Majuro is the capital and largest city of the Marshall Islands. It is a large coral atoll of 64 islands in the Pacific Ocean, it forms a legislative district of the Ratak Chain of the Marshall Islands. The atoll encloses a lagoon of 295 square kilometres; as with other atolls in the Marshall Islands, Majuro consists of narrow land masses. The main population center, Delap-Uliga-Djarrit, is made up of three contiguous motus and has a population of 20,301 people as of 2012. Majuro has a port, shopping district, an international airport. At the western end of the atoll, about 50 kilometres from D–U–D by road, is the island community of Laura, an expanding residential area with a popular beach. Laura has the highest elevation point on the atoll, estimated at less than 3 metres above sea level. Djarrit is residential. Being north of the Equator, Majuro has a tropical rainforest climate but not an equatorial climate because trade winds are prevailing throughout the year though they are interrupted during the summer months by the movement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone across the area.
Typhoons are rare. Temperatures are consistent throughout the course of the year with average temperatures around 27 °C. Does the temperature fall below 21 °C. Majuro sees 3,200 millimetres of precipitation annually. Humans have inhabited the atoll for at least 2,000 years. Majuro Atoll was claimed by the German Empire with the rest of the Marshall Islands in 1884, the Germans established a trading post; as with the rest of the Marshalls, Majuro was captured by the Imperial Japanese Navy in 1914 during World War I and mandated to the Empire of Japan by the League of Nations in 1920. The island became a part of the Japanese mandated territory of Nanyo. On January 30, 1944, United States troops invaded, but found that Japanese forces had evacuated their fortifications to Kwajalein and Enewetak about a year earlier. A single Japanese warrant officer had been left as a caretaker. With his capture, the islands were secured; this gave the U. S. Navy use of one of the largest anchorages in the Central Pacific.
The lagoon became a large forward naval base of operations and was the largest and most active port in the world until the war moved westward when it was supplanted by Ulithi. Following World War II, Majuro came under the control of the United States as part of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, it supplanted Jaluit Atoll as the administrative center of the Marshall Islands, a status that it retains after the independence of the Marshall Islands in 1986. The major population centers are the D–U–D communities: the islets of Delap–Uliga–Djarrit; as of 2011, Majuro had a population of 27,797. Most of the population is Christian; the majority follows the United Church of Christ. The Cathedral of the Assumption of the Roman Catholic Apostolic Prefecture of the Marshall Islands is located in Majuro. Islamic influence has been increasing. There is a sizable number of Ahmadi Muslims; the first mosque opened in Majuro in September 2012. There are LDS churches, Baptist churches, Seventh-Day Adventist churches, the Salvation Army.
Majuro's economy is driven by the service sector. On September 15, 2007, Witon Barry, of the Tobolar Copra processing plant in the Marshall Islands' capital of Majuro, said power authorities, private companies and entrepreneurs had been experimenting with coconut oil as an alternative to diesel fuel for vehicles, power generators and ships. Coconut trees abound in the Pacific's tropical islands. Copra from 6 to 10 coconuts makes 1 litre of oil. Air Marshall Islands has its headquarters in Majuro; the College of the Marshall Islands is located in Uliga. The University of South Pacific has a presence on Majuro. Marshall Islands Public School System operates public schools. High schools: The Marshall Islands High School is near the north end of Majuro. Laura High School Life Skills AcademyPrimary schools: Ajeltake Elementary School Delap Elementary School DUD Kindergarten Ejit Elementary School Laura Elementary School Long Island Elementary School Majuro Middle School Rairok Elementary School Rita Elementary School Uliga Elementary School Woja Maj.
