A power-egg is a complete "unitized" modular engine installation, consisting of engine and all ancillary equipment, which can be swapped between suitably designed equipment, with standardised quick-changing attachment points and connectors. In aircraft so designed the power-egg is removed before mean time to failure is reached and a fresh one installed, the removed engine being sent for maintenance. Spare power-eggs may be stored in sealed containers; the power-egg or Kraftei format was used in some German Second World War era aircraft for twin or multi-engined airframe designs. It existed in two differing formats — the initial Motoranlage format which used some specialized added components depending on what airframe it was meant for use on, the Triebwerksanlage format, a more complete unitization format including exhaust and oil cooling systems. Inline and radial engines were both incorporated into the Kraftei concept: the Junkers Jumo 211 was a pioneering example of engine unitization, as used on both the Junkers Ju 88 using a novel annular radiator for both main engine coolant and engine oil cooling needs, with the same nacelle packaging used to power the Messerschmitt Me 264 V1's first flights.
Both the examples of the Dornier Do 217 medium bomber powered by inline engines, the Axis Powers' largest-flown powered aircraft of any type, the Blohm & Voss BV 238 flying boat used the same unitized Daimler-Benz DB 603 powerplants, complete with "chin" radiators under the nacelles as integral components. A differing Kraftei physical packaging is believed to have been crafted by the Heinkel firm for the DB 603 engines used on its Heinkel He 219A night fighter, as what appears to be the same exact engine installation design used for the He 219A was used for the quartet of ordered airframes for the same firm's He 177B four-DB 603-engined heavy bomber design's prototype series, as both airframe types' engine "units" used annular radiators and cylindrical cowls of identical appearance to enclose them; the air-cooled BMW 801 fourteen-cylinder, twin-row radial engine was provided in both formats for a number of German designs for twin and multi-engined airframes, with the "M" or "T" first suffix letter designating whether it was a Motoranlage or the more comprehensively consolidated Triebwerksanlage format unitized powerplant — the BMW-designed forward cowling ring always used with the 801 incorporated the engine's oil cooler, making it an easy task for aviation engineers to use for such a "unitized" mounting concept.
One known surviving Motoranlage-packaged BMW 801 radial still exists and is on restored display at the New England Air Museum, Bradley International Airport, Windsor Locks, CT. with preserved examples of a Ju 88R-1 night fighter and Ju 388L-1 reconnaissance aircraft, one each in the United Kingdom and the United States also having unitized Kraftei-installation BMW 801 radials on them. A scheme for unitised engine installations was initiated by the Air Ministry in 1937 and after consultation with the Society of British Aircraft Constructors a system was devised allowing standardised dimensions and bulkhead fittings for both inline and radial engine installations of similar power; the Bristol Aeroplane Company devised an installation known as a'power egg' for the Hercules engine in 1938, an example of, exhibited at the 1938 Paris Aeronautical Salon. The Hercules installation was used on the Bristol Beaufighter, Armstrong Whitworth Albemarle, Vickers Wellington, Short Stirling, Handley Page Halifax.
After an early "Power Unit" installation was devised by Rolls-Royce for the Merlin X and used in the Armstrong Whitworth Whitley and Vickers Wellington, a more advanced "Power Plant" design was devised for the Merlin XX, a unitized Merlin XX-series engine installation and nacelle being designed and first used on the Beaufighter Mark II, also used on the Miles M.20, Avro Lancaster and Avro York, the post-war CASA 2.111. Merlin Power Plant production rose from just over 100 in 1939 to nearly 14,000 by 1944 destined for the Lancaster. A new installation was subsequently designed as the'Universal Power Plant' radiator and cowling installation developed for the Avro Lincoln and used on the Vickers Windsor, subsequently used on the Avro Tudor, Canadair North Star/Argonaut, Avro Shackleton - Griffon 61 and 62. Capable of mounting either the 27 litre Merlin or the larger 37 litre Griffon, the UPP attached to the nacelle firewall via the SBAC standard 56 in circular bulkhead. In the North Star the UPP design had to be changed due to having to use the non-standard Douglas 60 in DC-4 bulkhead attachment, resulting in the North Star's cowling panels being tapered rather than parallel-sided.
