of methods, that armed force shall not be used, save in the common interest, to employ international machinery for the promotion of the economic and social advancement of all peoples,HAVE RESOLVED TO COMBINE OUR EFFORTS TO ACCOMPLISH THESE AIMS.
Accordingly, our respective Governments, through representatives assembled in the city of San Francisco, who have exhibited their full powers found to be in good and due form, have agreed to the present Charter of the United Nations and do hereby establish an international organization to be known as the United Nations. Although the Preamble is an integral part of the Charter, it does not set out any of the rights or obligations of member states; the Purposes of the United Nations are To maintain international peace and security, to take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to the peace, for the
The Korean War was a war between North Korea and South Korea. The war began on 25 June 1950 when North Korea invaded South Korea following a series of clashes along the border; as a product of the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, Korea had been split into two sovereign states in 1948. A socialist state was established in the north under the communist leadership of Kim Il-sung and a capitalist state in the south under the anti-communist leadership of Syngman Rhee. Both governments of the two new Korean states claimed to be the sole legitimate government of all of Korea, neither accepted the border as permanent; the conflict escalated into warfare when North Korean military forces—supported by the Soviet Union and China—crossed the border and advanced south into South Korea on 25 June 1950. The United Nations Security Council authorized the formation and dispatch of UN forces to Korea to repel what was recognized as a North Korean invasion. Twenty-one countries of the United Nations contributed to the UN force, with the United States providing around 90% of the military personnel.
After the first two months of war, South Korean and U. S. forces dispatched to Korea were on the point of defeat, forced back to a small area in the south known as the Pusan Perimeter. In September 1950, an amphibious UN counter-offensive was launched at Incheon, cut off many North Korean troops; those who escaped envelopment and capture were forced back north. UN forces approached the Yalu River—the border with China—but in October 1950, mass Chinese forces crossed the Yalu and entered the war; the surprise Chinese intervention triggered a retreat of UN forces which continued until mid-1951. In these reversals of fortune, Seoul changed hands four times, the last two years of fighting became a war of attrition, with the front line close to the 38th parallel; the war in the air, was never a stalemate. North Korea was subject to a massive bombing campaign. Jet fighters confronted each other in air-to-air combat for the first time in history, Soviet pilots covertly flew in defense of their communist allies.
The fighting ended on 27 July 1953. The agreement created the Korean Demilitarized Zone to separate North and South Korea, allowed the return of prisoners. However, no peace treaty was signed, according to some sources the two Koreas are technically still at war, engaged in a frozen conflict. In April 2018, the leaders of North and South Korea met at the demilitarized zone and agreed to work towards a treaty to formally end the Korean War. In South Korea, the war is referred to as "625" or the "6–2–5 Upheaval", reflecting the date of its commencement on June 25. In North Korea, the war is referred to as the "Fatherland Liberation War" or alternatively the "Chosǒn War". In China, the war is called the "War to Resist America and Aid Korea", although the term "Chaoxian War" is used in unofficial contexts, along with the term "Hán War" more used in regions such as Hong Kong and Macau. In the U. S. the war was described by President Harry S. Truman as a "police action" as the United States never formally declared war on its opponents and the operation was conducted under the auspices of the United Nations.
It has been referred to in the English-speaking world as "The Forgotten War" or "The Unknown War" because of the lack of public attention it received both during and after the war, in relation to the global scale of World War II, which preceded it, the subsequent angst of the Vietnam War, which succeeded it. Imperial Japan destroyed the influence of China over Korea in the First Sino-Japanese War, ushering in the short-lived Korean Empire. A decade after defeating Imperial Russia in the Russo-Japanese War, Japan made Korea its protectorate with the Eulsa Treaty in 1905 annexed it with the Japan–Korea Annexation Treaty in 1910. Many Korean nationalists fled the country; the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was founded in 1919 in Nationalist China. It failed to achieve international recognition, failed to unite nationalist groups, had a fractious relationship with its U. S.-based founding president, Syngman Rhee. From 1919 to 1925 and beyond, Korean communists led internal and external warfare against the Japanese.