Elementary SchoolIn the 1994-1995 school year Majuro had 10 private elementary schools and six private high schools. There is a Seventh Day Adventist High School and Elementary School in Delap, where English is taught to all students. There is a Seventh Day Adventist Elementary school in Laura. Majuro Hospital has 81 beds, it is the main hospital for Majuro, as well as many of the outer islands. The Majuro Water and Sewer Company obtains water from a catchment basin on the International Airport runway, it supplies 14 US gallons per person per day. This compares with New York City's 118 US gallons per person per day. Water is supplied 12 hours daily; the threat of drought is commonplace. Marshall Islands International Airport, offering domestic and international services, is on Majuro Atoll, it is served by four passenger airlines: United Airlines, Nauru Airlines, Air Marshall Islands, Asia Pacific Airlines. Air Marshall Islands flies to most of the Marshalls' inhabited atolls once a week, it offers daily service between Majuro and Kwajalein except Thur
Fast Carrier Task Force
The Fast Carrier Task Force was the main striking force of the United States Navy in the Pacific War from January 1944 through the end of the war in August 1945. The task force was made up of several separate task groups, each built around three to four aircraft carriers and their supporting vessels; the support vessels were screening destroyers and the newly built fast battleships. With the arrival of the fleet carriers the primary striking power of the navy was no longer in its battleship force, but with the aircraft that could be brought to battle by the carriers; the means by which the US Navy operated these carriers was developed principally by Admiral Marc Mitscher. Mitscher determined that the best defense for a carrier was its own air groups, that carriers were more defended if they operated together in groups, with supporting ships along with them to aid in air defense, anti-submarine defense, rescue of downed airmen. Said Mitscher: "The ideal composition of a fast-carrier task force is four carriers, six to eight support vessels and not less than 18 destroyers, preferably 24.
More than four carriers in a task group cannot be advantageously used due to the amount of air room required. Less than four carriers requires an uneconomical use of support ships and screening vessels."The ships of each task group sailed in a circle formation centered on the carriers. The supporting ships sailed close by, added their anti-aircraft fire to that of the carriers to help ward off attacking aircraft; when under attack by torpedo aircraft, the task group would turn toward the oncoming aircraft to limit attack angles. Other than this measure, the carriers in the task group would not take evasive action from their attackers; this was in marked contrast with the Imperial Japanese Navy, but the choice made for more stable platforms for the anti-aircraft fire of all the ships in the task group and allowed the ships in the group to sail more together. The primary defense of the group against air attack was the group's own fighter cover; the individual responsible for the development and operations of the task force was Admiral Marc Mitscher.
The overall command of the task force alternated between two different admirals: Raymond Spruance and William "Bull" Halsey. Halsey was aggressive and a risk taker. Spruance was cautious. Most higher-ranking officers preferred to serve under Spruance, their commander was Admiral Chester Nimitz. When the force was part of Admiral Spruance's Fifth Fleet, the carrier task force was commanded by Mitscher and bore the designation Task Force 58; when led by Admiral William Halsey as part of the Third Fleet, the carrier force was commanded by Vice Admiral John S. McCain, Sr. and its designation was Task Force 38. Planning for upcoming operations was completed when each admiral and his staff rotated out of active command; this allowed the Navy to perform at a higher operational tempo, while giving the Japanese the general impression of naval assets greater than what were available. The Fast Carrier Task Force took part in all the US Navy's battles in the Pacific during the last two years of the war; the task groups could combine with the others as needs dictated.
Raids against island strong points such as Iwo Jima or Chichi Jima might be undertaken by one or two task groups, but when a major operation was underway the task force would concentrate all four groups together. Each group would remain distinct but operate in close proximity to the other groups to provide the task force with maximum protection and maximum striking power; the Fast Carrier Task Force worked in conjunction with the other two major components of the Pacific Fleet: the Amphibious Force, much larger overall and which carried and provided direct support to the Marine forces, the Service Squadrons of hundreds of support vessels which resupplied and maintained the fleet. The fleet and task group designation changed; when under the umbrella of Fifth Fleet, the invasion force was called the Fifth Amphibious Force. When Halsey had command of the fleet, Third Amphibious Force was the designation. By the time of the Battle of Iwo Jima in early 1945, the Task Force included eighteen aircraft carriers, eight battleships and two battlecruisers, along with numerous cruisers and destroyers.
