The Great Lakes called the Laurentian Great Lakes and the Great Lakes of North America, are a series of interconnected freshwater lakes in the upper mid-east region of North America, on the Canada–United States border, which connect to the Atlantic Ocean through the Saint Lawrence River. They consist of Lakes Superior, Huron and Ontario, although hydrologically, there are four lakes, Erie and Michigan-Huron; the connected lakes form the Great Lakes Waterway. The Great Lakes are the largest group of freshwater lakes on Earth by total area, second-largest by total volume, containing 21% of the world's surface fresh water by volume; the total surface is 94,250 square miles, the total volume is 5,439 cubic miles less than the volume of Lake Baikal. Due to their sea-like characteristics the five Great Lakes have long been referred to as inland seas. Lake Superior is the second largest lake in the world by area, the largest freshwater lake by area. Lake Michigan is the largest lake, within one country.
The Great Lakes began to form at the end of the last glacial period around 14,000 years ago, as retreating ice sheets exposed the basins they had carved into the land which filled with meltwater. The lakes have been a major source for transportation, migration and fishing, serving as a habitat to a large number of aquatic species in a region with much biodiversity; the surrounding region is called the Great Lakes region. Though the five lakes lie in separate basins, they form a single interconnected body of fresh water, within the Great Lakes Basin, they form a chain connecting the east-central interior of North America to the Atlantic Ocean. From the interior to the outlet at the Saint Lawrence River, water flows from Superior to Huron and Michigan, southward to Erie, northward to Lake Ontario; the lakes drain a large watershed via many rivers, are studded with 35,000 islands. There are several thousand smaller lakes called "inland lakes," within the basin; the surface area of the five primary lakes combined is equal to the size of the United Kingdom, while the surface area of the entire basin is about the size of the UK and France combined.
Lake Michigan is the only one of the Great Lakes, within the United States. The lakes are divided among the jurisdictions of the Canadian province of Ontario and the U. S. states of Michigan, Minnesota, Indiana, Ohio and New York. Both Ontario and Michigan include in their boundaries portions of four of the lakes: Ontario does not border Lake Michigan, Michigan does not border Lake Ontario. New York and Wisconsin's jurisdictions extend into two lakes, each of the remaining states into one of the lakes; as the surfaces of Lakes Superior, Huron and Erie are all the same elevation above sea level, while Lake Ontario is lower, because the Niagara Escarpment precludes all natural navigation, the four upper lakes are called the "upper great lakes". This designation, however, is not universal; those living on the shore of Lake Superior refer to all the other lakes as "the lower lakes", because they are farther south. Sailors of bulk freighters transferring cargoes from Lake Superior and northern Lake Michigan and Lake Huron to ports on Lake Erie or Ontario refer to the latter as the lower lakes and Lakes Michigan and Superior as the upper lakes.
This corresponds to thinking of Lakes Erie and Ontario as "down south" and the others as "up north". Vessels sailing north on Lake Michigan are considered "upbound" though they are sailing toward its effluent current; the Chicago River and Calumet River systems connect the Great Lakes Basin to the Mississippi River System through man-made alterations and canals. The St. Marys River, including the Soo Locks, connects Lake Superior to Lake Huron; the Straits of Mackinac connect Lake Michigan to Lake Huron. The St. Clair River connects Lake Huron to Lake St. Clair; the Detroit River connects Lake St. Clair to Lake Erie; the Niagara River, including Niagara Falls, connects Lake Erie to Lake Ontario. The Welland Canal, bypassing the Falls, connects Lake Erie to Lake Ontario; the Saint Lawrence River and the Saint Lawrence Seaway connect Lake Ontario to the Gulf of St. Lawrence, which connects to the Atlantic Ocean. Lakes Huron and Michigan are sometimes considered a single lake, called Lake Michigan–Huron, because they are one hydrological body of water connected by the Straits of Mackinac.
