California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
A teacher is a person who helps others to acquire knowledge, competences or values. Informally the role of teacher may be taken on by anyone. In some countries, teaching young people of school age may be carried out in an informal setting, such as within the family, rather than in a formal setting such as a school or college; some other professions may involve a significant amount of teaching. In most countries, formal teaching of students is carried out by paid professional teachers; this article focuses on those who are employed, as their main role, to teach others in a formal education context, such as at a school or other place of initial formal education or training. A teacher's role may vary among cultures. Teachers may provide instruction in literacy and numeracy, craftsmanship or vocational training, the arts, civics, community roles, or life skills. Formal teaching tasks include preparing lessons according to agreed curricula, giving lessons, assessing pupil progress. A teacher's professional duties may extend beyond formal teaching.
Outside of the classroom teachers may accompany students on field trips, supervise study halls, help with the organization of school functions, serve as supervisors for extracurricular activities. In some education systems, teachers may have responsibility for student discipline. Teaching is a complex activity; this is in part because teaching is a social practice, that takes place in a specific context and therefore reflects the values of that specific context. Factors that influence what is expected of teachers include history and tradition, social views about the purpose of education, accepted theories about learning, etc; the competencies required by a teacher are affected by the different ways in which the role is understood around the world. Broadly, there seem to be four models: the teacher as manager of instruction; the OECD has argued that it is necessary to develop a shared definition of the skills and knowledge required by teachers, in order to guide teachers' career-long education and professional development.
Some evidence-based international discussions have tried to reach such a common understanding. For example, the European Union has identified three broad areas of competences that teachers require: Working with others Working with knowledge and information, Working in and with society. Scholarly consensus is emerging that what is required of teachers can be grouped under three headings: knowledge craft skills and dispositions, it has been found that teachers who showed enthusiasm towards the course materials and students can create a positive learning experience. These teachers do not teach by rote but attempt to find new invigoration for the course materials on a daily basis. One of the challenges facing teachers is that they may have covered a curriculum until they begin to feel bored with the subject, their attitude may in turn bore the students. Students who had enthusiastic teachers tend to rate them higher than teachers who didn't show much enthusiasm for the course materials. Teachers that exhibit enthusiasm can lead to students who are more to be engaged, interested and curious about learning the subject matter.
Recent research has found a correlation between teacher enthusiasm and students' intrinsic motivation to learn and vitality in the classroom. Controlled, experimental studies exploring intrinsic motivation of college students has shown that nonverbal expressions of enthusiasm, such as demonstrative gesturing, dramatic movements which are varied, emotional facial expressions, result in college students reporting higher levels of intrinsic motivation to learn, but while a teacher's enthusiasm has been shown to improve motivation and increase task engagement, it does not improve learning outcomes or memory for the material. There are various mechanisms by which teacher enthusiasm may facilitate higher levels of intrinsic motivation. Teacher enthusiasm may contribute to a classroom atmosphere of energy and enthusiasm which feeds student interest and excitement in learning the subject matter. Enthusiastic teachers may lead to students becoming more self-determined in their own learning process; the concept of mere exposure indicates that the teacher's enthusiasm may contribute to the student's expectations about intrinsic motivation in the context of learning.
Enthusiasm may act as a "motivational embellishment", increasing a student's interest by the variety and surprise of the enthusiastic teacher's presentation of the material. The concept of emotional contagion, may apply. Research shows that student motivation and attitudes towards school are linked to student-teacher relationships. Enthusiastic teachers are good at creating beneficial relations with their students, their ability to create effective learning environments that foster student achievement depends on the kind of relationship they build with their students. Useful teacher-to-studen
Margaret Julia "Marlo" Thomas is an American actress, producer and social activist best known for starring on the sitcom That Girl and her award-winning children's franchise Free to Be... You and Me, she has received four Emmys, a Golden Globe, the George Foster Peabody Award for her work in television, she has been inducted into the Broadcasting and Cable Hall of Fame. She has received a Grammy award for her children’s album Marlo Thomas and Friends: Thanks & Giving All Year Long. In 2014, she was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Barack Obama at a White House ceremony, the highest honor that a civilian can receive. Thomas serves as National Outreach Director for St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, founded by her father Danny Thomas in 1962, she created the Giving campaign in 2004 to support the hospital. Marlo Thomas was born on November 21, 1937, in Detroit, the eldest child of comedian Danny Thomas and his wife, the former Rose Marie Cassaniti, she has a sister, a brother, Tony Thomas, a television and film producer.