In China, the Nationalist National Revolutionary Army and the communist People's Liberation Army helped organize Korean refugees against the Japanese military, which had occupied parts of China. The Nationalist-backed Koreans, led by Yi Pom-Sok, fought in the Burma Campaign; the communists, led by Kim Il-sung among others, fought the Japanese in Manchuria. At the Cairo Conference in November 1943, the United Kingdom, the United States all decided that "in due course Korea shall become free and independent". At the Tehran Conference in November 1943 and the Yalta Conference in February 1945, the Soviet Union promised to join its allies in the Pacific War within three months of the victory in Europe. Accordingly, it declared war o
Bruce Cumings is an American historian of East Asia, professor and author. He is the Gustavus F. and Ann M. Swift Distinguished Service Professor in History, former chair of the history department at the University of Chicago, he specializes in contemporary international relations. In May 2007, Cumings was the first recipient of the Kim Dae Jung Academic Award for Outstanding Achievements and Scholarly Contributions to Democracy, Human Rights and Peace granted by South Korea; the award is named in honor of 2000 Nobel Peace Prize winner and former President of South Korea Kim Dae Jung. The award recognizes Cumings for his "outstanding scholarship, engaged public activity regarding human rights and democratization during the decades of dictatorship in Korea, after the dictatorship ended in 1987." Cumings' Origins of the Korean War, Vol. 1 won the John K. Fairbank Prize of the American Historical Association, his Origins of the Korean War, Vol. 2 won the Quincy Wright Book Award of the International Studies Association.
Cumings was born in Rochester, New York, on September 5, 1943. He was raised in Iowa and Ohio, where his father was a college administrator before joining the Central Intelligence Agency, he worked summers for five years, three of them at the Republic Steel plant in Cleveland, to put himself through Denison University, with further help from a baseball scholarship. He graduated with a degree in Psychology in 1965 served in the Peace Corps in Korea in 1967–68 before taking an M. A. at Indiana University. He earned a Ph. D. in Political Science from Columbia University in 1975. He taught at Swarthmore College, University of Washington, Northwestern University, University of Chicago. In 1999 he was elected American Academy of Arts and Sciences, he is married to Meredith Jung-En Woo, the director of the International Higher Education Support Program at the Open Society Foundation in London and former Dean of Arts & Sciences at the University of Virginia. They had two sons. Cumings joined the Committee of Concerned Asian Scholars at Columbia after Mark Selden formed a chapter there, published extensively in its journal, Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars.
His research focus is on 20th century international history, United States and East Asia relations, East Asian political economy, modern Korean history, American foreign relations. He is interested in the "multiplicity of ways that conceptions and discourses are related to political economy and material forms of production", to relations between "East and West". In summarizing the culpability of various actors for the tragedy of the Korean War Cumings writes that: The Korean War did not begin on June 25, 1950, much special pleading and argument to the contrary. If it did not begin Kim II Sung could not have "started" it either, but only at some earlier point; as we search backward for that point, we grope toward the truth that civil wars do not start: they come. They originate in multiple causes, with blame enough to go around for everyone—and blame enough to include Americans who thoughtlessly divided Korea and reestablished the colonial government machinery and the Koreans who served it. How many Koreans might still be alive had not that happened?
Blame enough to include a Soviet Union unconcerned with Korea's ancient integrity and determined to "build socialism" whether Koreans wanted their kind of system or not. How many Koreans might still be alive had that not happened? And as we peer inside Korea to inquire about Korean actions that might have avoided national division and fratricidal conflict, we get a long list indeed, he wrote Industrial Behemoth: The Northeast Asian Political Economy in the 20th Century, which seeks to understand the industrialization of Japan, both Koreas and parts of China, the ways that scholars and political leaders have viewed that development. Cumings writes in his book North Korea: Another Country: "I have no sympathy for the North, the author of most of its own troubles", but alludes to the "significant responsibility that all Americans share for the garrison state that emerged on the ashes of our terrible destruction of the North half a century ago." In a talk given at the University of Chicago in 2003, Cumings declared that the United States had "occupied" South Korea for 58 years.