The straits are 120 feet deep. Lake Nipigon, connected to Lake Superior by the Nipigon River, is surrounded by sill-like formations of mafic and ultramafic igneous rock hundreds of meters high; the lake lies in the Nipigon Embayment, a failed arm of the triple junction in the Midcontinent Rift System event, estimated at 1,109 million years ago. Green Bay is an arm of Lake Michigan, along the south coast of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan and the east coast of Wisconsin, it is separated from the rest of the lake by the Door Peninsula in Wisconsin, the Garden Peninsula in Michigan, the chain of islands between
The Erie Canal is a canal in New York, United States, part of the east–west, cross-state route of the New York State Canal System. It ran 363 miles from where Albany meets the Hudson River to where Buffalo meets Lake Erie, it was built to create a navigable water route from New York City and the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes. When completed in 1825, it was the second longest canal in the world and affected the development and economy of New York, New York City, the United States; the canal was first proposed in the 1780s re-proposed in 1807. A survey was authorized and executed in 1808. Proponents of the project wore down opponents; the canal has 34 numbered locks starting with Black Rock Lock and ending downstream with the Troy Federal Lock. Both are owned by the federal government, it has an elevation difference of about 565 feet. It opened on October 26, 1825. In a time when bulk goods were limited to pack animals, there were no railways, water was the most cost-effective way to ship bulk goods.
The canal was denigrated by its political opponents as "Clinton's Folly" or "Clinton's Big Ditch". It was the first transportation system between the Eastern Seaboard and the western interior of the United States that did not require portage, it was faster than carts pulled by draft animals and cut transport costs by about 95%. The canal gave New York City's port an incomparable advantage over all other U. S. ushered in the state's 19th century political and cultural ascendancy. The canal fostered a population surge in western New York and opened regions farther west to settlement, it was enlarged between 1834 and 1862. The canal's peak year was 1855. In 1918, the western part of the canal was enlarged to become part of the New York State Barge Canal, which extended to the Hudson River running parallel to the eastern half of the Erie Canal. In 2000, the United States Congress designated the Erie Canalway National Heritage Corridor to recognize the national significance of the canal system as the most successful and influential human-built waterway and one of the most important works of civil engineering and construction in North America.
The canal has been used by recreational watercraft since the retirement of the last large commercial ship, Day Peckinpaugh, in 1994. The canal saw a recovery in commercial traffic in 2008. From the first days of the expansion of the British colonies from the coast of North America into the heartland of the continent, a recurring problem was that of transportation between the coastal ports and the interior; this was not unique to the Americas, the problem still exists in those parts of the world where muscle power provides a primary means of transportation within a region. An ancient solution was implemented in many cultures — floating vessels move more than land vehicles since friction becomes less. Close to the seacoast, rivers provided adequate waterways, but the Appalachian Mountains, 400 miles inland, running over 1,500 miles long as a barrier range with just five places where mule trains or wagon roads could be routed, presented a great challenge. Passengers and freight had to travel overland, a journey made more difficult by the rough condition of the roads.
In 1800, it took 2-1/2 weeks to travel overland from New York to Cleveland, Ohio. The principal exportable product of the Ohio Valley was grain, a high-volume, low-priced commodity, bolstered by supplies from the coast, it was not worth the cost of transporting it to far-away population centers. This was a factor leading to farmers in the west turning their grains into whiskey for easier transport and higher sales, the Whiskey Rebellion. In the 18th and early 19th centuries, it became clear to coastal residents that the city or state that succeeded in developing a cheap, reliable route to the West would enjoy economic success, the port at the seaward end of such a route would see business increase greatly. In time, projects were devised in Virginia, Maryland and deep into the coastal states; the successes of the Canal du Midi in France, Bridgewater Canal in Britain, Eider Canal in Denmark spurred on what was called in Britain "canal mania". The idea of a canal to tie the East Coast to the new western settlements was discussed as early as 1724: New York provincial official Cadwallader Colden made a passing reference to improving the natural waterways of western New York.