The UPP installation had the advantage that all engines were interchangeable between nacelle positions, i.e. an inboard engine could be exchanged with an outboard engine, engine types and Mark No.s could be mixed and flown on the same aircraft, a Hucknall Lancaster test bed being flown with two Merlins for the North Star in one position, with two Merlins for the Tudor in the others. Rolls-Royce continued the practice of unitised engine packages post-war with the Dart and Tyne turboprops, with podded jet engines such as the Conway and RB211 being supplied as complete RR-designed units with all cowling panels and nacelle fittings, including thrust reverser, ready for attachment to the engine pylon. In the United States Pratt & Whitney produced a R-2180-E Twin Wasp E'power e
Price discrimination is a microeconomic pricing strategy where identical or similar goods or services are transacted at different prices by the same provider in different markets. Price discrimination is distinguished from product differentiation by the more substantial difference in production cost for the differently priced products involved in the latter strategy. Price differentiation relies on the variation in the customers' willingness to pay and in the elasticity of their demand; the term differential pricing is used to describe the practice of charging different prices to different buyers for the same quality and quantity of a product, but it can refer to a combination of price differentiation and product differentiation. Other terms used to refer to price discrimination include equity pricing, preferential pricing, dual pricing and tiered pricing. Within the broader domain of price differentiation, a accepted classification dating to the 1920s is: Personalized pricing — selling to each customer at a different price.
The optimal incarnation of this is called perfect price discrimination and maximizes the price that each customer is willing to pay. Product versioning or versioning — offering a product line by creating different products for the purpose of price differentiation, i.e. a vertical product line. Another name given to versioning is menu pricing. Group pricing — dividing the market into segments and charging a different price to each segment; this is a heuristic approximation that simplifies the problem in face of the difficulties with personalized pricing. Typical examples include seniors' discounts. In a theoretical market with perfect information, perfect substitutes, no transaction costs or prohibition on secondary exchange to prevent arbitrage, price discrimination can only be a feature of monopolistic and oligopolistic markets, where market power can be exercised. Otherwise, the moment the seller tries to sell the same good at different prices, the seller at the lower price can arbitrage by selling to the consumer buying at the higher price but with a tiny discount.
However, product heterogeneity, market frictions or high fixed costs can allow for some degree of differential pricing to different consumers in competitive retail or industrial markets. The effects of price discrimination on social efficiency are unclear. Output can be expanded when price discrimination is efficient. If output remains constant, price discrimination can reduce efficiency by misallocating output among consumers. Price discrimination requires market segmentation and some means to discourage discount customers from becoming resellers and, by extension, competitors; this entails using one or more means of preventing any resale: keeping the different price groups separate, making price comparisons difficult, or restricting pricing information. The boundary set up by the marketer to keep segments separate is referred to as a rate fence. Price discrimination is thus common in services where resale is not possible. Another example of price discrimination is intellectual property, enforced by technology.
In the market for DVDs, laws require DVD players to be designed and produced with hardware or software that prevents inexpensive copying or playing of content purchased elsewhere in the world at a lower price. In the US the Digital Millennium Copyright Act has provisions to outlaw circumventing of such devices to protect the enhanced monopoly profits that copyright holders can obtain from price discrimination against higher price market segments. Price discrimination can be seen where the requirement that goods be identical is relaxed. For example, so-called "premium products" have a price differential, not explained by the cost of production; some economists have argued that this is a form of price discrimination exercised by providing a means for consumers to reveal their willingness to pay. Exercising first degree price discrimination requires the monopoly seller of a good or service to know the absolute maximum price that every consumer is willing to pay. By knowing the reservation price, the seller is able to sell the good or service to each consumer at the maximum price they are willing to pay, thus transform the consumer surplus into revenues.
