Sacramento is the capital city of the U. S. state of California and the seat of Sacramento County. Located at the confluence of the Sacramento River and the American River in Northern California's Sacramento Valley, Sacramento's estimated 2018 population of 501,334 makes it the sixth-largest city in California and the ninth largest capital in the United States. Sacramento is the seat of the California Assembly, the Governor of California, Supreme Court of California, making it the state's political center and a hub for lobbying and think tanks. Sacramento is the cultural and economic core of the Sacramento metropolitan area, which had 2010 population of 2,414,783, making it the fifth largest in California. Sacramento is the fastest-growing major city in California, owing to its status as a notable financial center on the West Coast and as a major educational hub, home of Sacramento State University and University of California, Davis. Sacramento is a major center for the California healthcare industry, as the seat of Sutter Health, the world-renowned UC Davis Medical Center, the UC Davis School of Medicine, notable tourist destination in California, as the site of The California Museum, the Crocker Art Museum, California Hall of Fame, the California State Capitol Museum, the Old Sacramento State Historic Park.
Sacramento is known for its evolving contemporary culture, dubbed the most "hipster city" in California. In 2002, the Harvard University Civil Rights Project conducted for Time magazine named Sacramento "America's Most Diverse City". Before the arrival of the Spanish, the area was inhabited by the Nisenan people indigenous peoples of California. Spanish cavalryman Gabriel Moraga surveyed and named the Rio del Santísimo Sacramento in 1808, after the Blessed Sacrament, referring to the Eucharist in the Catholic Church. In 1839, Juan Bautista Alvarado, Mexican governor of Alta California granted the responsibility of colonizing the Sacramento Valley to Swiss-born, Mexican citizen John Augustus Sutter, who subsequently established Sutter's Fort and the settlement at the Rancho Nueva Helvetia. Following the American Conquest of California and the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, the waterfront developed by Sutter began to be developed and incorporated in 1850 as the City of Sacramento; as a result of the California Gold Rush, Sacramento became a major commercial center and distribution point for Northern California, serving as the terminus for the Pony Express and the First Transcontinental Railroad.
Nisenan and Plains Miwok Native Americans had lived in the area for thousands of years. Unlike the settlers who would make Sacramento their home, these Native Americans left little evidence of their existence. Traditionally, their diet was dominated by acorns taken from the plentiful oak trees in the region, by fruits, bulbs and roots gathered throughout the year. In 1808, the Spanish explorer Gabriel Moraga discovered and named the Sacramento Valley and the Sacramento River. A Spanish writer with the Moraga expedition wrote: "Canopies of oaks and cottonwoods, many festooned with grapevines, overhung both sides of the blue current. Birds chattered in the trees and big fish darted through the pellucid depths; the air was like champagne, drank deep of it, drank in the beauty around them. "¡Es como el sagrado sacramento!" The valley and the river were christened after the "Most Holy Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ", referring to the Catholic sacrament of the Eucharist. John Sutter Sr. first arrived in the area on August 13, 1839, at the divergence of the American and Sacramento Rivers with a Mexican land grant of 50,000 acres.
The next year, he and his party established Sutter's Fort, a massive adobe structure with walls eighteen feet high and three feet thick. Representing Mexico, Sutter Sr. called his colony New Helvetia, a Swiss inspired name, was the political authority and dispenser of justice in the new settlement. Soon, the colony began to grow as more pioneers headed west. Within just a few short years, Sutter Sr. had become a grand success, owning a ten-acre orchard and a herd of thirteen thousand cattle. Fort Sutter became a regular stop for the increasing number of immigrants coming through the valley. In 1847 Sutter Sr. received 2,000 fruit trees, which started the agriculture industry in the Sacramento Valley. That same year, Sutter Sr. hired James Marshall to build a sawmill so that he could continue to expand his empire, unbeknownst to many, Sutter Sr.'s "empire" had been built on some thin margins of credit. In 1848, when gold was discovered by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, a large number of gold-seekers came to the area, increasing the population.
