Jayapura is the capital and largest city of the Indonesian province of Papua. It is situated on Yos Sudarso Bay, it covers an area of 935.92 km2, borders Jayapura Regency to the west, Keerom Regency to the south, the nation of Papua New Guinea to the east, the Pacific Ocean to the north. It had a population of 256,705 at the 2010 Census. Jayapura is the largest city in the Indonesian part of New Guinea, it is served by Sentani Airport, located near Lake Sentani. A highway connects the city to Skow, a small town near the border with Papua New Guinea and continues beyond the border to Vanimo; the government is planning to build a railway from Jayapura to Sarmi. Further plans could connect Jayapura with Sorong; the project is planned for completion by 2030. Jayapura is Sanskrit for "City of Victory" and was named by Suharto as part of the de-Sukarnoization; the last battle against the Dutch was fought in the city in August 1962. Nowadays the Humboldt bay natives know the city as "Port Numbay". Upon these names, the city was known as "Hollandia".
In 1945, the Dutch made Hollandia the capital of Netherlands New Guinea. After the territory was handed over to the United Nations Temporary Executive Authority, on 1 October 1962, the city went by a dual Dutch/Indonesian name: Hollandia/Kota Baru; when Indonesia took control over the city on 1 May 1963, it became Kota Baru. In 1964, the city was renamed Sukarnapura, after then-President Sukarno, until the end of 1968, when it acquired its present name. Before its inclusion into the colonial government of the Dutch Indies, the location of present-day Jayapura was known as Numbay. Before the arrival of the Dutch there was an active trade in Numbay, centered on the Island of Metui Debi and the area where the former Gereja Pengharapan stood, in Sam Ratulangi Road, being most active between 1897 and 1905; the mode of the trade was through barter for spices, salted fish and bird-of-paradise. The society of Numbay was led by an ondoafi. In the 1800s, Numbay maintained relations with the Ternate Sultanate.
On 28 September 1909 a detachment of the Dutch navy under Captain F. J. P. Sachse came ashore at Humboldt Bay near the mouth of the Numbay river, their task was the systematic exploration of northern New Guinea and the search for a natural border between the Dutch and German spheres on New Guinea. Their camp along the river was called Kloofkamp, a name still in use as the name of an ancient district of Jayapura. Forty coconut trees were cut down for the establishment of the camp, they were bought from the owners at a cost of one rijksdaalder per palm. On 7 March 1910, the Dutch flag was raised and the settlement was named Hollandia. On the other side of the bay there was a German camp, Germania-Huk, now uninhabited and part of Indonesian territory. Hollandia was the capital of a district of the same name in the northeast of West New Guinea; the name Hollandia was used until 1962. The northern part of Netherlands New Guinea was occupied by Japanese forces in 1942. Allied forces drove out the Japanese after amphibious landings near Hollandia, from 21 April 1944 including Battle of Hollandia.
The area served as General Douglas MacArthur's headquarters until the conquest of the Philippines in March 1945. Over twenty U. S. bases were established and half a million US personnel moved through the area. Jayapura was struck by the Aitape tsunami after the 1998 Papua New Guinea earthquake; the topography of Jayapura varies from valleys to hills and mountains up to 700 metres above sea level. Jayapura overlooks the Yos Sudarso Bay. Jayapura is about 94,000 hectares in area, is divided into five districts. Around 30% of the area is inhabited, with the remainder consisting of a rough terrain and protected forest; the average temperature is 29–31.8 °C. The city comprises five districts, tabulated below with their populations at the 2010 Census: As the capital of Papua Province with all the development undertaken, Jayapura City becomes a "magnet" for tribes from other regions of Indonesia. Ethnic Javanese, Bugis, Manado, Ambon, Madura and so on, among others ethnicities of the nation that helped increase the population drastically in at least one decade.
In addition to the label "city of Education" has made this city a destination residents from outside the city of Jayapura to find a job and gain knowledge in several institutions in this city. On 12 May 1949, the Apostolic Prefecture of Hollandia was established in the city. In 1963, it was renamed as the Apostolic Vicariate of Kota Baru. In 1964, it was again renamed as the Apostolic Vicariate of Sukarnapura, it was promoted in 1966 as the Diocese of Sukarnapura, renamed in 1969 as the Diocese of Djajapura and since 1973 spelled as Diocese of Jayapura. The highest economic growth of Jayapura city compared to other districts/municipalities in the province of Papua has had implications for the increased income and purchasing power of the people; the economic growth is contributed from the tertiary sector, where trade and services and finance dominate its contribution to the formation of GRDP. The sharp gap/disparity of income, the high rate of poverty and unemployment rate with labor force participation rate reached only 57.26%.