Gouverneur Morris and Elkanah Watson were early proponents of a canal along the Mohawk River. Their efforts led to the creation of the "Western and Northern Inland Lock Navigation Companies" in 1792, which took the first steps to improve navigation on the Mohawk and construct a canal between the Mohawk and Lake Ontario, but it was soon discovered that private financing was insufficient. Christopher Colles surveyed the Mohawk Valley, made a presentation to the New York state legislature in 1784, proposing a shorter canal from Lake Ontario; the proposal was never implemented. Jesse Hawley had envisioned encouraging the growing of large quantities of grain on the western New York plains for sale on the Eastern seaboard. However, he went bankrupt trying to ship grain to the coast. While in Canandaigua debtors' prison, Hawley began pressing for the construction of a canal along the 90-mile (140 km
Greenport, Suffolk County, New York
Greenport is a village in Suffolk County, New York, United States. It is on the north fork of Long Island; the population was 2,197 at the 2010 census. The village of Greenport is within the town of Southold and is the only incorporated community in the town. Greenport was a major port for its area, having developed a strong fishing and whaling industry in the past, although there are only a handful of commercial fishing vessels operating out of Greenport. More the tourism industry has grown too in the summer. Greenport was first settled in 1682; the village was called Winter Harbor and Green Hill and was incorporated in 1838. Greenport was once a whaling and ship building village, since 1844, has been the eastern terminal station on the north fork for the Long Island Rail Road. During Prohibition, rum running and speakeasies became a significant part of Greenport's economy. Greenport's residents could outrun the coastguard. Restaurants on the east end, including Claudio's in Greenport, served the illegal booze.
Many of the village's older structures are included in the Greenport Village Historic District, added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1986. Village residents voted 617–339 in November 1994 to disband their nine-member police department; the department, established in 1947, was shut down after a grand jury investigation into a series of scandals. Since the shutdown, police services have been provided by the Southold Town Police Department. In 2005, trustees established a local chapter parapolice organization of volunteer vigilantes, Guardian Angels, to patrol the village. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 1.2 square miles, of which, 1.0 square mile of it is land and 0.2 square miles of it is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,048 people, 776 households, 446 families residing in the village; the population density was 2,142.7 people per square mile. There were 1,075 housing units at an average density of 1,124.7 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the village was 76.17% White, 14.26% African American, 0.39% Asian, 0.54% Pacific Islander, 4.74% from other races, 3.91% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 17.24% of the population. There were 776 households out of which 28.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.1% were married couples living together, 16.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 42.5% were non-families. 34.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 3.10. In the village, the population was spread out with 23.2% under the age of 18, 8.7% from 18 to 24, 23.7% from 25 to 44, 21.8% from 45 to 64, 22.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.3 males. The median income for a household in the village was $31,675, the median income for a family was $36,333.
Males had a median income of $36,848 versus $22,165 for females. The per capita income for the village was $17,595. About 21.2% of families and 19.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 33.7% of those under age 18 and 11.7% of those age 65 or over. In 2010, the breakdown was as follows: 53.6% White 34.0% Hispanic 10.0% Black 0.5% Asian 0.1% Native American 0.5% some Other Race 1.5% Two or More Races Greenport is known for its tourism during the summer. It has a locally famous 1920s carousel, located near the waterfront; the village is the home of the East End Seaport Museum & Marine Foundation, which hosts the annual Maritime Festival each September. The museum is housed in the former station house of the Greenport Long Island Rail Road station, while the East end of the Railroad Museum of Long Island is located in the former freight house; the new station is the terminus of the Long Island Rail Road. Most of the tourism stems from maritime activities, as well as proximity to the more than 40 vineyards on the East End of Long Island.
It has many small shops and boutiques, ice cream parlors, bed-and-breakfasts, restaurants ranging from fine-dining to paper-napkin crab shacks. Greenport proves to be the hub of the North Fork foodie culture with many acclaimed restaurants. Lucharito's, Noah's, The Frisky Oyster, The Blue Canoe and First and South all rank among new and acclaimed restaurants on the North Fork in the village, it is the home of the Greenport Farmers' Market, the only multi-vendor cooperative local market on the North Fork. Greenport is home to Andy's, Claudio's Restaurant, Clam Bar and Crabby Jerry's, all three are located on the water and serve less upscale food. Claudio's Restaurant was claimed to be the oldest single family-owned restaurant in the United States before it was sold to new owners in 2018; the Mayor of the Village of Greenport is George Hubbard, Jr., elected in March, 2015. He succeeded Mayor David Nyce, under whom Hubbard served as a Deputy Mayor; the Village is governed by a 5-member board of Trustees, of which the Mayor is the chair and a voting member.