In August 1848 Sutter Sr.'s son, John Sutter Jr. arrived in the area to assist his father in relieving his indebtedness. Now compounding the problem of his father's indebtedness, was the additional strain placed on the Sutters by the ongoing arrival of thousands of new gold miners and prospectors in the area, many quite content to squat on unwatched portions of the vast Sutter lands, or to abscond with various unattended Sutter properties or belongings if they could. In Sutter's case, rather than being a'boon' for Sutter, his employee's discovery of gold in the area turned out to be more of a personal'bane' for him. By December 1848, John Sutter Jr. in association with Sam Brannan, began laying out the City of Sacramento, 2 miles south of his father's settlement of New Helvetia. This venture was undertaken against the wishes of Sutter Sr. however the father, being in debt, was in no position to stop the venture. For
Master of Public Administration
The Master of Public Administration is a professional graduate degree in public administration, similar to the Master of Business Administration but with an emphasis on the issues of governance. The MPA program is a professional degree and a graduate degree for the public sector and it prepares individuals to serve as managers and policy analysts in the executive arm of local, state/provincial, federal/national government, in non-governmental organization and nonprofit sectors. Instruction includes the roles and principles of public administration. Through its history, the MPA degree has become more interdisciplinary by drawing from fields such as economics, law, political science, regional planning in order to equip MPA graduates with skills and knowledge covering a broad range of topics and disciplines relevant to the public sector. A core curriculum of a typical MPA program includes courses on microeconomics, public finance, research methods, policy analysis, managerial accounting, public management, geographic information systems, program evaluation.
MPA students may focus their studies on public sector fields such as urban planning, emergency management, health care, economic development, community development, non-profit management, environmental policy, cultural policy, criminal justice. MPA graduates serve in some important positions within the public sector including Prime Minister of Singapore Lee Hsien Loong, former UN Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon, former CIA Director David Petraeus, former president of Liberia Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, former president of Mexico Felipe Calderón, Foreign Minister of Serbia Vuk Jeremić, Chairman of the World Toilet Organization Jack Sim, former New York City Police Commissioner Raymond Kelly, former Secretary of Health and Human Services Kathleen Sebelius, former Treasurer of Australia Wayne Swan. Other notable MPA graduates include pilot Chesley Sullenberger. A Master of Public Administration can be acquired at various institutions. See List of schools offering MPA degrees. Master of Public Affairs Master of Public Policy Master of Nonprofit Organizations Public policy schools Master of Business Administration Doctor of Public Administration Network of Schools of Public Policy and Administration - Accrediting body for MPA and MPP programs in the U.
S. Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management American Society for Public Administration - Professional society for public administration practitioners and educator]
Public administration is the implementation of government policy and an academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepares civil servants for working in the public service. As a "field of inquiry with a diverse scope" whose fundamental goal is to "advance management and policies so that government can function"; some of the various definitions which have been offered for the term are: "the management of public programs". Many unelected public servants can be considered to be public administrators, including heads of city, regional and federal departments such as municipal budget directors, human resources administrators, city managers, census managers, state mental health directors, cabinet secretaries. Public administrators are public servants working in public departments and agencies, at all levels of government. In the United States, civil servants and academics such as Woodrow Wilson promoted civil service reform in the 1880s, moving public administration into academia. However, "until the mid-20th century and the dissemination of the German sociologist Max Weber's theory of bureaucracy" there was not "much interest in a theory of public administration".
The field is multidisciplinary in character. In 1947 Paul H. Appleby defined public administration as "public leadership of public affairs directly responsible for executive action". In a democracy, it has to do with such leadership and executive action in terms that respect and contribute to the dignity, the worth, the potentials of the citizen. One year Gordon Clapp Chairman of the Tennessee Valley Authority defined public administration "as a public instrument whereby democratic society may be more realized." This implies that it must "relate itself to concepts of justice and fuller economic opportunity for human beings" and is thus "concerned with "people, with ideas, with things". According to James D. Carroll & Alfred M. Zuck, the publication by "Woodrow Wilson of his essay, "The Study of Administration" in 1887 is regarded as the beginning of public administration as a specific field of study". Drawing on the democracy theme and discarding the link to the executive branch, Patricia M. Shields asserts that public administration "deals with the stewardship and implementation of the products of a living democracy".
