Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
Merle Norman Stadium
Merle Norman Stadium is a beach volleyball facility located in Los Angeles. The on-campus USC facility, built in 2013, serves as the home of the USC Trojans women's beach volleyball team; the facility has 3 sand courts where USC plays its home hold practices. The stadium is named for Merle Nethercutt Norman; the Women's beach volleyball team played their first dual match in the stadium on March 10, 2013 versus Loyola Marymount. The 2016 PAC-12 beach volleyball championships were held at the stadium. USC Trojans Merle Norman Stadium at usctrojans.com
The USC Trojans are the athletic teams that represent the University of Southern California, located in Los Angeles, California. While the men's teams are nicknamed the Trojans, the women's athletic teams are referred to as either the Trojans or Women of Troy; the program participates in the Pac-12 Conference and has won 130 team national championships, 107 of which are National Collegiate Athletic Association national championships. USC's official colors are gold; the Trojans have a cross-town rivalry with UCLA. However, USC's rivalry with Notre Dame predates the UCLA rivalry by three years; the Notre Dame rivalry stems from the annual football game played between these two universities and is considered the greatest intersectional rivalry in college football. The Trojans have won 130 team national championships; this is the third highest count of all universities behind Stanford with 114 each. The Trojan men have won 97 national championships, more than any other University; the Women of Troy have earned third in the nation.
The Trojans won at least 1 national team title in 26 consecutive years. USC won the National College All-Sports Championship an annual ranking by USA Today of the country's top athletic programs – 6 times since its inception in 1971. Trojan men athletes have won more individual NCAA titles than those from any other school in the nation and the Women of Troy have brought home another 55 individual NCAA crowns for a combined 357 individual NCAA championships. Four Trojans have won the prestigious James E. Sullivan Award as the top amateur athlete in America: diver Sammy Lee, shot putter Parry O’Brien, swimmer John Naber and swimmer Janet Evans. Two Trojans have won the Honda-Broderick Cup as the top collegiate woman athlete of the year: Cheryl Miller and Angela Williams, and Trojan women have won 8 Honda Awards, as the top female athlete in their sport. In March 2019 USC fired Senior Associate Athletic Director Donna Heinel and water polo coach Jovan Vavic after they were indicted by federal prosecutors in the 2019 college admissions bribery scandal.
Former women’s soccer coach Ali Khosroshahin and former assistant women’s soccer coach Laura Janke were indicted, charged with racketeering. USC sponsors teams in thirteen women's NCAA sanctioned sports; the USC Trojans football program started in 1888 and has amassed an all-time win-loss record of 793–313–54, giving the program a.707 winning percentage. A December 1998 SPORT magazine ranking listed USC as the No. 4 all-time college football program of the 20th century. In 2009 ESPN ranked USC the second best program in college football history; the USC football team has been voted National Champions 11 times. USC is known for its Heisman Trophy winners. USC is second in Heisman winners at 7. Three of the four Heisman winners from 2002 to 2005 were Trojans - Carson Palmer in 2002, Matt Leinart in 2004 and Reggie Bush in 2005. Four other Trojans tailbacks have won the coveted Heisman Trophy as college football's outstanding player: Mike Garrett in 1965, O. J. Simpson in 1968, Charles White in 1979 and Marcus Allen in 1981.
Notable, USC has 12 players in the Pro Football Hall of Fame, more than any other university. USC's record against opponents from the old Pac-10 is 367–153–29, the Trojans have winning records against all nine other members; as of 2017, 501 Trojans have been taken in the NFL Draft, more than any other university. Since 1959, the Trojans have won the conference championship 18 times and tied for the title on 6 other occasions. USC has the nation's best bowl winning percentage among the 65 schools which have made at least 10 bowl appearances and its 34 Rose Bowl appearances is an all-time best. USC players have been named first team All-American 17 times, with 8 consensus selections and 2 unanimous choices. Football record does "not including 9 overall wins vacated due to NCAA penalty, including 2 vs. UCLA and 1 each vs. WSU, ARIZ, STAN, ORE, CAL, ASU, WASH"; the USC Trojans baseball program has a notable history in baseball: With 12 baseball national championships, the Trojans are far and away the leader in that category.