The Mayor and Trustees serve 4-year terms. Village Trustee Jack Martilotta, elected in March, 2015, serves as Deputy Mayor; the other Trustees are Douglas Roberts, Mary Bess Phillips, Julia Robins. The Greenport Union Free School District provides public education for the area; the Old Kindergarten Schoolhouse was Greenport's first schoolhouse. It was located on the North Road and attended by
Commander, Navy Installations Command
Navy Installations Command is an Echelon II shore command responsible for all shore installations under the control of the United States Navy. As an Echelon II command, it reports directly to the Chief of Naval Operations, it is responsible for the operation and management of all Naval installations worldwide through eleven Navy Regions. Prior to the creation of CNIC, all of the Navy's major shore echelon II commanders operated their own installations independent of each other; this led to a hodgepodge of installation operating procedures, when installations operated in close proximity to one another, resulted in sometimes incompatible and large policy differences. Thus, it was the intent of CNIC is to establish a single shore installation management organization that will focus on installation effectiveness and improve the shore installation management community's ability to support the fleet; when it was established October 1, 2003, the stand up of CNIC was an effort in the continuation of fleet and regional shore installation management organizational alignment that began in 1997 with the reduction of installation management claimants from 18 to 8.
CNIC has overall responsibility and authority as the for all installation support programs and is the lead within Navy for installation policy and program execution oversight. CNIC works to coordinate services and across the Naval Enterprises, best provide the installations and programs in their support; these services include installation management and operations, such as port operations, security, land use planning, environmental aspects and real estate, emergency management, as well as fleet support services such as base housing, weapons storage, MWR recreational programs, child care and youth programs. Its mission is summed up as supporting the three'F's: "Fleet and Family." "Fleet" means the operating forces of the Navy. CNIC ensures all installation requirements necessary to train and operate the Fleets are maintained and ready. "Fighter" means the women in the operating forces. CNIC ensures naval installations are able to facilitate the manning and equipping of the Navy's fighting force.
"Family" means the women of the armed forces and their families. To ensure the fighting force is supported on all fronts, CNIC's Family and Community Services and Safety efforts provide the quality of life and services that allow the fighting force to focus on mission accomplishment; each region was a part of one or other United States naval districts from their inception in the early 1900s until their disestablishment in the late 1970s and 1980s. At that point, individual installations were operated independent of any true centralized command structure. In 1998, the Navy embarked on a new era with San Diego leading the way; as the Navy reduced its operational forces, it became essential for the shore establishment supporting those forces to be realigned. As part of the new command structure, each naval installation or supported command now reports to one of eleven regional commanders who are responsible for the operation and management of the installations within their regional jurisdiction.
Each regional commander is a one-star Rear Admiral with the exception of the Commanders of Navy Region Mid-Atlantic, Navy Region Japan and Navy Region EURAFSWA, a two-star Rear Admiral. Navy Region Midwest was disestablished on September 30, 2014 as part of a reorganization of Navy flag billets assets in the wake of the United States budget sequestration in 2013. Headquartered in Great Lakes, Illinois, it included installations in 16 states; these are now split between the Northwest, Mid-Atlantic, Southeast regions. Official website
Buffalo, New York
Buffalo is the second largest city in the U. S. state of New York and the largest city in Western New York. As of 2017, the population was 258,612; the city is the county seat of Erie County and a major gateway for commerce and travel across the Canada–United States border, forming part of the bi-national Buffalo Niagara Region. The Buffalo area was inhabited before the 17th century by the Native American Iroquois tribe and by French settlers; the city grew in the 19th and 20th centuries as a result of immigration, the construction of the Erie Canal and rail transportation, its close proximity to Lake Erie. This growth provided an abundance of fresh water and an ample trade route to the Midwestern United States while grooming its economy for the grain and automobile industries that dominated the city's economy in the 20th century. Since the city's economy relied on manufacturing, deindustrialization in the latter half of the 20th century led to a steady decline in population. While some manufacturing activity remains, Buffalo's economy has transitioned to service industries with a greater emphasis on healthcare and higher education, which emerged following the Great Recession.
Buffalo is on the eastern shore of Lake Erie, at the head of the Niagara River, 16 miles south of Niagara Falls. Its early embrace of electric power led to the nickname "The City of Light"; the city is famous for its urban planning and layout by Joseph Ellicott, an extensive system of parks designed by Frederick Law Olmsted, as well as significant architectural works. Its culture blends Northeastern and Midwestern traditions, with annual festivals including Taste of Buffalo and Allentown Art Festival, two professional sports teams, a music and arts scene; the city of Buffalo received its name from a nearby creek called Buffalo Creek. British military engineer Captain John Montresor made reference to "Buffalo Creek" in his 1764 journal, which may be the earliest recorded appearance of the name. There are several theories regarding. While it is possible its name originated from French fur traders and Native Americans calling the creek Beau Fleuve, it is possible Buffalo Creek was named after the American buffalo, whose historical range may have extended into western New York.