So the profit is equal to the sum of producer surplus. The marginal consumer is the one; the seller produces more of their product than they would to achieve monopoly profits with no price discrimination, which means that there is no deadweight loss. Examples of this might be observed in markets where consumers bid for tenders, though, in this case, the practice of collusive tendering could reduce the market efficiency. In second degree price discrimination, price varies according to quantity demanded. Larger quantities are available at a lower unit price; this is widespread in sales to industrial customers, where bulk buyers enjoy higher discounts. Additionally to second degree
Uppsala is the capital of Uppsala County and the fourth-largest city in Sweden, after Stockholm and Malmö. It had 168,096 inhabitants in 2017. Located 71 km north of the capital Stockholm it is the seat of Uppsala Municipality. Since 1164, Uppsala has been the ecclesiastical centre of Sweden, being the seat of the Archbishop of the Church of Sweden. Uppsala is home to Scandinavia's largest cathedral – Uppsala Cathedral. Founded in 1477, Uppsala University is the oldest centre of higher education in Scandinavia. Among many achievements, the Celsius scale for temperature was invented there. Uppsala was located a few kilometres north of its current location at a place now known as Gamla Uppsala. Today's Uppsala was called Östra Aros. Uppsala was, according to medieval writer Adam of Bremen, the main pagan centre of Sweden, the Temple at Uppsala contained magnificent idols of the Norse gods; the Fyrisvellir plains along the river south of Old Uppsala, in the area where the modern city is situated today, was the site of the Battle of Fyrisvellir in the 980s.
The present-day Uppsala was a port town of Gamla Uppsala. In 1160, King Eric Jedvardsson was attacked and killed outside the church of Östra Aros, became venerated as a saint in the Catholic Church. In 1274, Östra Aros overtook Gamla Uppsala as the main regional centre, when the cathedral of Gamla Uppsala burnt down, the archbishopric and the relics of Saint Eric were moved to Östra Aros, where the present-day Uppsala Cathedral was erected; the cathedral is built in the Gothic style and is one of the largest in northern Europe, with towers reaching 118.70 metres. The city is the site of the oldest university in Scandinavia, founded in 1477, is where Carl Linnaeus, one of the renowned scholars of Uppsala University, lived for many years. Uppsala is the site of the 16th-century Uppsala Castle; the city was damaged by a fire in 1702. Historical and cultural treasures were lost, as in many Swedish cities, from demolitions during the 1960s and 1970s, but many historic buildings remain in the western part of the city.
The arms bearing the lion can be traced to 1737 and have been modernised several times, most in 1986. The meaning of the lion is uncertain, but is connected to the royal lion depicted on the Coat of Arms of Sweden. Situated on the fertile Uppsala flatlands of muddy soil, the city features the small Fyris River flowing through the landscape surrounded by lush vegetation. Parallel to the river runs the glacial ridge of Uppsalaåsen at an elevation around 30 m, the site of Uppsala's castle, from which large parts of the town can be seen; the central park Stadsskogen stretches from the south far into town, with opportunities for recreation for many residential areas within walking distance. Only some 70 km or 40 minutes by train from the capital, many Uppsala residents work in Stockholm; the train to Stockholm-Arlanda Airport takes only 17 minutes, rendering the city accessible by air. The commercial centre of Uppsala is quite compact; the city has a distinct town and gown divide with clergy and academia residing in the Fjärdingen neighbourhood on the river's western shore, somewhat separated from the rest of the city, the ensemble of cathedral and university buildings has remained undisturbed until today.
While some historic buildings remain on the periphery of the central core, retail commercial activity is geographically focused on a small number of blocks around the pedestrianized streets and main square on the eastern side of the river, an area, subject to a large-scale metamorphosis during the economically booming years in the 1960s in particular. During recent decades, a significant part of retail commercial activity has shifted to shopping malls and stores situated in the outskirts of the city. Meanwhile, the built-up areas have expanded and some suburbanization has taken place. Uppsala lies south of the 60th parallel north and has a humid continental climate, with cold winters and warm summers. Due to its northerly location, Uppsala experiences over 18 hours of visible sunshine during the summer solstice, under 6 hours of sunshine during the winter solstice. Despite Uppsala's northerly location, the winter is not as cold as other cities at similar latitudes due to the Gulf Stream. For example, in January Uppsala has a daily mean of −2.7 °C.