The key term "product" refers to "those items that are constructed or produced" such as prisons, laws and security. "As implementors, public managers engage these products." They participate in the making of the "living" democracy. A living democracy is "an environment, changing, organic", imperfect and teaming with values. "Stewardship is emphasized because public administration is concerned "with accountability and effective use of scarce resources and making the connection between the doing, the making and democratic values". More scholars claim that "public administration has no accepted definition", because the "scope of the subject is so great and so debatable that it is easier to explain than define". Public administration is a field of an occupation. There is much disagreement about whether the study of public administration can properly be called a discipline because of the debate over whether public administration is a subfield of political science or a subfield of administrative science", the latter an outgrowth of its roots in policy analysis and evaluation research.
Scholar Donald Kettl is among those who view public administration "as a subfield within political science". According to Lalor a society with a public authority that provides at least one public good can be said to have a public administration whereas the absence of either a public authority or the provision of at least one public good implies the absence of a public administration, he argues that public administration is the public provision of public goods in which the demand function is satisfied more or less by politics, whose primary tool is rhetoric, providing for public goods, the supply function is satisfied more or less efficiently by public management, whose primary tools are speech acts, producing public goods. The moral purpose of public administration, implicit in its acceptance of its role, is the maximization of the opportunities of the public to satisfy its wants; the North American Industry Classification System definition of the Public Administration sector states that public administration "... comprises establishments engaged in activities of a governmental nature, that is, the enactment and judicial interpretation of laws and their pursuant regulations, the administration of programs based on them".
This includes "Legislative activities, national defense, public order and safety, immigration services, foreign affairs and international assistance, the administration of government programs are activities that are purely governmental in nature". From the academic perspective, the National Center for Education Statistics in the United States defines the study of public administration as "
The Seattle Seahawks are a professional American football franchise based in Seattle, Washington. The Seahawks compete in the National Football League as a member club of the league's National Football Conference West division, they joined the NFL in 1976 as an expansion team. The Seahawks are coached by Pete Carroll. Since 2002, they have played their home games at CenturyLink Field, located south of downtown Seattle, they played home games in the Kingdome and Husky Stadium. Seahawks fans have been referred to collectively as the "12th Man", "12th Fan", or "12s"; the Seahawks' fans have twice set the Guinness World Record for the loudest crowd noise at a sporting event, first registering 136.6 decibels during a game against the San Francisco 49ers in September 2013, during a Monday Night Football game against the New Orleans Saints a few months with a record-setting 137.6 dB. The Seahawks are the only NFL franchise based in the Pacific Northwest region of North America, thus attract support from a wide geographical area, including some parts of Oregon, Montana and Alaska, as well as Canadian fans in British Columbia and Saskatchewan.
Steve Largent, Cortez Kennedy, Walter Jones, Kenny Easley have been voted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame or wholly for their accomplishments as Seahawks. In addition to them, Dave Brown, Jacob Green, Dave Krieg, Curt Warner, Jim Zorn have been inducted into the Seahawks Ring of Honor along with Pete Gross and Chuck Knox; the Seahawks have won three conference championships. They are the only team to have played in both NFC Championship Games, they have appeared in three Super Bowls: losing 21–10 to the Pittsburgh Steelers in Super Bowl XL, defeating the Denver Broncos 43–8 for their first championship in Super Bowl XLVIII, losing 28–24 to the New England Patriots in Super Bowl XLIX. As per one of the agreed parts of the 1970 AFL–NFL merger, the NFL began planning to expand from 26 to 28 teams. In June 1972, Seattle Professional Football Inc. a group of Seattle business and community leaders, announced its intention to acquire an NFL franchise for the city of Seattle. In June 1974, the NFL gave the city an expansion franchise.
That December, NFL Commissioner Pete Rozelle announced the official signing of the franchise agreement by Lloyd W. Nordstrom, representing the Nordstrom family as majority partners for the consortium. In March 1975, John Thompson, former Executive Director of the NFL Management Council and a former Washington Huskies executive, was hired as the general manager of the new team; the name Seattle Seahawks was selected on June 17, 1975 after a public naming contest which drew more than 20,000 entries and over 1,700 names. Thompson recruited and hired Jack Patera, a Minnesota Vikings assistant coach, to be the first head coach of the Seahawks; the expansion draft was held March 30–31, 1976, with Seattle and the Tampa Bay Buccaneers alternating picks for rounds selecting unprotected players from the other 26 teams in the league. The Seahawks were awarded the 2nd overall pick in the 1976 draft, a pick they used on defensive tackle Steve Niehaus; the team took the field for the first time on August 1, 1976 in a pre-season game against the San Francisco 49ers in the newly opened Kingdome.