The first inhabitants of the State of New York are believed to have been nomadic Paleo-Indians, who migrated after the disappearance of Pleistocene glaciers during or before 7000 BCE. Around 1000 CE, 1,000 years ago, the Woodland period began, marked by the rise of the Iroquois Confederacy and its tribes throughout the state. During French exploration of the region in 1620, the region was occupied by the agrarian Erie people, a tribe outside of the Five Nations of the Iroquois southwest of Buffalo Creek, the Wenro people or Wenrohronon, an Iroquoian-speaking tribal offshoot of the large Neutral Nation who lived along the inland south shore of Lake Ontario and at the east end of Lake Erie and a bit of its northern shore. For trading, the Neutral people made a living by growing tobacco and hemp to trade with the Iroquois, utilizing animal paths or warpaths to travel and move goods across the state; these paths were paved, now function as major roads. During the Beaver Wars of the 1640s-1650s, the combined warriors of the Five Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy conquered the populous Neutrals and their peninsular territory, while the Senecas alone took out the Wenro and their territory, c.
1651–1653. Soon after, the Erie nation and territory was destroyed by the Iroquois over their assistance to Huron people during the Beaver Wars, it was Louis Hennepin and Sieur de La Salle who made the earliest European discoveries of the upper Niagara and Ontario regions in the late 1600s. On August 7, 1679, La Salle launched a vessel, Le Griffon, that became the first full-sized ship to sail across the Great Lakes disappearing in Green Bay, Wisconsin. After the American Revolution, the colony of New York—now a state—began westward expansion, looking for habitable land by following trends of the Iroquois. Land near fresh water was of considerable importance. New York and Massachusetts were fighting for the territory Buffalo lies on, Massachusetts had the right to purchase all but a one-mile wide portion of land; the rights to the Massachusetts' territories were sold to Robert Morris in 1791, two years to the Holland Land Company. As a result of the war, in which the Iroquois tribe sided with the British Army, Iroquois territory was whittled away in the mid-to-late-1700s by white settlers through successive treaties statewide, such as the Treaty of Fort Stanwix, the First Treaty of Buffalo Creek, the Treaty of Geneseo.
The Iroquois were corralled onto reservations, including Buffalo Creek. By the end of the 18th century, only 338 square miles of reservation territory remained. Early settlers along the mouth of Buffalo Creek were former slave Joseph "Black Joe" Hodges, Cornelius Winney, a Dutch trader from Albany who arrived in 1789; the first white settlers along the creek were prisoners captured during the Revolutionary War. The first resident and landowner of Buffalo with a permanent presence was Captain William Johnston, a white Iroquois interpreter, present in the area since the days after the Revolutionary War and was granted creekside land by the Senecas as a gift of appreciation, his house was built at present-day Seneca streets. On July 20, 1793, the Holland Land Purchase was completed, containing the land of present-day Buffalo, brokered by Dutch investors from Holland; the Treaty of Big Tree removed Iroquois title to lan
The Hudson River is a 315-mile river that flows from north to south through eastern New York in the United States. The river originates in the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York, flows southward through the Hudson Valley to the Upper New York Bay between New York City and Jersey City, it drains into the Atlantic Ocean at New York Harbor. The river serves as a political boundary between the states of New Jersey and New York at its southern end. Further north, it marks local boundaries between several New York counties; the lower half of the river is a tidal estuary, deeper than the body of water into which it flows, occupying the Hudson Fjord, an inlet which formed during the most recent period of North American glaciation, estimated at 26,000 to 13,300 years ago. Tidal waters influence the Hudson's flow from as far north as the city of Troy; the river is named after Henry Hudson, an Englishman sailing for the Dutch East India Company, who explored it in 1609, after whom Hudson Bay in Canada is named.