TF 58 alone commanded more firepower than any navy in history. TF 38 came into existence in August 1943, built around USS Saratoga, under the command of Rear Admiral Frederick C. Sherman. TF 58 was created on 6 January 1944 with Rear Admiral Marc Mitscher commanding, serving under the fleet command of Admiral Spruance in the Fifth Fleet. TF 38 continued to as a command structure only. With command change from Spruance to Halsey on 26 August 1944, all units changed designations again. Mitscher, an aviator from early training and had a masterful command of the airgroups, requested that he retain command of the Fast Carrier Task Force until his replacement, Admiral John McCain, could have proper time to become more familiar with the handling of a carrier task force. King and Nimitz concurred. Admiral Halsey, like Spruance before him, sailed with the Fast Carrier Task Force; the force grew to eight CVLs in preparation for the landings on Leyte. Task Force 38 was composed of four task groups: Task Group 38.1 was commanded by Admiral McCain, with its previous commander, Admiral Joseph "Jocko" Clark, remaining on as advisor, Task Group 38.2 was under the command of Admiral Gerald Bogan, Task Group 38.3 was led by Admiral Frederick Sherman, Task Group 38.4 was under the command of Admiral Ralph Davison.
Following the Battle of Leyte Gulf, Mitscher went
Greece the Hellenic Republic, self-identified and known as Hellas, is a country located in Southern and Southeast Europe, with a population of 11 million as of 2016. Athens is largest city, followed by Thessaloniki. Greece is located at the crossroads of Europe and Africa. Situated on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula, it shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, North Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, Turkey to the northeast; the Aegean Sea lies to the east of the mainland, the Ionian Sea to the west, the Cretan Sea and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Greece has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean Basin and the 11th longest coastline in the world at 13,676 km in length, featuring a large number of islands, of which 227 are inhabited. Eighty percent of Greece is mountainous, with Mount Olympus being the highest peak at 2,918 metres; the country consists of nine geographic regions: Macedonia, Central Greece, the Peloponnese, Epirus, the Aegean Islands, Thrace and the Ionian Islands.
Greece is considered the cradle of Western civilisation, being the birthplace of democracy, Western philosophy, Western literature, political science, major scientific and mathematical principles, Western drama and notably the Olympic Games. From the eighth century BC, the Greeks were organised into various independent city-states, known as poleis, which spanned the entire Mediterranean region and the Black Sea. Philip of Macedon united most of the Greek mainland in the fourth century BC, with his son Alexander the Great conquering much of the ancient world, from the eastern Mediterranean to India. Greece was annexed by Rome in the second century BC, becoming an integral part of the Roman Empire and its successor, the Byzantine Empire, in which Greek language and culture were dominant. Rooted in the first century A. D. the Greek Orthodox Church helped shape modern Greek identity and transmitted Greek traditions to the wider Orthodox World. Falling under Ottoman dominion in the mid-15th century, the modern nation state of Greece emerged in 1830 following a war of independence.
Greece's rich historical legacy is reflected by its 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The sovereign state of Greece is a unitary parliamentary republic and developed country with an advanced high-income economy, a high quality of life, a high standard of living. A founding member of the United Nations, Greece was the tenth member to join the European Communities and has been part of the Eurozone since 2001, it is a member of numerous other international institutions, including the Council of Europe, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie. Greece's unique cultural heritage, large tourism industry, prominent shipping sector and geostrategic importance classify it as a middle power, it is the largest economy in the Balkans. The names for the nation of Greece and the Greek people differ from the names used in other languages and cultures.