The Seahawks are the only NFL team to switch conferences twice in the post-merger era. The franchise began play in 1976 in the aforementioned NFC West but switched conferences with the Buccaneers after one season and joined the AFC West; this realignment was dictated by the league as part of the 1976 expansion plan, so that both expansion teams could play each other twice and every other NFL franchise once during their first two seasons. The Seahawks won both matchups against the Buccaneers in their first two seasons, the former of, the Seahawks' first regular season victory. In 1983, the Seahawks hired Chuck Knox as head coach. Finishing with a 9–7 record, the Seahawks made their first post-season appearance, defeating the Denver Broncos in the Wild Card Round, the Miami Dolphins, before losing in the AFC Championship to the eventual Super Bowl champion Los Angeles Raiders; the following season, the Seahawks had their best season before 2005, finishing 12–4. Knox won the NFL Coach of the Year Award.
In 1988, Ken Behring and partner Ken Hofmann purchased the team for $79 million or $99 million. The Seahawks won their first division title in 1988, but from 1989 to 1998 had poor records. In 1996, Behring and Hoffman transferred the team's operations to Anaheim, California, a criticized move, although the team continued to play in Seattle; the team relocated, was in bankruptcy for a short period. The NFL threatened Behring with fining him $500,000 a day if he didn't move the team's operations back to Seattle, he would coach for 10 seasons. The Seahawks won their second division title, as well as a wild card berth in the playoffs. In 2002, the Seahawks returned to the NFC West as part of an NFL realignment plan that gave each conference four balanced divisions of four teams each; this realignment restored the AFC West to its initial post-merger roster of original AFL teams Denver, San Diego, Kansas City, Oakland. That same year
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Marouf Suleiman al-Bakhit was a Jordanian politician and two-time Prime Minister. He first served as Prime Minister from 27 November 2005 until 25 November 2007 and again from 9 February 2011 to 17 October 2011. Bakhit held the position of Jordanian ambassador to Israel and the national security chief. Appointed as Prime Minister by King Abdullah II less than three weeks after the 2005 Amman bombings, Bakhit's main priorities were to maintain security and stability in Jordan, he was reappointed as Prime Minister by the King on 1 February 2011, following weeks of protests. He resigned from his post on 17 October 2011, was succeeded by Awn Shawkat Al-Khasawneh on 24 October. Bakhit graduated with a bachelor's degree in General Management and Political Science from University of Jordan, he earned a Masters in Public Administration from the University of Southern California in 1982, a PhD entitled "The Evolution of Egyptian Air Defence Strategy" from King's College London in 1990. Marouf al-Bakhit comes from Jordan's Al-Abbadi Tribe.
He joined the Jordanian Armed Forces in 1964, graduated from the Royal Military College in 1966 as Second Lieutenant. He retired from the Armed Forces in 1999 as Major General. Bakhit has been Prime Minister twice, first from 27 November 2005 until 25 November 2007, from 1 February 2011. Bakhit was appointed by King Abdullah II less than three weeks after the 2005 Amman bombings; the 2005 Amman bombings were a series of coordinated bomb attacks on three hotels in Amman, Jordan, on 9 November 2005. The attacks injured 115 others. After two years of trying to get reforms through the parliament, followed by a questionable election, he resigned and was replaced by Nader al-Dahabi. After two weeks of street protests, on 1 February 2011 King Abdullah fired his prime minister, Samir Rifai, re-appointed Bakhit to his old position. While continuing to maintain a moderate stance in respect to the United States and the 1994 Jordan-Israel peace treaty, al-Bakhit has promised to effect changes in election laws, decentralize authority and grant further rights to political parties.