Her father was a Roman Catholic Lebanese American and her mother was Sicilian American. Her godmother was Loretta Young. Thomas was raised in California, her parents called her Margo as a child, though she soon became known as Marlo, she told The New York Times, because of her childhood mispronunciation of the nickname. She attended Marymount High School in Los Angeles. Thomas graduated from the University of Southern California with a teaching degree: "I wanted a piece of paper that said I was qualified to do something in the world," she said, she was a member of the sorority Kappa Alpha Theta. Thomas appeared in many television programs including Bonanza, McHale's Navy, Ben Casey and Trial, The Joey Bishop Show, The Many Loves of Dobie Gillis, 77 Sunset Strip, The Donna Reed Show, among others, her big break came in 1965 when she was cast by Mike Nichols in the London production of Neil Simon’s Barefoot in the Park, co-starring Daniel Massey, Kurt Kasznar, Mildred Natwick. In 1986, she was once again cast by Nichols on Broadway in Andrew Bergman’s Social Security, co-starring Ron Silver and Olympia Dukakis.
Thomas and her father, were cast as Laurie and Ed Dubro in the gripping 1961 episode, "Honor Bright", on CBS's Dick Powell's Zane Grey Theatre. In the story line, Dubro, a former convict, opposes his daughter's plans to marry a neighbor, Vince Harwell; when Harwell's current wife arrives at the church to stop the wedding. Laurie is crushed to death by a team of horses racing through town. Dubro plots a unique way to punish Harwell. Thomas starred in an ABC pilot called Two's Company in 1965. Although it did not sell, it caught the attention of an ABC programming executive, he met with Thomas, expressed interest in casting her in her own series. With their encouragement, Thomas came up with her own idea for a show about a young woman who leaves home, moves to New York City, struggles to become an actress; the network was hesitant, fearing audiences would find a series centering on a single female uninteresting or unrealistic. The concept evolved into the sitcom entitled That Girl, in which Thomas played Ann Marie, a beautiful, up-and-coming actress with a writer boyfriend, played by Ted Bessell.
The series told the daily struggles of Ann holding different temporary jobs while pursuing her dream of a career on Broadway. That Girl was one of the first television shows to focus on a working, single woman who did not live with her parents, it paved the way for many shows to come. Thomas was only the second woman to produce her own series, following Lucille Ball; that Girl aired from 1966 to 1971, producing 136 episodes, was a solid performer in the Nielsen ratings. In 1971, Thomas chose to end the series after five years. Both ABC and the show's sponsor, wanted the series finale to be a wedding between the two central characters, but Thomas rebuffed them, saying that she felt it was the wrong message to send to her female audience, because it would give the impression that the only happy ending is marriage; that Girl has since become popular in syndication. After That Girl, eager to expand her horizons, Thomas attended the Actors Studio, where she studied with Lee Strasberg until his death in 1982, subsequently with Strasberg's disciple Sandra Seacat.