In Canada, at the same latitude, Fort Smith experiences a daily mean of −22.4 °C. With respect to record temperatures, the difference between the highest and lowest is large. Uppsala’s highest recorded temperature was 37.4 °C, recorded in July 1933. On the same day Ultuna, which lies a few kilometres south of the centre of Uppsala, recorded a temperature of 38 °C; this is the highest temperature recorded in the Scandinavian Peninsula, although the same temperature was recorded in Målilla, Sweden, 14 years later. Uppsala’s lowest temperature was recorded in January 1875, when the temperature dropped to −39.5 °C. The second-lowest temperature recorded is −33.1 °C, which makes the record one of the hardest to beat, due to the fact that temperatures in Uppsala nowadays goes below −30 °C. The difference between the two records is 76.9 °C. The warmest month recorded is July 1914, with a daily mean of 21.4 °C. Since 2002 Uppsala has experienced 5 months where the d
Upolu Airport is a regional airport of the State of Hawai'i in Hawai'i County. Located on the northern tip of the Big Island, Upolu Airport is 3 NM northwest of the unincorporated town of Hawi, it is included in the Federal Aviation Administration National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2017–2021, in which it is categorized as a general aviation facility. Upolu Airport was built in 1927 for the United States Air Service to be under the control and management of the War Department; the land had been deeded to the Territory of Hawaii by the Hawaii Mill and Plantation Company. In 1933 the airfield was named "Suiter Field" by the U. S. Army in honor of 1st Lieutenant Wilbur C. Suiter of the 135th Aero Squadron. On September 18, 1930, Governor’s Executive Order No. 432 combined Territory of Hawaii land with the Suiter Field land to establish a territorial airport to be known as Upolu Airport. As a general aviation airport, Upolu Airport has a single runway without taxiways and two aircraft parking areas south of the runway.
The east parking area supports passenger terminal operations and the west parking area provides tie down facilities for general aviation aircraft. The airport does not have a control tower, aircraft rescue and fire fighting facilities, or discrete air cargo facilities. Access to the airport is provided by a roadway off Akoni Pule Highway. In the event of increased air traffic, the Hawai'i State Legislature has made preliminary plans to build a parallel taxiway south of the runway and move the existing terminal facilities farther from the runway to provide improved clearances and additional aircraft parking. Upolu Airport covers an area of 82 acres at an elevation of 96 feet above mean sea level, it has one runway designated 7/25 with an asphalt surface measuring 3,800 by 75 feet. For the 12-month period ending December 31, 2008, the airport had 790 aircraft operations, an average of 65 per month: 89% general aviation, 10% military, 1% air taxi. Upolu Airport is part of a centralized state structure governing all of the airports and seaports of Hawai'i.
The official authority of Upolu Airport is the Governor of Hawai'i. He or she appoints the Director of the Hawai'i State Department of Transportation who has jurisdiction over the Hawai'i Airports Administrator; the Hawai'i Airports Administrator oversees six governing bodies: Airports Operations Office, Airports Planning Office, Engineering Branch, Information Technology Office, Staff Services Office, Visitor Information Program Office. Collectively, the six bodies have authority over the four airport districts in Hawai'i: Hawai'i District, Kaua'i District, Mau'i District and the principal O'ahu District. Upolu Airport is a subordinate of the Hawai'i District officials. Hawaii DOT page for Upolu Airport Resources for this airport: FAA airport information for UPP AirNav airport information for PHUP ASN accident history for UPP FlightAware airport information and live flight tracker SkyVector aeronautical chart for PHUP
Stephen McDannell Hillenburg was an American animator, voice actor, marine biologist. He was best known as the creator of the Nickelodeon animated television series SpongeBob SquarePants, which he directed and wrote, it has gone on to become the fifth longest-running American animated series. Born in Lawton and raised in Anaheim, Hillenburg became fascinated with the ocean as a child and developed an interest in art, he started his professional career in 1984, instructing marine biology, at the Orange County Marine Institute, where he wrote The Intertidal Zone, an informative comic book about tide-pool animals, which he used to educate his students. In 1989, two years after leaving teaching, Hillenburg enrolled at the California Institute of the Arts to pursue a career in animation, he was offered a job on the Nickelodeon animated television series Rocko's Modern Life after his success with The Green Beret and Wormholes, short films that he made while studying animation. In 1994, Hillenburg began developing The Intertidal Zone characters and concepts for what became SpongeBob SquarePants.