Since starting baseball in 1924, the Trojans have compiled a record of 2,221-1,093-15 against college opponents, have captured outright or tied for 38 conference championships. USC's most notable baseball coach was Rod Dedeaux, coaching from 1942 to 1986, who led the school to 11 of its NCAA crowns, including 5 straight from 1970 to 1974. USC boasts many successful major leaguers such as Ron Fairly, Don Buford, Tom Seaver, Dave Kingman, Fred Lynn, Roy Smalley, Steve Kemp, Mark McGwire, Randy Johnson, Bret Boone, Jeff Cirillo, Barry Zito, Geoff Jenkins, Kent Hadley, Aaron Boone, Jacque Jones and Mark Prior. 100 Trojans have gone on to play in the major scores more in the minors. The USC Trojans men's basketball program has a long tradition; the men's program is only one of about 48 schools which have more than 1,000 victories in college basketball. Since starting basketball in 1907, the Trojans have compiled a record of 1,357–984, winning 14 league championships; the 2007 team set a school record for most wins in a season and advanced to the Sweet Sixteen in the NCAA tournament.
The University announced major sanctions over player OJ Mayo's receipt of improper benefits during the 2007-2008 season. Notabl
USC Trojans football
The USC Trojans football program represent University of Southern California in the sport of American football. The Trojans compete in the Football Bowl Subdivision of the National Collegiate Athletic Association and the South Division of the Pac-12 Conference. Formed in 1888, the program has over 830 wins and claims 11 consensus Division I Football National Championships. USC has had 13 undefeated seasons including 8 perfect seasons, 39 conference championships. USC has produced 7 Heisman Trophy winners, 81 first-team Consensus All-Americans, including 27 Unanimous selections, 500 NFL draft picks, most all-time by any university, the Trojans have had more players drafted in the first round than any other university, with 80 as of the 2017 draft. USC has had 34 members inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame, including former players Matt Leinart, O. J. Simpson, Ronnie Lott and former coaches John McKay and Howard Jones; the Trojans boast 12 inductees in the Pro Football Hall Of Fame, the 2nd-most of any school, including Junior Seau, Bruce Matthews, Marcus Allen, Ron Yary.
The Trojans have 52 bowl appearances. With a record of 34–18, USC has the highest all-time post-season winning percentage of schools with 25 or more bowl appearances; the Trojans play their home games in the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, located across the exposition Park Rose Garden from USC's University Park, Los Angeles campus. The stadium is known as "The Grand Old Lady", having been built 100 years ago. USC first fielded a football team in 1888. Playing its first game on November 14 of that year against the Alliance Athletic Club, USC achieved a 16–0 victory. Frank Suffel and Henry H. Goddard were playing coaches for the first team, put together by quarterback Arthur Carroll, who in turn volunteered to make the pants for the team and became a tailor. USC faced its first collegiate opponent the following year in fall 1889, playing St. Vincent's College to a 40–0 victory. In 1893, USC joined the Intercollegiate Football Association of Southern California, composed of USC, Occidental College, Throop Polytechnic Institute, Chaffey College.
Pomona College declined to do so. An invitation was extended to Los Angeles High School. Before they were named Trojans in 1912, USC athletic teams were called the Methodists, as well as the Wesleyans. During the early years, limitations in travel and the scarcity of major football-playing colleges on the West Coast limited its rivalries to local Southern Californian colleges and universities. During this period USC played regular series against Occidental, Whittier and Loyola; the first USC team to play outside of Southern California went to Stanford University on November 4, 1905, where they were trampled 16–0 by the traditional West Coast powerhouse. While the teams would not meet again until 1918, this was USC's first game against a future Pac-12 conference opponent and the beginning of its oldest rivalry. During this period USC played its first games against other future Pac-12 rivals, including Oregon State, California and Arizona. Between 1911–1913, USC followed the example of California and Stanford and dropped football in favor of rugby union.