In 1945, he explained and Soviet armies were in the North of Korea, Americans in the South. The Soviets withdrew in 1948 and the Chinese in 1958, but U. S. troops remained in South Korea. S. commander would control the South Korean army. He disputed the contention. Cumings has been described as "the left's leading scholar of Korean history." Scholars have called his work revisionist. Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies scholar Kathryn Weathersby wrote that Cumings’ two-volume study of the origins of the Korean War was the "most important revisionist account," and she reports Cumings' conclusions that "the question remains open whether it was in fact the DPRK or the ROK that initiated the military action on 25 June 1950." University of Georgia historian William W. Stueck agreed that Cumings' work was "revisionist", did not find it convincing, but said "I do not regard revisionism as a pejorative label... That usage has to do with the time frame within which the arguments became prominent among American scholars."
Cumings, Stueck continued, published more than a generation after the start of the war and his arguments "challenged the views that the war was international in nature and that the American participation i
South Korea the Republic of Korea, is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying to the east of the Asian mainland. The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo, one of the great powers in East Asia during its time, ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, parts of the Russian Far East and Inner Mongolia, under Gwanggaeto the Great. South Korea has a predominantly mountainous terrain, it comprises an estimated 51.4 million residents distributed over 100,363 km2. Its capital and largest city is Seoul, with a population of around 10 million. Archaeology indicates that the Korean Peninsula was inhabited by early humans starting from the Lower Paleolithic period; the history of Korea begins with the foundation of Gojoseon in 2333 BCE by the mythic king Dangun, but no archaeological evidence and writing was found from this period. The Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in 11th century BCE, its existence and role has been controversial in the modern era; the written historical record on Gojoseon was first mentioned in Chinese records in the early 7th century BCE.
Following the unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea under Unified Silla in CE 668, Korea was subsequently ruled by the Goryeo dynasty and the Joseon dynasty. It was annexed by the Empire of Japan in 1910. At the end of World War II, Korea was divided into Soviet and U. S. zones of occupations. A separate election was held in the U. S. zone in 1948 which led to the creation of the Republic of Korea, while the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was established in the Soviet zone. The United Nations at the time passed a resolution declaring the ROK to be the only lawful government in Korea; the Korean War began in June 1950. The war lasted three years and involved the U. S. China, the Soviet Union and several other nations; the border between the two nations remains the most fortified in the world. Under long-time military leader Park Chung-hee, the South Korean economy grew and the country was transformed into a G-20 major economy. Military rule ended in 1987, the country is now a presidential republic consisting of 17 administrative divisions.
South Korea is a developed country and a high-income economy, with a "very high" Human Development Index, ranking 22nd in the world. The country is considered a regional power and is the world's 11th largest economy by nominal GDP and the 12th largest by PPP as of 2010. South Korea is a global leader in the industrial and technological sectors, being the world's 5th largest exporter and 8th largest importer, its export-driven economy focuses production on electronics, ships, machinery and robotics. South Korea is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, the United Nations, Uniting for Consensus, G20, the WTO and OECD and is a founding member of APEC and the East Asia Summit; the name Korea derives from the name Goryeo. The name Goryeo itself was first used by the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo in the 5th century as a shortened form of its name; the 10th-century kingdom of Goryeo succeeded Goguryeo, thus inherited its name, pronounced by the visiting Persian merchants as "Korea". The modern spelling of Korea first appeared in the late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company's Hendrick Hamel.
Despite the coexistence of the spellings Corea and Korea in 19th century publications, some Koreans believe that Imperial Japan, around the time of the Japanese occupation, intentionally standardised the spelling on Korea, making Japan appear first alphabetically. After Goryeo was replaced by Joseon in 1392, Joseon became the official name for the entire territory, though it was not universally accepted; the new official name has its origin in the ancient country of Gojoseon. In 1897, the Joseon dynasty changed the official name of the country from Joseon to Daehan Jeguk; the name Daehan, which means "Great Han" derives from Samhan, referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula. However, the name Joseon was still used by Koreans to refer to their country, though it was no longer the official name. Under Japanese rule, the two names Han and Joseon coexisted. There were several groups who fought for independence, the most notable being the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea.