When she won her Best Dramatic Actress Emmy in 1986 for the TV movie Nobody’s Child, she thanked both individuals. In 1972, she released a children's book, Free to Be... You and Me, inspired by her young niece Dionne Gordon, she went on to create multiple recordings and television specials of and related to that title: Free to Be... You and Me and Free to Be... A Family, with Christopher Cerf. In 1972, she served as a California delegate to the Democratic National Convention in Miami Beach, Florida. In 1973, Thomas joined Gloria Steinem, Patricia Carbine, Letty Cottin Pogrebin as the founders of the Ms. Foundation for Women, the first women’s fund in the US; the organization was created to deliver funding and other resources to organizations that were presenting liberal women’s voices in communities nationwide. In 1976, Thomas made a guest appearance on the NBC situation comedy The Practice as a stubborn patient of her father Danny Thomas's character Dr. Jules Bedford, the chemistry of father and daughter acting together made for touching hospital-room scenes.
She has made guest appearances on several television series, including Law & Order: Special Victims Unit, The New Normal, Wet Hot Americ
USC School of Architecture
The USC School of Architecture is the architecture school at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles, California. It is one of USC's 17 professional schools, offering both undergraduate and graduate degrees in the fields of architecture, building science, landscape architecture and heritage conservation; the School of Architecture is ranked amongst the most prestigious architecture schools in the country. The graduate program in architecture is ranked 9th in the nation by DesignIntelligence. Notable alumni that graduated from the School include Thom Mayne and Paul Williams; the dean is Milton S. F. Curry; the program at USC began as an architecture department in 1916. Soon after, with the help of the Allied Architects of Los Angeles, a separate School of Architecture was established in 1925. By 1928, majors and degree-granting programs were provided to students. One of the earliest undergraduate programs was the 5-year professional Bachelor of Architecture program. Over the years, the school grew and expanded its influence into one of the premier architecture programs in the country.
The school now offers 3 undergraduate degrees, 3 undergraduate minors, 4 master's degrees and 1 Ph. D; the current main buildings are Watt Hall & Harris Hall. Watt Hall was designed by alumnus Edward Killingsworth. USC Architecture took over maintenance of the Gamble House, the Craftsman masterpiece in Pasadena designed by Greene and Greene in 1966 in a joint deed with the city of Pasadena, which took over responsibility for the grounds; the school owns the Samuel Freeman House, a Frank Lloyd Wright designed house in the Hollywood Hills of Los Angeles built in 1923. The Freeman house was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1971; the house has been listed as a California Historical Landmark #1011, as Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument #247 in 1981. The Freeman house is undergoing long-term rehabilitation. Director: Hadrian Predock, AIA The undergraduate "B. Arch" is accredited by the National Architectural Accrediting Board; the "NAAB" is the sole authority for granting accreditation for professional architecture degree programs.
Director: Wes Jones RA, FAAR. The graduate "M. Arch" is accredited by the National Architectural Accrediting Board; as an accredited professional degree, the M. Arch provides firm grounding knowledge in history, professional practice and theory; the studio is the core setting for students to learn to synthesize the cultural and tectonic thinking through informed design practice. The separate Master of Advanced Architecture Studies is a post-professional degree for those who have a Bachelor of Architecture degree. Director: Trudi Sandmeier; the graduate heritage conservation curriculum is designed to expose students to the full breadth of the profession, including "...materials conservation and planning, conservation theory, global conservation efforts and landscape history, best-practices in resource documentation and evaluation and historic site management." Director: Esther Margulies. Landscape architecture at USC is a design-centered program centered on a trans-disciplinary approach; the Master of Landscape Architecture is accredited by the Landscape Architectural Accreditation Board.
Director: Douglas E. Noble, FAIA, Ph. D; the Master of Building Science degree program was recognized as a "top-notch program" by ARCHITECT: Journal of the American Institute of Architects, in 2009. Building science focuses on the relationship of the human condition and to natural forces; the USC Chase L. Leavitt Graduate Building Science program emphasizes the breadth of technology in architecture, including structures, building systems, analytical computing and BIM, building envelopes, design theories and methods, human comfort, acoustics and daylighting; the School of Architecture is located in the Harris Hall and Watt Hall Complex, at the southern end of the USC University Park Campus. The school comprises over 50,000 square feet of design studios, galleries and labs. Students in the USC School of Architecture have their own 24-7 personal workstations. Students have access to their projects at all times. Watt Hall contains one of the best regional architecture libraries, is home to extensive woodshop and fabrication facilities.