It had been observed by Italian explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano sailing for King Francis I of France in 1524, as he became the first European known to have entered the Upper New York Bay, but he considered the river to be an estuary. The Dutch called the river the North River – with the Delaware River called the South River – and it formed the spine of the Dutch colony of New Netherland. Settlements of the colony clustered around the Hudson, its strategic importance as the gateway to the American interior led to years of competition between the English and the Dutch over control of the river and colony. During the eighteenth century, the river valley and its inhabitants were the subject and inspiration of Washington Irving, the first internationally acclaimed American author. In the nineteenth century, the area inspired the Hudson River School of landscape painting, an American pastoral style, as well as the concepts of environmentalism and wilderness; the Hudson was the eastern outlet for the Erie Canal, when completed in 1825, became an important transportation artery for the early-19th-century United States.
The source of the Hudson River is Lake Tear of the Clouds in the Adirondack Park at an altitude of 4,322 feet. However, the river is not cartographically called the Hudson River until miles downstream; the river is named Feldspar Brook until its confluence with Calamity Brook, is named Calamity Brook until the river reaches Indian Pass Brook, flowing south from the outlet of Henderson Lake. From that point on, the stream is cartographically known as the Hudson River; the U. S. Geological Survey uses this cartographical definition; the longest source of the Hudson River as shown on the most detailed USGS maps is the "Opalescent River" on the west slopes of Little Marcy Mountain, originating two miles north of Lake Tear of the Clouds, several miles, past the Flowed Lands, to the Hudson River. And a mile longer than "Feldspar Brook", which flows out of that lake in the Adirondack Mountains. Popular culture and convention, more cite the photogenic Lake Tear of the Clouds as the source. Using river names as seen on maps, Indian Pass Brook flows into Henderson Lake, the outlet from Henderson Lake flows east and meets the southwest flowing Calamity Brook.
The confluence of the two rivers is. South of the outlet of Sanford Lake, the Opalescent River flows into the Hudson; the Hudson flows south, taking in Beaver Brook and the outlet of Lake Harris. After its confluence with the Indian River, the Hudson forms the boundary between Essex and Hamilton counties. In the hamlet of North River, the Hudson flows in Warren County and takes in the Schroon River. Further south, the river forms the boundary between Saratoga Counties; the river takes in the Sacandaga River from the Great Sacandaga Lake. Shortly thereafter, the river leaves the Adirondack Park, flows under Interstate 87, through Glens Falls, just south of Lake George although receiving no streamflow from the lake, it next goes through Hudson Falls. At this point the river forms the boundary between Saratoga Counties. Here the river has an elevation of 200 feet. Just south in Fort Edward, the river reaches its confluence with the Champlain Canal, which provided boat traffic between New York City and Montreal and the rest of Eastern Canada via the Hudson, Lake Champlain and the Saint Lawrence Seaway.
Further south the Hudson takes in water from the Batten Kill River and Fish Creek near Schuylerville. The river forms the boundary between Saratoga and Rensselaer counties; the river enters the heart of the Capital District. It takes in water from the Hoosic River. Shortly thereafter the river has its confluence with the Mohawk River, the largest tributary of the Hudson River, in Waterford; the river reaches the Federal Dam in Troy, marking an impoundment of the river. At an elevation of 2 feet, the bottom of the dam marks the beginning of the tidal influence in the Hudson as well as the beginning of the lower Hudson River. South of the Federal Dam, the Hudson River begins to widen considerably; the river enters the Hudson Valley, flowing along the west bank of Albany and the east bank of Rensselaer. Interstate 90 crosses the Hudson into Albany at this point in the river; the Hudson leaves the Capital District, forming the boundary between Greene and Columbia Counties. It meets its confluence with Schodack Creek, widening at this point.
After flowing by Hudson, the river forms the boundary between Ulster and Columbia Counties and Ulster and Dutchess Counties, passing Germantown and Kingston. The Delaware and Hudson Canal meets the river at t
QF 1-pounder pom-pom
The QF 1 pounder, universally known as the pom-pom due to the sound of its discharge, was a 37 mm British autocannon, the first of its type in the world. It was used by several countries as an infantry gun and as a light anti-aircraft gun. Hiram Maxim designed the Pom-Pom in the late 1880s as an enlarged version of the Maxim machine gun, its longer range necessitated exploding projectiles to judge range, which in turn dictated a shell weight of at least 400 grams, as, the lightest exploding shell allowed under the St. Petersburg Declaration of 1868 and reaffirmed in the Hague Convention of 1899. Early versions were sold under the Maxim-Nordenfelt label, whereas versions in British service were labelled Vickers and Maxim as Vickers had bought out Maxim-Nordenfelt in 1897, they are all the same gun. The Belgian Army used the gun on a high-angle field carriage mounting. A version was produced in Germany for both Army. In World War I, it was used in Europe as an anti-aircraft gun as the Maxim Flak M14.