Following the surrender of Japan, in 1945, the Republic of Korea was adopted as the legal English name for the new country. Since the government only controlled the southern part of the Korean Peninsula, the informal term South Korea was coined, becoming common in the Western world. While South Koreans use Han to refer to the entire country, North Koreans and ethnic Koreans living in China and Japan use the term Joseon as the name of the country; the Korean name "Daehan Minguk" is sometimes used by South Koreans as a metonym to refer to the Korean ethnicity as a whole, rather than just the South Korean state. The history of Korea begins with the founding of Joseon in 2333 BCE by Dangun, according to Korea's foundation mythology. Gojoseon expanded until it controlled parts of Manchuria. Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in the 12th century BC, but its existence and role have been controversial in the modern era. In 108 BCE, the Han dynasty defeated Wiman Joseon and installed four commanderies in the n
Kim Kyu-Sik spelled Kimm Giusic and Kimm Kiusic, was a Korean politician and academic during the Korean independence movement and a leader of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea. Kim served in various roles in the provisional government, including as foreign minister, education minister and as the vice president from 1940 until the provisional government's dissolution on March 3, 1947. Kim's nicknames included Yoosa, KimSung, JukJeok. Kim was born in Dongnae, now part of modern-day Busan. Orphaned at an early age, Kim studied with American missionary H. G. Underwood starting from the age of 6, taking the Christian name "Johann." He traveled to the United States, receiving a bachelor's degree from Roanoke College in 1903 and a master's degree in English literature from Princeton University the following year. In 1905 Kim returned to Korea. Following the 1910 Japanese annexation of Korea Kim fled to China in 1913. In 1919, unlike his contemporary Syngman Rhee, Kim traveled to Paris for the Paris Peace Conference to lobby for Korean independence from Japan.
He was sent by Lyuh Woon-Hyung and Chang Duk-soo, who had organized Sinhan Cheongnyeondang in Shanghai in the summer of 1919. His efforts in Paris proved to be futile; the Korean National Revolutionary Party was formed in Shanghai in 1935 through a grouping of nationalist Korean parties. Organizers were Kim Won-bong and Cho Soang. Kim Kyu-sik was a leading member of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea based in Shanghai, becoming the Vice-President, he taught English to the Provisional Government's members. After the liberation of Korea in 1945, he returned to his homeland to participate in the formation of a newly independent state, now under the rule of the United States Army Military Government in Korea in the south and the Soviet Civil Authority in the North. Kim was favored by the American occupation leader John R. Hodge, who saw him and Lyuh Woon-Hyung as moderate leaders on the right and left, respectively. In September 1947, the United States, Lee Seung Man et al. pushed to move the Korean question to the newly created United Nations, which the voted to allow for elections in the south despite the objections of southern nationalists such as Kim and Kim Gu as well as from the north's Interim People's Committee, who were opposed because of the non-participation of the North.
After failed efforts to broker reunification in that year, he retired from politics. After the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950, he was taken to the North. In May 1988 he was posthumously awarded the Republic of Korea Medal of Order of Merit for National Foundation, the most prestigious civil decoration in South Korea, he was posthumously awarded North Korea's National Reunification Prize in 1998. Poems, 《YangjaYuKyung》 《Small English grammar》 《Practical English》 《Elizabeth I Age's Introduction to Theatre》 《WonYongSa》 1903 Roanoke College 1904 Master of English Literature at Princeton University 1923 Honorary Doctor of Law Roanoke College Order of Merit for National Foundation National Reunification Prize Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea Korea under Japanese rule USAMGIK Kim Gu Kim Seong-su Kim Won-bong Pak Hon Yong List of Koreans December 17, 1913 in Shanghai, a professor of Barkdal English School 1923 professor of English at Fudan University 1927-1929 In Tianjin, Northern Sea University Professor of English 1932 - 1937 Nanjing political instructor School, professor of political.