The show has aired continuously since its premiere in 1999. He directed The SpongeBob SquarePants Movie, which he intended to be the series finale. However, Nickelodeon wanted to produce more episodes, so Hillenburg resigned as the showrunner, he went back to making short films, with Hollywood Blvd. USA. In 2015, The SpongeBob Movie: Sponge Out of Water was released. Besides his two Emmy Awards and six Annie Awards for SpongeBob SquarePants, Hillenburg received other recognition, such as an accolade from Heal the Bay for his efforts on elevating marine life awareness, the Television Animation Award from the National Cartoonists Society. Hillenburg was diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in 2017, but stated he would continue to work on SpongeBob SquarePants as long as possible, he died due to complications of the disease on November 26, 2018, at the age of 57. Stephen McDannell Hillenburg was born on August 21, 1961 at Fort Sill, a United States Army post in Lawton, where his father, Kelly N. Hillenburg Jr. worked for the U.
S. military. His mother, taught visually impaired students; when he was a year old, the family moved to Orange County, where his father began a career as a draftsman and designer in the aerospace industry. His younger brother, Bryan became a draftsman/designer as well. Hillenburg had no recollection of life only of growing up in Anaheim, California; when an interviewer asked him to describe himself as a child, he replied that he was "probably well-meaning and naive like all kids." His passion for sea life can be traced to his childhood, when films by French oceanographer Jacques Cousteau made a strong impression on him. Hillenburg said which he had not known existed, he liked to explore tide pools as a child, bringing home objects that "should have been left there and that ended up dying and smelling bad."Hillenburg developed his interest in art at a young age. His first drawing was of an orange slice. An illustration which he drew in third grade, depicting "a bunch of army men... kissing and hugging instead of fighting", brought him the first praise for his artwork, when his teacher commended it.
"Of course, this is 1970... She liked it because, I mean, in the middle of, she was, I would imagine, not a hundred percent for the war like a lot of people then.... I had no idea about the implications because I just thought it was a funny idea. I remember that still, that moment when she said,'oh my gosh, look at that'", Hillenburg elaborated, it was when he knew he "had some skill". He asserted that his artistry came from his mother's side, despite his father being a draftsman, noting that his maternal grandmother was "really gifted" and a "great painter". In the 1970s, someone took Hillenburg to the International Tournée of Animation at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, he was "knocked out" by the foreign animated films, including Dutch animator Paul Driessen's The Killing of an Egg. "That was the film that I thought was uniquely strange and that lodged itself in my head early on," he recounted. He attended Savanna High School in Anaheim, describing himself as a "band geek" who played the trumpet.
At age 15, he snorkeled for the first time. This experience, as well as subsequent dives, reinforced his interest in, led to his decision to study, marine biology in college: "The switch clicked and I decided I wanted to be a marine biologist, but I liked being an artist." Some of his high-school teachers, who knew of his interest in art and fascination with the ocean, advised him otherwise, saying: "You should just draw fish." However, the idea of drawing fish seemed boring to him and he was more riveted by "making weird, little paintings". During a few summers after finishing high school, he worked as a fry cook and lobster boiler at a fast-food seafood restaurant in Maine. Hillenburg went to Humboldt State University in California as a marine-science major, he minored in art, claimed that " blossomed as a painter in Humboldt." In 1984, he earned his bachelor's degree in na
University of Pittsburgh Press
The University of Pittsburgh Press is a scholarly publishing house and a major American university press, part of the University of Pittsburgh. The university and the press are located in Pennsylvania, in the United States; the Press publishes several series in the humanities and social sciences, including Illuminations—Cultural Formations of the Americas. The Press is known for literary publishing its Pitt Poetry Series, the Agnes Lynch Starrett Poetry Prize, the Drue Heinz Literature Prize; the press publishes the winner of the annual Donald Hall Prize, awarded by the Association of Writers & Writing Programs and the winner of the Cave Canem Poetry Prize. One of its perennial bestselling titles is Thomas Bell's historical novel Out of This Furnace, reissued by the press in 1976; the Press was established in September 1936 by University of Pittsburgh Chancellor John Gabbert Bowman. Paul Mellon committed the majority of the necessary startup funding from the A. W. Mellon Educational and Charitable Trust.