Four guns were used mounted on field carriages in the German campaign in South West Africa in 1915, against South African forces. The British government rejected the gun but other countries bought it, including the South African Republic government. In the Second Boer War, the British found themselves being fired on with success by the Boers with their 37 mm Maxim-Nordenfelt versions using ammunition made in Germany. In response, Vickers-Maxim of Britain shipped either 57 or 50 guns out to the British Army in South Africa, with the first three arriving in time for the Battle of Paardeberg of February 1900; these early Mk I versions were mounted on typical field gun type carriages. In World War I, it was used as an early anti-aircraft gun in the home defence of Britain, it was adapted as the Mk I*** and Mk II on high-angle pedestal mountings and deployed along London docks and on rooftops on key buildings in London, others on mobile motor lorries at key towns in the East and Southeast of England.
25 were employed in August 1914, 50 in February 1916. A Mk II gun on a Naval pedestal mounting was the first to open fire in defence of London during the war. However, the shell was too small to damage the German Zeppelin airships sufficiently to bring them down; the Ministry of Munitions noted in 1922: "The pom-poms were of little value. There was no shrapnel available for them, the shell provided for them would not burst on aeroplane fabric but fell back to earth as solid projectiles... were of no use except at a much lower elevation than a Zeppelin attacking London was to keep". Lieutenant O. F. J. Hogg of No. 2 AA Section in III Corps was the first anti-aircraft gunner to shoot down an aircraft, with 75 rounds on 23 September 1914 in France. The British Army did not employ it as an infantry weapon in World War I, as its shell was considered too small for use against any objects or fortifications and British doctrine relied on shrapnel fired by QF 13 pounder and 18-pounder field guns as its primary medium range anti-personnel weapon.
The gun was experimentally mounted on aircraft as the lighter 1-pounder Mk III, the cancelled Vickers E. F. B.7 having been designed to carry it in its nose. As a light anti-aircraft gun, it was replaced by the larger QF 1½ pounder and QF 2 pounder naval guns; the British are reported to have used some Common pointed shells in the Boer War, in addition to the standard Common shell. However, the common pointed shell proved unsatisfactory, with the base fuse working loose and falling out during flight. In 1914, the cast-iron common shell and tracer were the only available rounds; the U. S. Navy adopted the Maxim-Nordenfelt 37 mm 1 pounder as the 1-pounder Mark 6 before the 1898 Spanish–American War; the Mark 7, 9, 14, 15 weapons were similar. It was the first dedicated anti-aircraft gun adopted by the US Navy, specified as such on the Sampson-class destroyers launched in 1916-17, it was deployed on various types of ships during the US participation in World War I, although it was replaced as the standard AA gun on new destroyers by the 3 inch /23 caliber gun.
With the advent of the steel-hulled "New Navy" in 1884, some ships were equipped with the 1-pounder Hotchkiss revolving cannon. In the aftermath of the Battle of Blair Mountain, the United States Army deployed artillery, including pompoms: "Their armament was strengthened with a howitzer and two pompoms."Rapid-firing 1-pounders were used, including the Sponsell gun and eight other marks. Designs included Driggs-Schroeder. A semi-automatic weapon and a line throwing version were adopted. Semi-automatic in this case meant a weapon in which the breech was opened and cartridge ejected automatically after firing, ready for manual loading of the next round, it is difficult to determine from references whether "1-pounder RF" refers to single-shot, revolving cannon, or Maxim-Nordenfelt weapons. A gun from 1903 at the Imperial War Museum London. Two German-manufactured 1903 guns used during World War I are on display at the South African National Museum of Military History, Johannesburg. Nr. 542 and 543 from the Deutsche Waffen und Munitions Fabriken.
A German-manufactured gun in the Wehrtechnische Studiensammlung Koblenz, Germany. A gun in Bridgton, Maine. An early Maxim-Nordenfelt gun, no. 2024, is on display the American Heritage Museum in Stow, Massachusetts. A gun in the Canadian War Museum. A gun in the Museo Naval y Chile. A gun at the War Museum in Newport News, Va still o