Within and adjacent to the complex are three landscaped courtyards. The complex houses several gallery review spaces and, next door, the "USC Fisher Museum of Art". Many of the faculty members at the School of Architecture are practicing professionals and researchers; the majority of the faculty are active members of the American Institute of Architects or the American Society of Landscape Architects and 14 are Fellows of AIA. Notable Faculty: Kim Coleman Milton S. F. Curry Manuel De Landa Vittoria Di Palma - Ph. D. Steven Ehrlich - FAIA Diane Ghirardo - Ph. D. Alvin Huang - AIA Wes Jones - RA, FAAR Karen M. Kensek Alice Kimm - FAIA Qingyun Ma - AIA Amy Murphy - Ph. D. Douglas E. Noble - FAIA, Ph. D. Lorcan O'Herlihy - FAIA Hadrian Predock Alexander Robinson - FAAR Jose Sanchez Trudi Sandmeier Lawrence Scarpa - FAIA Marc Eugene Schiler - FASES, LC James Steele - Ph. D. Doris Sung Patrick Tighe - FAIA Notable Former Faculty: Gregory Ain - Best known for bringing elements of modern architecture to lower and medium-cost housing.
Reyner Banham Craig Ellwood A. Quincy Jones - Professor and Dean of the School of Architecture from 1951-1967. Designed the building which houses the USC Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism. Pierre Koenig Ralph Lewis Knowles Neil Leach Raymond Loewy - internationally acclaimed in
Southern California is a geographic and cultural region that comprises California's southernmost counties, is the second most populous urban agglomeration in the United States. The region is traditionally described as eight counties, based on demographics and economic ties: Imperial, Los Angeles, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, Santa Barbara, Ventura; the more extensive 10-county definition, which includes Kern and San Luis Obispo counties, is used and is based on historical political divisions. The Colorado Desert and the Colorado River are located on southern California's eastern border with Arizona, the Mojave Desert is located north on California's Nevada border. Southern California's southern border is part of the Mexico–United States border. Southern California includes the built-up urban area which stretches along the Pacific coast from Ventura through Greater Los Angeles down to Greater San Diego, inland to the Inland Empire and Coachella Valley, it encompasses eight metropolitan areas, three of which together form the Greater Los Angeles Combined Statistical Area with over 18 million people, the second-biggest CSA after the New York CSA.
These three MSAs are: the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the Inland Empire (, the Oxnard–Thousand Oaks–Ventura metropolitan area. In addition, Southern California contains the San Diego metropolitan area with 3.3 million people, Bakersfield metro area with 0.9 million, the Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo, El Centro metropolitan areas. The Southern California Megaregion is larger still, extending east into Las Vegas and south across the Mexican border into Tijuana. Within southern California are two major cities, Los Angeles and San Diego, as well as three of the country's largest metropolitan areas. With a population of 4,042,000, Los Angeles is the most populous city in California and the second most populous in the United States. South of Los Angeles and with a population of 1,307,402 is San Diego, the second most populous city in the state and the eighth most populous in the nation; the counties of Los Angeles, San Diego, San Bernardino, Riverside are the five most populous in the state, are in the top 15 most populous counties in the United States.