The Greek name of the country is Hellas or Ellada, its official name is the Hellenic Republic. In English, the country is called Greece, which comes from Latin Graecia and means'the land of the Greeks'; the earliest evidence of the presence of human ancestors in the southern Balkans, dated to 270,000 BC, is to be found in the Petralona cave, in the Greek province of Macedonia. All three stages of the stone age are represented for example in the Franchthi Cave. Neolithic settlements in Greece, dating from the 7th millennium BC, are the oldest in Europe by several centuries, as Greece lies on the route via which farming spread from the Near East to Europe. Greece is home to the first advanced civilizations in Europe and is considered the birthplace of Western civilisation, beginning with the Cycladic civilization on the islands of the Aegean Sea at around 3200 BC, the Minoan civilization in Crete, the Mycenaean civilization on the mainland; these civilizations possessed writing, the Minoans writing in an undeciphered script known as Linear A, the Mycenaeans in Linear B, an early form of Greek.
The Mycenaeans absorbed the Minoans, but collapsed violently around 1200 BC, during a time of regional upheaval known as the Bronze Age collapse. This ushered from which written records are absent. Though the unearthed Linear B texts are too fragmentary for the reconstruction of the political landscape and can't support the existence of a larger state contemporary Hittite and Egyptian records suggest the presence of a single state under a "Great King" based in mainland Greece; the end of the Dark Ages is traditionally dated to the year of the first Olympic Games. The Iliad and the Odyssey, the foundational texts of Western literature, are believed to have been composed by Homer in the 7th or 8th centuries BC. With the end of the Dark Ages, there emerged various kingdoms and city-states across the Greek peninsula, which spread to the shores of the Black Sea, So
New Guinea is a large island separated by a shallow sea from the rest of the Australian continent. It is the world's third-largest island, after Australia and Greenland, covering a land area of 785,753 km2, arguably the largest wholly or within the Southern Hemisphere and Oceania; the eastern half of the island is the major land mass of the independent state of Papua New Guinea. The western half, referred to as either Western New Guinea or West Papua, has been administered by Indonesia since 1963 and comprises the provinces of Papua and West Papua; the island has been known by various names: The name Papua was used to refer to parts of the island before contact with the West. Its etymology is unclear; the name came from papo and ua, which means "not united" or, "territory that geographically is far away". Ploeg reports that the word papua is said to derive from the Malay word papua or pua-pua, meaning "frizzly-haired", referring to the curly hair of the inhabitants of these areas. Another possibility, put forward by Sollewijn Gelpke in 1993, is that it comes from the Biak phrase sup i papwa which means'the land below' and refers to the islands west of the Bird's Head, as far as Halmahera.
Whatever its origin, the name Papua came to be associated with this area, more with Halmahera, known to the Portuguese by this name during the era of their colonization in this part of the world. When the Portuguese and Spanish explorers arrived in the island via the Spice Islands, they referred to the island as Papua. However, the name New Guinea was used by Westerners starting with the Spanish explorer Yñigo Ortiz de Retez in 1545, referring to the similarities of the indigenous people's appearance with the natives of the Guinea region of Africa; the name is one of several toponyms sharing similar etymologies meaning "land of the blacks" or similar meanings, in reference to the dark skin of the inhabitants. The Dutch, who arrived under Jacob Le Maire and Willem Schouten, called it Schouten island, but this name was used only to refer to islands off the north coast of Papua proper, the Schouten Islands or Biak Island; when the Dutch colonized it as part of Netherlands East Indies, they called it Nieuw Guinea.
The name Irian was used in the Indonesian language to refer to the island and Indonesian province, as "Irian Jaya Province". The name was promoted in 1945 by brother of the future governor Frans Kaisiepo, it is taken from the Biak language of Biak Island, means "to rise", or "rising spirit". Irian is the name used in the Biak language and other languages such as Serui and Waropen; the name was used until 2001, when the name Papua was again used for the province. The name Irian, favored by natives, is now considered to be a name imposed by the authority of Jakarta. New Guinea is an island to the north of the Australian mainland, but south of the equator, it is isolated by the Arafura Sea to the west, the Torres Strait and Coral Sea to the east. Sometimes considered to be the easternmost island of the Indonesian archipelago, it lies north of Australia's Top End, the Gulf of Carpentaria and Cape York peninsula, west of the Bismarck Archipelago and the Solomon Islands Archipelago. Politically, the western half of the island comprises two provinces of Indonesia: Papua and West Papua.