The results were disastrous, as USC was soundly defeated by more experienced programs while the school itself experienced financial reverses. After several decades of competition, USC first achieved national prominence under head coach "Gloomy" Gus Henderson in the early 1920s. Another milestone came under Henderson in 1922, when USC joined the Pacific Coast Conference, the forerunner of the modern Pac-12. Success continued under coach Howard Jones from 1925 to 1940, when the Trojans were just one of a few nationally dominant teams, it was during this era that the team achieved renown as the "Thundering Herd", earning its first four national titles. USC achieved intermittent success in the years following Jones' tenure. Jeff Cravath, who coached from 1942–1950, won the Rose Bowl in 1943 and 1945. Jess Hill, who coached from 1951 to 1956, won the Rose Bowl in 1953. From 1957 to 1959, the Trojans were coached by Don Clark. Future Hall of Famer Ron Mix was an All American for the Trojans in 1959; the program entered a new golden age upon the arrival of head coach John McKay.
During this period the Trojans produced two Heisman Trophy winners and won four national championships. McKay's influence continued after he departed for the NFL when an assistant coach, John Robinson, took over as head coach. Under Robinson, USC won another national championship in 1978 and USC produced two more running back Heisman Trophy winners in Charles White and Marcus Allen On September 12, 1970, USC opened the season visiting the University of Alabama under legendary coach Paul "Bear" Bryant and became the first integrated team to play in the state of Alabama; the game, scheduled by Bryant, resulted in a dominating 42–21 win by the Trojans. More all six touchdowns scored by USC team were by black players, two by USC running
University of Southern California
The University of Southern California is a private research university in Los Angeles, California. Founded in 1880, it is the oldest private research university in California. For the 2018–19 academic year, there were 20,000 students enrolled in four-year undergraduate programs. USC has 27,500 graduate and professional students in a number of different programs, including business, engineering, social work, occupational therapy and medicine, it is the largest private employer in the city of Los Angeles, generates $8 billion in economic impact on Los Angeles and California. USC is the birthplace of the Domain Name System. Other technologies invented at USC include DNA computing, dynamic programming, image compression, VoIP, antivirus software. USC's alumni include a total of 11 Rhodes Scholars and 12 Marshall Scholars; as of October 2018, nine Nobel laureates, six MacArthur Fellows, one Turing Award winner have been affiliated with the university. USC sponsors a variety of intercollegiate sports and competes in the National Collegiate Athletic Association as a member of the Pac-12 Conference.
Members of USC's sports teams, the Trojans, have won 104 NCAA team championships, ranking them third in the United States, 399 NCAA individual championships, ranking them second in the United States. Trojan athletes have won 288 medals at the Olympic Games, more than any other university in the United States. In 1969, it joined the Association of American Universities. USC has had a total of 521 football players drafted to the National Football League, the second-highest number of drafted players in the country; the University of Southern California was founded following the efforts of Judge Robert M. Widney, who helped secure donations from several key figures in early Los Angeles history: a Protestant nurseryman, Ozro Childs, an Irish Catholic former-Governor, John Gately Downey, a German Jewish banker, Isaias W. Hellman; the three donated 308 lots of land to establish the campus and provided the necessary seed money for the construction of the first buildings. Operated in affiliation with the Methodist Church, the school mandated from the start that "no student would be denied admission because of race."
The university is no longer affiliated with any church, having severed formal ties in 1952. When USC opened in 1880, tuition was $15.00 per term and students were not allowed to leave town without the knowledge and consent of the university president. The school had an enrollment of 53 students and a faculty of 10; the city lacked paved streets, electric lights, a reliable fire alarm system. Its first graduating class in 1884 was a class of three—two males and female valedictorian Minnie C. Miltimore; the colors of USC are cardinal and gold, which were approved by USC's third president, the Reverend George W. White, in 1896. In 1958, the shade of gold, more of an orange color, was changed to a more yellow shade; the letterman's awards were the first to make the change. USC students and athletes are known as Trojans, epitomized by the Trojan Shrine, nicknamed "Tommy Trojan", near the center of campus; until 1912, USC students were known as Fighting Methodists or Wesleyans, though neither name was approved by the university.