The motion picture and music industry are centered in the Los Angeles area in southern California. Hollywood, a district of Los Angeles, gives its name to the American motion picture industry, synonymous with the neighborhood name. Headquartered in southern California are The Walt Disney Company, Sony Pictures, Universal Pictures, MGM, Paramount Pictures, 20th Century Fox, Warner Bros. Universal, Warner Bros. and Sony run major record companies. Southern California is home to a large homegrown surf and skateboard culture. Companies such as Vans, Quiksilver, No Fear, RVCA, Body Glove are all headquartered here. Skateboarder Tony Hawk; some of the most famous surf locations are in southern California as well, including Trestles, The Wedge, Huntington Beach, Malibu. Some of the world's largest action sports events, including the X Games, Boost Mobile Pro, the U. S. Open of Surfing, are held in southern California; the region is important to the world of yachting with premier events including the annual Transpacific Yacht Race, or Transpac, from Los Angeles to Hawaii.
The San Diego Yacht Club held the America's Cup, the most prestigious prize in yachting, from 1988 to 1995 and hosted three America's Cup races during that time. The first modern era triathlon was held in Mission Bay, San Diego, California in 1974. Since southern California, San Diego in particular have become a mecca for triathlon and multi-sport racing and culture. Southern California is home to many sports sports networks such as Fox Sports Net. Many locals and tourists frequent the southern California coast for its beaches; the inland desert city of Palm Springs is popular. Southern California is not a formal geographic designation and definitions of what constitutes southern California vary. Geographically, California's North-South midway point lies at 37° 9' 58.23" latitude, around 11 miles south of San Jose. When the state is divided into two areas, the term southern California refers to the 10 southernmost counties of the state; this definition coincides neatly with the county lines at 35° 47′ 28″ North latitude, which form the northern borders of San Luis Obispo and San Bernardino counties.
Another definition for southern California uses Point Conception and the Tehachapi Mountains as the northern boundary. Though there is no official definition for the northern boundary of southern California, such a division has existed from the time when Mexico ruled California and political disputes raged between the Californios of Monterey in the upper part and Los Angeles in the lower part of Alta California. Following the acquisition of California by the United States, the division continued as part of the attempt by several pro-slavery politicians to arrange the division of Alta California at 36 degrees, 30 minutes, the line of the Missouri Compromise. Instead, the passing of the Compromise of 1850 enabled California to be a
Nagabhushan "Rao Machiraju" is an Executive in Residence and Co-Director of Center for Human Applied Reasoning and the Internet of Things, at the University of Southern California. Rao is a Managing Partner of Digikeyih, he was a Co-founder and the CEO of reQall Inc. an MIT Media Lab spin off and a NASA Research Partner. He is the Co-founder of Magically Inc. N. Rao Machiraju, was a Principal Scientist at Apple Inc. heading various groups including The Advanced Technology Group Learning Communities Laboratory.< Rao and his team have won the 1993 Optimas Award for Innovation and Excellence for Apple Inc. Rao was a Co-founder of Magically Inc and ConceptLabs. Rao Machiraju holds 10 patents in information retrieval, he has an interdisciplinary educational background: Masters in Public Health, he studied General Systems and Information Networks under James Grier Miller and Kjell Samuelson, Ed. D in Instructional Technology'. Rao worked on a number of research and development efforts in information retrieval, organizational memory, wrote a number of articles and lectured extensively.
In 1996, the term "location sense" was coined by Rao Machiraju to refer to a capability of a device that can ascertain its location. Rao was on the editorial boards of Journal of Expert Systems and Journal of Telematics and Informatics as a Founding member, he was on the Board of Councilors of National Science Foundation Engineering Research Center on Multi-Media Computing in at the University of Southern California, serves on the Advisory Board of Dimagi.com, an MIT Medialab spin off. Rao serves as Chief Mentor for Ventura Technology Incubator; the ATG Learning Communities Laboratory - An Overview by N. Rao Machiraju. Apple’s Education Research Agenda by N. Rao Machiraju. A study of the usage of an international computer communications network: it's implications for distance education. Handheld computers for Rural Healthcare: Experiences in a Large Scale Implementation. Microcomputer-based informatics: some training considerations. Telematics and Informatics: An International Journal on Telecommunications & Information Technology.
International informatics access'87