The eastern half forms the mainland of the country of Papua New Guinea. The shape of New Guinea is compared to that of a bird-of-paradise, this results in the usual names for the two extremes of the island: the Bird's Head Peninsula in the northwest, the Bird's Tail Peninsula in the southeast. A spine of east–west mountains, the New Guinea Highlands, dominates the geography of New Guinea, stretching over 1,600 km from the'head' to the'tail' of the island, with many high mountains over 4,000 m; the western-half of the island of New Guinea contains the highest mountains in Oceania, rising up to 4,884 m high, higher than Mont Blanc in Europe, ensuring a steady supply of rain from the equatorial atmosphere. The tree line is around 4,000 m elevation and the tallest peaks contain permanent equatorial glaciers—which have been retreating since at least 1936. Various other smaller mountain ranges occur both west of the central ranges. Except in high elevations, most areas possess a warm humid climate throughout the year, with some seasonal variation associated with the northeast monsoon season.
The highest peaks on the island of New Guinea are: Puncak Jaya, sometimes known by its former Dutch name Carstensz Pyramid, is a mist-covered limestone mountain peak on the Indonesian side of the border. At 4,884 metres, Puncak Jaya makes New Guinea the world's fourth-highest landmass after Afro-Eurasia and Antarctica. Puncak Mandala located in Papua, is the second-highest peak on the island at 4,760 metres. Puncak Trikora in Papua, is 4,750 metres. Mount Wilhelm is the highest peak on the PNG side of the border at 4,509 metres, its granite peak is the highest point of the Bismarck Range. Mount Giluwe 4,368 metres is the second-highest summit in PNG, it is the highest volcanic peak in Oceania. Another major habitat featur
A radar picket is a radar-equipped station, submarine, aircraft, or vehicle used to increase the radar detection range around a force to protect it from surprise attack air attack. Radar picket vessels may be equipped to direct friendly fighters to intercept the enemy. In British terminology the radar picket function is called aircraft direction. Several detached radar units encircle a force to provide increased cover in all directions. Airborne radar pickets are referred to as airborne early warning. Radar picket ships first came into being in the US Navy during World War II to aid in the Allied advance to Japan; the number of radar pickets was increased after the first major employment of kamikaze aircraft by the Japanese in the Battle of Leyte Gulf in October 1944. Fletcher- and Sumner-class destroyers were pressed into service with few modifications at first. Additional radars and fighter direction equipment were fitted, along with more light anti-aircraft guns for self-defense sacrificing torpedo tubes to make room for the new equipment the large height-finding radars of the era.
Deploying some distance from the force to be protected along directions of attack, radar pickets were the nearest ships to the Japanese airfields. Thus, they were the first vessels seen by incoming waves of kamikazes, were heavily attacked; the radar picket system saw its ultimate development in World War II in the Battle of Okinawa. A ring of 15 radar picket stations was established around Okinawa to cover all possible approaches to the island and the attacking fleet. A typical picket station had one or two destroyers supported by two landing ships landing craft support or landing ship medium, for additional AA firepower; the number of destroyers and supporting ships were doubled at the most threatened stations, combat air patrols were provided as well. In early 1945, 26 new construction Gearing-class destroyers were ordered as radar pickets without torpedo tubes, to allow for extra radar and AA equipment, but only some of these were ready in time to serve off Okinawa. Seven destroyer escorts were completed as radar pickets.