Another weakness is the not yet optimal use of agriculture as one of the supporters of the regional economy that has a competitive advantage. Tourism developments, marked by the growing tourism industry an
The Bonin Islands known as the Ogasawara Islands, or, Yslas del Arzobispo, are an archipelago of over 30 subtropical and tropical islands, some 1,000 kilometres directly south of Tokyo, Japan. The name "Bonin Islands" comes from the Japanese word bunin, meaning "no people" or "uninhabited"; the only inhabited islands of the group are Chichijima, the seat of the municipal government, Hahajima. Ogasawara Municipality and Ogasawara Subprefecture take their names from the Ogasawara Group. Ogasawara Archipelago is used as a wider collective term that includes other islands in Ogasawara Municipality, such as the Volcano Islands, along with three other remote islands. Geographically speaking, all of these islands are part of the Nanpō Islands. A total population of 2,440, 2,000 on Chichijima and 440 on Hahajima, lives in the Ogasawara Group, which has a total area of 84 square kilometres; because the Ogasawara Islands have never been connected to a continent, many of their animals and plants have undergone unique evolutionary processes.
This has led to the islands' nickname of "The Galápagos of the Orient", their nomination as a natural World Heritage Site on June 24, 2011. The giant squid was photographed off the Ogasawara Islands for the first time in the wild on 30 September 2004, was filmed alive in December 2006. A 25-meter-diameter radio telescope is located in Chichijima, one of the stations of the very-long-baseline interferometry Exploration of Radio Astrometry project, is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan; the Bonin Islands consist of three subgroups, which are listed below along with their main islands: Muko-jima Group – Parry Group: Muko-jima. Geographically, they are not traditionally considered part of the Bonin Islands, which are the Mukojima and Hahajima island clusters. In other words, the historical range of the Bonin Islands is not the precise equivalent of the Japanese governmental unit; the Bonin Islands is a geographical term excluding the other islands which are today associated within the boundaries of a collective term, Ogasawara Shotō.
Prehistoric tools and carved stones, discovered on North Iwo Jima at the end of the 20th century, as well as stone tools discovered on Chichi-jima, indicate the islands might have been populated in ancient times. The first recorded visit by Europeans to the islands happened on 2 October 1543, when the Spanish explorer Bernardo de la Torre on the San Juan sighted Haha-jima, which he charted as Forfana. At that time, the islands were not populated. Japanese discovery of the islands occurred in Kanbun 10 and was followed by a shogunate expedition in Enpō 3; the islands were referred to as Bunin jima "the uninhabited islands". Shimaya Ichizaemon, the explorer at the order of the shogunate, inventoried several species of trees and birds, but after his expedition, the shogunate abandoned any plans to develop the remote islands. In 1727, Ogasawara Sadatō, a rōnin, claimed that the islands were discovered by his ancestor Ogasawara Sadayori, in 1593, the territory was granted as a fief by Toyotomi Hideyoshi.
However, investigation of the claim found that it was a fraud and the existence of Sadayori was doubtful. The first published description of the islands in the West was brought to Europe by Isaac Titsingh in 1796, his small library of Japanese books included Sangoku Tsūran Zusetsu by Hayashi Shihei. This book, published in Japan in 1785 described the Ogasawara Islands; these groups were collectively called Islas del Arzobispo in Spanish sources of the 18th–19th century. This name is most due to an expedition organized by the Arzobispo Pedro Moya de Contreras, Viceroy of New Spain, to explore the northern Pacific and the islands of Japan, its main objective was to find the long sought and legendary islands of Rica de Oro, Rica de Plata and the Islas del Armenio. After several years of planning and frustrated attempts the expedition set sail on 12 July 1587 c
Oerlikon 20 mm cannon
The Oerlikon 20 mm cannon is a series of autocannons, based on an original German 20 mm Becker design that appeared early in World War I. It was produced by Oerlikon Contraves and others, with various models employed by both Allied and Axis forces during World War II, many versions still in use today. During World War I, the German industrialist Reinhold Becker developed a 20 mm caliber cannon, known now as the 20 mm Becker using the Advanced Primer Ignition blowback method of operation; this had a cyclic rate of fire of 300 rpm. It was used on a limited scale as an aircraft gun on Luftstreitkräfte warplanes, an anti-aircraft gun towards the end of that war; because the Treaty of Versailles banned further production of such weapons in Germany, the patents and design works were transferred in 1919 to the Swiss firm SEMAG based near Zürich. SEMAG continued development of the weapon, in 1924 had produced the SEMAG L, a heavier weapon that fired more powerful 20x100RB ammunition at a higher rate of fire, 350 rpm.