King Abdullah II accepted his resignation on 17 October 2011 and appointed Awn Shawkat Al-Khasawneh as Prime Minister. Member of the Jordanian Delegation for Israel-Jordan peace treaty Lecturer of political science at Mutah University List of Prime Ministers of Jordan Prime Ministry of Jordan website
Marist College is a private liberal arts college in Poughkeepsie, New York. Founded in 1905, Marist was formed by the Marist Brothers, a Catholic religious institute of Brothers, to prepare brothers for their vocations as educators. In 1929, Marist became accredited by the state to offer a wider range of degrees in the arts and sciences and is considered as a Little Ivie. Today, Marist offers a comprehensive liberal arts education, offering 56 undergraduate and graduate degree programs and 21 certificate programs. Marist's 180-acre main campus is situated along its east banks. Marist has a branch campus in Florence and maintains study sites in 26 countries. A member of the NCAA's Division I, Marist sponsors 23 collegiate sports; the Marist Brothers, a Catholic society founded in France by Saint Marcellin Champagnat in 1816, focused on educational work throughout the world. In 1905, members of the order arrived in the Mid-Hudson Valley to establish the first Marist house of studies in the United States.
On the east bank of the Hudson River, just north of Poughkeepsie, they purchased property and a house from Thomas McPherson. They named the building and property "Saint Ann's Hermitage", in memory of Champagnat's Hermitage in France, began training young men for a life of "study, work and service". In 1908, the Brothers purchased the Edward Bech estate to enable the Hermitage to expand, increasing the size of their property to 150 acres. By 1929, the training center at the Hermitage had evolved into the Marist Normal Training School, offering college-level courses under the auspices of Fordham University; the charter for the Marist Normal Training School was obtained by Brother Leo Brouilette. In 1946, the State of New York granted the institution an official four-year college charter under the name "Marian College", led by Brother Paul Ambrose Fontaine, FMS. Marian College continued the mission of training Marist Brothers as teachers of the congregation's schools. From 1947 to 1957, the Brothers began working on the weekends, during summers, in their spare time to build a gymnasium, Our Lady Seat of Wisdom Chapel, Adrian Hall, a residence for the student Brothers.
The Marist College Library was housed on the top floor of Greystone in 1928. In 1945, reference and work areas took over the second floor as well, in 1949, the library claimed Greystone's lowest level; the library remained in Greystone for 35 years. In 1958, Marist Brother Linus Richard Foy took charge of the college. At 28, he was the youngest college president in the United States. Two years Marian College became Marist College and the mission of the college broadened to include the wider community. An evening division was introduced to serve the educational needs of the surrounding communities. Sheahan Hall, the first residence hall, opened in 1962, it was named for Monsignor J. F. Sheahan without whom the Marist Brothers might not have been able to purchase the Bech Estate that now comprises the entire south campus area, it was followed by Leo Hall in 1963 and Champagnat Hall in 1965. They were named for Saint Marcellin Champagnat respectively. Donnelly Hall, a dormitory at the time, was built in 1962 by the brothers themselves.
Women were admitted to the evening division classes in 1966 to the day classes in 1968. Marist's president, Brother Linus Foy, resigned from the Marist Brothers around this time but continued serving as president. Benoit House and Gregory House were erected in 1968 as a residence for the Marist Brothers living on campus. Benoit House honored the memory of Brother Francis Xavier Benoit who taught at Marist for nineteen years, while serving as Director of Construction for the Marist Brothers. Gregory House was named in memory of Brother Joseph Gregory Marchessault, chairman of the Physics Department at Marist at the time of his death in 1969. Benoit and Gregory Houses became African American and Free University centers during the sixties and seventies, they functioned as residences before being removed to make way for the Hancock Technology Center in 2009. In 1969, due to the institution's rapid expansion and laws regulating federal aid to religiously affiliated educational institutions in New York State, ownership of the College was transferred from the Marist Brothers to the Marist College Educational Corporation with an independent, predominantly lay board of trustees.
In the 1970s, programs for the educationally disadvantaged were expanded, a computer center was added, graduate programs in business administration and community psychology were instituted, the James J. McCann Recreation Center was completed. In 1973, President Foy began a cooperative program with area secondary schools, in which selected high school seniors would take freshman courses and "bridge" into college. In fall 1974, the college expanded its commitment to continuing education by increasing course offerings in the evening division and summer session and in 1984, opened an off-campus extension center in Fishkill; the burgeoning library known as The Spellman Library, was moved from Greystone to Donnelly Hall, in the area now occupied by the Computer Center and DN256, in 1963. Space constraints required moving the library again to Fontaine Hall in 1975. On February 18