The radar picket mission was vital, but it was costly to the ships performing it. Out of 101 destroyers assigned to radar picket stations, 10 were sunk and 32 were damaged by kamikaze attacks; the 88 LCSs assigned to picket stations had two sunk and 11 damaged by kamikazes, while the 11 LSMs had three sunk and two damaged. From 1943 Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine operated several radar-equipped night fighter guide ships, including NJL Togo., equipped with a FuMG A1 Freya radar for early warning and a Würzburg-Riese gun laying radar, plus night fighter communications equipment. From October 1943, the NJL Togo cruised the Baltic Sea under the operational control of the Luftwaffe. In March 1944, after the three great Soviet bombing raids on Helsinki, she arrived in the Gulf of Finland to provide night fighter cover for Tallinn and Helsinki; the Imperial Japanese Navy modified two Ha-101 class submarines as dedicated radar pickets in the first half of 1945, but reconverted them to an more important role as tanker submarines in June of that year.
During the Cold War, the United States Navy expanded the radar picket concept. The wartime radar picket destroyers were retained, additional DDRs, destroyer escorts, submarines were converted and built 1946-1955; the concept was that every carrier group would have radar pickets deployed around it for early warning of the increasing threat of Soviet air-to-surface missile attack. The 26 Gearing-class DDRs were supplemented by nine additional conversions during the early 1950s; the seven wartime DERs were relegated to secondary roles. However, twelve additional DER conversions were performed 1954-58. Ten of these were conversions of diesel-powered DEs, which had a longer at-sea endurance than their steam-powered equivalents; the slow DERs were used in combination with Guardian-class radar picket ships and Lockheed WV-2 Warning Star aircraft to extend the Distant Early Warning line in the North Atlantic and North Pacific, to warn of Soviet bomber attacks. These assets formed two Barrier Forces known as BarLant and BarPac and operated 1955-1965.
The aircraft patrolled lines extending from Argentia, Newfoundland to the Azores in the Atlantic, from Midway to Adak, Alaska in the Pacific. The DERs maintained picket stations near these lines; the Guardian-class backed up the outer barriers with picket stations 400–500 miles from each coast. There were three oil-rig-type offshore radar stations known as "Texas Towers" off the New England coast. While on station, all of these assets were operationally controlled by the Aerospace Defense Command; the high casualties off Okinawa gave rise to the radar picket submarine, which had the option of diving when under attack. It was planned to employ converted radar picket submarines should the invasion of Japan become necessary. Two submarines received rudimentary radar conversions during the war, in 1946 two more extensive conversions were performed; the radar equipment of these diesel submarines took the place of torpedoes and their tubes in the stern torpedo rooms. By 1953, a total of 10 SSR conversions had been performed, with radar suites called Migraine I, II, III, the most extensive conversion adding a 24-foot compartment as an expanded combat information center.
In 1956 two large, purpose-built diesel SSRs, the Sailfish class, were commissioned. These were designed for a high surface speed with the intent of scouting in advance of carrier g
A modern torpedo is a self-propelled weapon with an explosive warhead, launched above or below the water surface, propelled underwater towards a target, designed to detonate either on contact with its target or in proximity to it. It was called an automotive, locomotive or fish torpedo; the term torpedo was employed for a variety of devices, most of which would today be called mines. From about 1900, torpedo has been used to designate an underwater self-propelled weapon. While the battleship had evolved around engagements between armoured ships with large-calibre guns, the torpedo allowed torpedo boats and other lighter surface ships, submersibles ordinary fishing boats or frogmen, aircraft, to destroy large armoured ships without the need of large guns, though sometimes at the risk of being hit by longer-range shellfire. Modern torpedoes can be divided into heavyweight classes, they can be launched from a variety of platforms. The word torpedo comes from the name of a genus of electric rays in the order Torpediniformes, which in turn comes from the Latin "torpere".