During a fateful track and field meet with Stanford University, the USC team was beaten early and conclusively. After only the first few events, it seemed implausible USC would win. After this contest, Los Angeles Times sportswriter Owen Bird reported the USC athletes "fought on like the Trojans of antiquity", the president of the university at the time, George F. Bovard, approved the name officially. During World War II, USC was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission. USC is responsible for $8 billion in economic output in Los Angeles County. On May 1, 2014, USC was named as one of many higher education institutions under investigation by the Office of Civil Rights for potential Title IX violations by Barack Obama's White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault. USC is under a concurrent Title IX investigation for potential anti-male bias in disciplinary proceedings, as well as denial of counseling resources to male students, as of 8 March 2016.
In 2017, the university came into the national spotlight when the Los Angeles Times published information about Carmen A. Puliafito, the dean of USC's medical school. After accusations of drug use, he resigned from his position as dean in 2016 and was fired from the school the following year after the news stories were published, his medical license was subsequently suspended pending a decision. The following year, the Los Angeles Times broke another story about USC focusing on George Tyndall, a gynecologist accused of abusing 52 patients at USC; the reports span from 1990 to 2016 and include using racist and sexual language, conducting exams without gloves and taking pictures of his patients' genitals. Inside Higher Ed noted that there have been "other incidents in which the university is perceived to have failed to act on misconduct by powerful officials" when it reported that the university's president, C. L. Max Nikias, is resigning. Tyndall was fired in 2017 after reaching a settlement with the university.
The school did not report him to state medical authorities or law enforcement at the time, though the LAPD is now investigatin
USC School of International Relations
The University of Southern California School of International Relations is the third-oldest school of international relations in the world. A subdivision within the USC Dana and David Dornsife College of Letters and Sciences, the school is known for teaching, hiring faculty who concentrate in a variety of worldviews; the school traces its origins to the early 1920s and then-University of Southern California president Rufus B. von KleinSmid who held a strong interest in developing the study of international relations. In 1922, USC hosted the Pan-American Conference on Education that brought together university officials from 22 countries to discuss the importance of international education and cooperation. In 1924, the Los Angeles University of International Relations was founded, to be renamed the USC School of International Relations; the founding occurred during the liberal-internationalist reaction to World War I. According to the school's website, its founding mission was "to furnish opportunities for the training of statesmen for consular and diplomatic service, of businessmen for commerce and business administration, of teachers in departments related to world affairs in colleges and universities".
The school continued to grow during the Cold War. It was one of the first schools of international relations in the country to offer a PhD, became a charter member of The Association of Professional Schools of International Affairs, helped to found the International Studies Association. For majors entering the school in 2013 or before, concentrations in the following courses were offered, of which international relations majors had to choose two: International Politics and Security Studies International Political Economy Foreign Policy Analysis Culture and Global Society Regional concentrations: European Union Post-Soviet and Eastern Europe Latin America The Middle East The Pacific Rim AfricaFor majors entering after 2013, there is no concentration requirement, though they can still choose to pursue one of the above concentrations if they wish. Since 2016, the Director of SIR has been Wayne Sandholtz. Sandholtz earned his MA from UC Berkeley; the preceding directors are Robert English, John Odell, Laurie Brand, Steven Lamy, Jonathan Aronson, Robert Friedheim, Thomas J. Biersteker, Gerald Bender, Michael Fry, Jay Savage, James N. Rosenau, Ross Berkes, Claude A. Buss, Rufus B. von KleinSmid.
There are 24 permanent members of the faculty at the school. All have terminal degrees in their field, have published numerous working papers and books. In order to further the study of international relations, the school has created number of affiliates: Center for International Studies - CIS was established by the School of International Relations to promote advanced research and sustained discussion of theoretical and policy issues in international political and economic affairs. Center for Active Learning in International Studies - CALIS is a K-12 outreach program sponsored by the East Asian Studies Center and the School of International Relations Teaching International Relations Program - TIRP is a community outreach program operated by the School of International Relations USC Center on Public Diplomacy - The University of Southern California Center on Public Diplomacy is a joint academic research and training Center created and run jointly by the USC Annenberg School for Communication and the USC College of Letters and Sciences School of International Relations Official website USC Center on Public Diplomacy
Information Sciences Institute
The USC Information Sciences Institute is a component of the University of Southern California Viterbi School of Engineering, specializes in research and development in information processing and communications technologies. It is located in Marina del California. ISI participated in the information revolution, it played a leading role in developing and managing the early Internet and its predecessor ARPAnet; the Institute conducts basic and applied research supported by more than 20 U. S. government agencies involved in defense, health, homeland security and other areas. Annual funding is about $100 million. ISI employs about 350 research scientists, research programmers, graduate students and administrative staff at its Marina del Rey, California headquarters and in Arlington, Virginia. About half of the research staff hold PhD degrees, about 40 are research faculty who teach at USC and advise graduate students. Several senior researchers are tenured USC faculty in the Viterbi School. ISI research spans artificial intelligence, grid computing, quantum computing, supercomputing, nano-satellites and many other areas.