1937 - 1940 ShChwan College Professor of English Literature, Foreign Languages and Chair, Head of Foreign Language and Literature In Korean language online encyclopedias: Doosan Encyclopedia Korean language Britannica Encyclopedia of Korean Culture
The United Nations is an intergovernmental organization, tasked to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international co-operation and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations. The headquarters of the UN is in Manhattan, New York City, is subject to extraterritoriality. Further main offices are situated in Geneva, Nairobi and The Hague; the organization is financed by voluntary contributions from its member states. Its objectives include maintaining international peace and security, protecting human rights, delivering humanitarian aid, promoting sustainable development and upholding international law; the UN is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world. In 24 October 1945, at the end of World War II, the organization was established with the aim of preventing future wars. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; the UN is the successor of the ineffective League of Nations.
On 25 April 1945, 50 governments met in San Francisco for a conference and started drafting the UN Charter, adopted on 25 June 1945 in the San Francisco Opera House, signed on 26 June 1945 in the Herbst Theatre auditorium in the Veterans War Memorial Building. This charter took effect on 24 October 1945; the UN's mission to preserve world peace was complicated in its early decades during the Cold War between the United States and Soviet Union and their respective allies. Its missions have consisted of unarmed military observers and armed troops with monitoring and confidence-building roles; the organization's membership grew following widespread decolonization which started in the 1960s. Since 80 former colonies had gained independence, including 11 trust territories, which were monitored by the Trusteeship Council. By the 1970s its budget for economic and social development programmes far outstripped its spending on peacekeeping. After the end of the Cold War, the UN shifted and expanded its field operations, undertaking a wide variety of complex tasks.
The UN has six principal organs: the General Assembly. The UN System agencies include the World Bank Group, the World Health Organization, the World Food Programme, UNESCO, UNICEF; the UN's most prominent officer is the Secretary-General, an office held by Portuguese politician and diplomat António Guterres since 1 January 2017. Non-governmental organizations may be granted consultative status with ECOSOC and other agencies to participate in the UN's work; the organization, its officers and its agencies have won many Nobel Peace Prizes. Other evaluations of the UN's effectiveness have been mixed; some commentators believe the organization to be an important force for peace and human development, while others have called the organization ineffective, biased, or corrupt. In the century prior to the UN's creation, several international treaty organizations such as the International Committee of the Red Cross was formed to ensure protection and assistance for victims of armed conflict and strife.
In 1914, a political assassination in Sarajevo set off a chain of events that led to the outbreak of World War I. As more and more young men were sent down into the trenches, influential voices in the United States and Britain began calling for the establishment of a permanent international body to maintain peace in the postwar world. President Woodrow Wilson became a vocal advocate of this concept, in 1918 he included a sketch of the international body in his 14-point proposal to end the war. In November 1918, the Central Powers agreed to an armistice to halt the killing in World War I. Two months the Allies met with Germany and Austria-Hungary at Versailles to hammer out formal peace terms. President Wilson wanted peace, but the United Kingdom and France disagreed, forcing harsh war reparations on their former enemies; the League of Nations was approved, in the summer of 1919 Wilson presented the Treaty of Versailles and the Covenant of the League of Nations to the US Senate for ratification.
On January 10, 1920, the League of Nations formally comes into being when the Covenant of the League of Nations, ratified by 42 nations in 1919, takes effect. However, at some point the League became ineffective when it failed to act against the Japanese invasion of Manchuria as in February 1933, 40 nations voted for Japan to withdraw from Manchuria but Japan voted against it and walked out of the League instead of withdrawing from Manchuria, it failed against the Second Italo-Ethiopian War despite trying to talk to Benito Mussolini as he used the time to send an army to Africa, so the League had a plan for Mussolini to just take a part of Ethiopia, but he ignored the League and invaded Ethiopia, the League tried putting sanctions on Italy, but Italy had conquered Ethiopia and the League had failed. After Italy conquered Ethiopia and other nations left the league, but all of them realised that they began to re-arm as fast as possible. During 1938, Britain and France tried negotiating directly with Hitler but this failed in 1939 when Hitler invaded Czechoslovakia.
When war broke out in 1939, the League closed down and its headquarters in Geneva remained empty throughout the war. The earliest concrete plan for a new world organization began under the aegis of the U. S. State Department in 1939; the text of the "Declaration by United Nations" was drafted at the White House on December 29, 1941, by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Roosevelt aide Harry Hopkins