In naval usage, the American Robert Fulton introduced the name to refer to a towed gunpowder charge used by his French submarine Nautilus to demonstrate that it could sink warships. The concept of a torpedo existed many centuries before it was successfully developed. In 1275, Hasan al-Rammah described "...an egg which moves itself and burns". In modern language, a'torpedo' is an underwater self-propelled explosive, but the term applied to primitive naval mines; these were used on an ad hoc basis during the early modern period up to the late 19th century. Early spar torpedoes were created by the Dutchman Cornelius Drebbel in the employ of King James I of England. An early submarine, attempted to lay a bomb with a timed fuse on the hull of HMS Eagle during the American Revolutionary War, but failed in the attempt. In the early 1800s, the American inventor Robert Fulton, while in France, "conceived the idea of destroying ships by introducing floating mines under their bottoms in submarine boats".
He coined the term "torpedo" in reference to the explosive charges with which he outfitted his submarine Nautilus. However, both the French and the Dutch governments were uninterested in the submarine. Fulton concentrated on developing the torpedo independent of a submarine deployment. On 15 October 1805, while in England, Fulton put on a public display of his "infernal machine", sinking the brig Dorothea with a submerged bomb filled with 180 lb of gunpowder and a clock set to explode in 18 minutes. However, the British government refused to purchase the invention, stating they did not wish to "introduce into naval warfare a system that would give great advantage to weaker maritime nations". Fulton carried out a similar demonstration for the US government on 20 July 1807, destroying a vessel in New York's harbor. Further development languished as Fulton focused on his "steam-boat matters". During the War of 1812, torpedoes were employed in attempts to destroy British vessels and protect American harbors.
In fact a submarine-deployed torpedo was used in an unsuccessful attempt to destroy HMS Ramillies while in New London's harbor. This prompted the British Captain Hardy to warn the Americans to cease efforts with the use of any "torpedo boat" in this "cruel and unheard-of warfare", or he would "order every house near the shore to be destroyed". Torpedoes were used by the Russian Empire during the Crimean War in 1855 against British warships in the Gulf of Finland, they used an early form of chemical detonator. During the American Civil War, the term torpedo was used for what is today called a contact mine, floating on or below the water surface using an air-filled demijohn or similar flotation device; these devices were primitive and apt to prematurely explode. They would be detonated on contact with the ship or after a set time, although electrical detonators were occasionally used. USS Cairo was the first warship to be sunk in 1862 by an electrically-detonated mine. Spar torpedoes were used; these were used by the Confederate submarine H. L. Hunley to sink USS Housatonic although the weapon was apt to cause as much harm to its user as to its target.
Rear Admiral David Farragut's famous/apocryphal command during the Battle of Mobile Bay in 1864, "Damn the torpedoes, full speed ahead!" Refers to a minefield laid at Alabama. On 26 May 1877, during the Romanian War of Independence, the Romanian spar torpedo boat Rândunica attacked and sank the Ottoman river monitor Seyfi; this was the first instance in history when a torpedo craft sank its targets without sinking. In 1866 British engineer Robert Whitehead invented the first effective self-propelled torpedo, the eponymous Whitehead torpedo. French and German inventions followed and the term torpedo came to describe self-propelled projectiles that traveled under or on water. By 1900, the term no longer included mines and booby-traps as the navies of the world added submarines, torpedo boats and torpedo boat destroyers to their fleets. A prototype self-propelled torpedo was created by a commission placed by Giovanni Luppis, an Austro-Hungarian naval officer from Fiume, a port city of the
Espiritu Santo is the largest island in the nation of Vanuatu, with an area of 3,955.5 km2 and a population of around 40,000 according to the 2009 census. The island belongs to the archipelago of the New Hebrides in the Pacific region of Melanesia, it is in the Sanma Province of Vanuatu. The town of Luganville, on Espiritu Santo's southeast coast, is Vanuatu's second-largest settlement and the provincial capital. Roads run north and west from Luganville, but most of the island is far from the limited road network. Around Espiritu Santo lie a number of small islets. Vanuatu's highest peak is the 1879 metre Mount Tabwemasana in west-central Espiritu Santo. In 1998, Espiritu Santo hosted the Melanesia Cup. A Spanish expedition led by Portuguese explorer Pedro Fernandes de Queirós, established a settlement in 1606 at Big Bay on the north side of the island. Espiritu Santo takes its name from Queirós, who named the entire island group La Austrialia del Espíritu Santo in acknowledgment of the Spanish king's descent from the royal House of Austria, believing he had arrived in the Great Southern Continent, Terra Australis.