AI expertise includes natural language processing, in which ISI has an international reputation, reconfigurable robotics, information integration, motion analysis and social media analysis. Hardware/software expertise includes cyber-physical system security, data mining, reconfigurable computing and cloud computing. In networking, ISI explores Internet resilience, Internet traffic analysis and photonics, among other areas. Researchers work in scientific data management, wireless technologies and electrical smart grid, in which ISI is advising the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power on a major demonstration project. Another current initiative involves big data brain imaging jointly with the Keck School of Medicine of USC. Federal agency sponsors include the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Department of Education, Department of Energy, Department of Homeland Security, National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, other scientific and defense-related agencies.
Corporate partners include Chevron Corp. in the Center for Interactive Smart Oilfield Technologies, Lockheed Martin Company in the USC-Lockheed Martin Quantum Computation Center, Parsons Corp. subsidiary Sparta Inc. in the DETER Project, a cybersecurity research initiative and international testbed. ISI has partnered with businesses including IBM Corporation, Samsung Electronics Company, the Raytheon Company, GlobalFoundries Inc. Northrop Grumman Corporation and Carl Zeiss AG, is working with Micron Technology, Inc. Altera Corporation and Fujitsu Ltd. ISI operates the Metal Oxide Semiconductor Implementation Service, a multi-project electronic circuit wafer service that has prototyped more than 60,000 chips since 1981. MOSIS provides design tools and pools circuit designs to produce specialty and low-volume chips for corporations and other research entities worldwide; the Institute has given rise to several startup and spinoff companies in grid software, geospatial information fusion, machine translation, data integration and other technologies.
ISI was founded by Keith Uncapher, who headed the computer research group at RAND Corporation in the 1960s and early 1970s. Uncapher decided to leave RAND after his group's funding was cut in 1971, he approached the University of California at Los Angeles about creating an off-campus technology institute, but was told that a decision would take 15 months. He presented the concept to USC, which approved the proposal in five days. ISI was launched with three employees in 1972, its first proposal was funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency in 30 days for $6 million. ISI became one of the earliest nodes on ARPANET, the predecessor to the Internet, in 1977 figured prominently in a demonstration of its international viability. ISI helped refine the TCP/IP communications protocols fundamental to Net operations, researcher Paul Mockapetris developed the now-familiar Domain Name System characterized by.com.org.net.gov, and.edu on which the Net still operates. Steve Crocker originated the Request for Comments series, the written record of the network's technical structure and operation that both documented and shaped the emerging Internet.
Another ISI researcher, Danny Cohen, became first to implement packet voice and packet video over ARPANET, demonstrating the viability of packet switching for real-time applications. Jonathan Postel collaborated in development of TCP/IP, DNS and the SMTP protocol that supports email, he edited the RFC for nearly three decades until his sudden death in 1998, when ISI colleagues assumed responsibility. The Institute retained that role until 2009. Postel directed the Internet Assigned Number Authority and its predecessor, which assign Internet addresses. IANA was administered from ISI until a nonprofit organization, ICANN, was created for that purpose in 1998. Cohen was the first entity to implement, Voice Over Internet Protocol; some of the first Net security applications, one of the world's first portable computers originated at ISI. ISI researchers created or co-created the: GLOBUS grid computing standard LOOM knowledge representation language and environment, or LOOM MONARCH supercomputer-on-a-chip Soar for developing intelligent behavioral systemsIn 2011, several ISI natural language experts advised the IBM team that