Other contributors were the Buhl Foundation, the Historical Society of Western Pennsylvania, the university itself. The first full-time director of the Press was Agnes Lynch Starrett, followed by Frederick A. Hetzel, Cynthia Miller, Peter Kracht. In recent years the Press was housed on the fifth floor of the Eureka Building on Pitt's main campus in the Oakland section of Pittsburgh, but moved into a new the university's Thomas Boulevard Library Resource Facility in the Point Breeze section of Pittsburgh in July 2013; the University of Pittsburgh Press is a Charter Member of the Association of American University Presses. In 2008, the Press began making out-of-print scholarly books available on-line at the University of Pittsburgh Press Digital Editions collection through the University Library System’s D-Scribe Digital Publishing program. By 2010, the University of Pittsburgh Press Digital Editions included more than 750 titles, more than 350 out-of-print titles have been reissued in paperback format as Prologue Editions.
The Press is collaborating with the University Library System on a new online scholarly journals program. Most of the journals are open access and published in electronic format only, while a few titles are available in print editions through the Espresso Book Machine in the University Book Center. In 2010, the Press received major funding from the A. W. Mellon Foundation to develop a history of science list and expand its existing philosophy of science list, working in collaboration with the University's History and Philosophy of Science Department and World History Center; this new program will lead to a 50% increase in the number of new titles published by the Press each year. Alberts, Robert C.. Pitt: The Story of the University of Pittsburgh 1787-1987. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. ISBN 0-8229-1150-7; the Pittsburgh Reader: Seventy-Five Years of Books about Pittsburgh. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. 2011. University of Pittsburgh Press website. About the University of Pittsburgh Press.
Retrieved January 10, 2006. University of Pittsburgh Press Homepage
Ultimate Picture Palace
The Ultimate Picture Palace is an independent cinema in Oxford, England. It is Oxford's first and only independent cinema, showing an eclectic mix of independent, foreign language, classic films; the cinema was awarded Grade II listed building status in 1994. Frank Stuart opened Oxford's first cinema, the Electric Theatre, in Castle Street, in 1910, he was the licensee of the Elm Tree pub on the corner of Jeune Street. In 1910 work started to build Stuart's second cinema on land in Jeune Street behind the Elm Tree, it opened on 24 February 1911 as the Oxford Picture Palace. In 1917 the manager was conscripted to serve in the First World War; the cinema was closed and stood unused for many years before being turned into as a furniture warehouse. In 1976 Bill Heine and Pablo Butcher reopened the cinema as the Penultimate Picture Palace, they added a sculpture of Al Jolson's hands by John Buckley to the façade. The first film to be shown was Winstanley. Under the new management the cinema gained a reputation for showing an eclectic and provocative range of films that set it apart from the mainstream cinemas of the time.
In 1994 Heine closed the Penultimate Picture Palace. For a month that summer it was squatted by the Oxford Freedom Network, which reopened it as Studio 6 Cinema. Brothers Saied and Zaid Marham bought it and spent £40,000 restoring the neoclassical façade, they reopened it as the Ultimate Picture Palace in June 1996. In the 2000s the cinema got into debt. In July 2009 Saied Marham sold it to Philippa Farrow and Jane Derricott, who installed a small refreshment bar at the west end of the auditorium. In 2011 Farrow and Derricott sold the cinema to Becky Hallsmith. In 2014, as a result of a successful Kickstarter Campaign, Hallsmith had the auditorium refurbished with new seats. Phoenix Picturehouse, Walton Street Meyrick, Ian. Oxfordshire Cinemas. Stroud: Tempus Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7524-4333-1. Official website "The Ultimate Survivor". Philip Hind. – documentary film about the Ultimate Picture Palace "UPP". CowleyRoad.org. – wiki entry on a local website