During the time of the British–French Condominium, Hog Harbour, on the northeast coast, was the site of the British district administration, while Segond, near Luganville was the French district administration. During World War II after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the island was used by American naval and air forces as a military supply and support base, naval harbor, airfield. In fictionalized form, this was the locale of James Michener's Tales of the South Pacific, of the following Rodgers and Hammerstein musical, South Pacific; the presence of the Americans contributed to the island's tourism in scuba diving, as the Americans dumped most of their used military and naval equipment, their refuse, at what is now known as "Million Dollar Point". A shipwreck off Espiritu Santo, that of the SS President Coolidge, is a popular diving spot; the SS President Coolidge was a converted luxury liner that hit a sea mine during the war and was sunk. Between May and August 1980 the island was the site of a rebellion during the transfer of power over the colonial New Hebrides from the condominium to the independent Vanuatu.
Jimmy Stevens' Nagriamel movement, in alliance with private French interests and backed by the Phoenix Foundation and American libertarians hoping to establish a tax-free haven, declared the island of Espiritu Santo to be independent of the new government. The "Republic of Vemerana" was proclaimed on May 28. France recognized the independence on June 3. On June 5, the tribal chiefs of Santo named the French Ambassador Philippe Allonneau the "King of Vemerana", Jimmy Stevens became the Prime Minister. Luganville is renamed Allonneaupolis. Next, negotiations with Port-Vila failed, from July 27 to August 18, British Royal Marines and a unit of the French Garde Mobile were deployed to the Vanuatu's capital island, but they did not invade Espiritu Santo as the soon-to-be government had hoped; the troops were recalled shortly before independence. Following independence, now governed by Father Walter Lini, requested assistance from Papua New Guinea, whose army invaded and conquered Espiritu Santo, keeping it in Vanuatu.
Espiritu Santo, with many wrecks and reefs to be explored, is a popular tourist destination for divers. Champagne Beach draws tourists with clear waters; the "Western Side" of the island contains many caves which can be explored, cruise ships stop in at Luganville. The local people make their living by supporting the tourist trade, by cash-crop farming copra, but some cocoa beans and kava, as well as peanuts, or by subsistence farming and fishing. Most of the people are Christians; the largest church groups on the island are the Presbyterian Church of Vanuatu, the Roman Catholic Church, the Church of Melanesia. Active are the Apostolic Church, the Church of Christ, the Seventh-day Adventist Church, others. However, in many villages in Big Bay and South Santo, the people are "heathen", a term that in Vanuatu has no pejorative connotation — it denotes someone who has not embraced Christianity. Customary beliefs of a more modern sort are found among followers of the Nagriamel movement based in Fanafo.
For all of Espiritu Santo's people, custom plays a large part in their lives, regardless of their religion. The chief system continues in most areas; the people of Santo face some health problems malaria and tuberculosis. Although there is a hospital, most local people consult either their own witch doctor or medical clinics set up by western missionaries. Kava is the popular drug of the island. With the rising number of adults using alcohol, there is a rising crime rate involving violence toward women, tribal warfare. Luganville is the only true town on the island. From Luganville, three "main roads" emerge. Main Street leaves the town to the west and winds along the south coast of the island for about 40 km ending at the village of Tasiriki on the southwest coast. Canal Road runs along the southern and eastern coasts of the island, north through Hog Harbor and Golden Beach, ending at Port Olry. Big Bay Highway splits off from Canal Road near Turtle Bay on the east coast, runs west to the mountains, it leads north to Big Bay.
The international airport is about five km east of the center of Luganville. Numerous rivers run to the