In 1924 SEMAG failed. The Oerlikon firm, named after the Zürich suburb of Oerlikon where it was based acquired all rights to the weapon, plus the manufacturing equipment and the employees of SEMAG. In 1927 the Oerlikon S was added to the existing product line; this fired a still larger cartridge to achieve a muzzle velocity of 830 m/s, at the cost of increased weight and a reduced rate of fire. The purpose of this development was to improve the performance of the gun as an anti-tank and anti-aircraft weapon, which required a higher muzzle velocity. An improved version known as the 1S followed in 1930. Three sizes of gun with their different ammunition and barrel length, but similar mechanisms, continued to be developed in parallel. In 1930 Oerlikon reconsidered the application of its gun in aircraft and introduced the AF and AL, designed to be used in flexible mounts, i.e. manually aimed by a gunner. The 15-round box magazine used by earlier versions of the gun was replaced by drum magazine holding 15 or 30 rounds.
In 1935 it made an important step by introducing a series of guns designed to be mounted in or on the wings of fighter aircraft. Designated with FF for Flügelfest meaning "wing-mounted", these weapons were again available in the three sizes, with designations FF, FFL and FFS; the FF fired a larger cartridge than the AF, 20x72RB, but the major improvement in these weapons was a significant increase in rate of fire. The FF weighed 24 kg and achieved a muzzle velocity of 550 to 600 m/s with a rate of fire of 520 rpm; the FFL of 30 kg fired a projectile at a muzzle velocity of 675 m/s with a rate of fire of 500 rpm. And the FFS, which weighed 39 kg, delivered a high muzzle velocity of 830 m/s at a rate of fire of 470 rpm. Apart from changes to the design of the guns for wing-mounting and remote control, larger drums were introduced as it would not be possible to exchange magazines in flight. For the FF series drum sizes of 45, 60, 75 and 100 rounds were available, but most users chose the 60-round drum.
The 1930s were a period of global re-armament, a number of foreign firms took licenses for the Oerlikon family of aircraft cannon. In France, Hispano-Suiza manufactured development of the FFS as the Hispano-Suiza HS.7 and Hispano-Suiza HS.9, for installation between the cylinder banks of its V-12 engines. In Germany, Ikaria further developed the FF gun as firing 20x80RB ammunition, and the Imperial Japanese Navy, after evaluating all three guns, ordered developments of the FF and FFL as the Type 99-1 and Type 99-2. The incorporation of the improvements of the FFS in a new anti-aircraft gun produced, in 1938, the Oerlikon SS. Oerlikon realized further improvements in rate of fire on the 1SS of 1942, the 2SS of 1945 which achieved 650 rpm. However, it was the original SS gun, adopted as anti-aircraft gun, being widely used by Allied navies during World War II; this gun used a 400-grain charge of IMR 4831 smokeless powder to propel a 2,000-grain projectile at 2,800 feet per second. The Oerlikon FF was installed as armament on some fighters of the 1930s, such as the Polish PZL P.24G.
Locally produced derivatives of the Oerlikon cannon were used much more extensively, on aircraft, on ships and on land. In the air, the Ikaria MG FF was used as armament on a number of German aircraft, of which the most famous is the Messerschmitt Bf 109; the Japanese Navy used their copy of the FF, designated the Type 99 Mark One cannon on a number of types including the Mitsubishi A6M Zero. In the war, they equipped fighters including the Zero with the Type 99 Mark Two, a version of the more powerful and faster-firing Oerlikon FFL; the French firm of Hispano-Suiza was a manufacturer of aircraft engines, it marketed the moteur-canon combination of its 12X and 12Y engines with a H. S.7 or H. S.9 cannon installed between the cylinder banks. The gun fired through the hollow propeller hub, this being elevated above the crankcase by the design of the gearing; such armament was installed on the Morane-Saulnier M. S.406 and some other types. Similar German installations of the MG FF were not successful.
The Oerlikon became best known in its naval applications. The Oerlikon was not looked upon favorably by the Royal Navy as a short-range anti-aircraft gun. All through 1937-1938 Lord Louis Mountbatten a Captain in the Royal Navy, waged a lone campaign within the Royal Navy to set up an unprejudiced trial for the Oerlikon 20 mm gun, but it was all in vain, it was not until the Commander-in-Chief of the Home Fleet, Admiral Sir Roger Backhouse, was appointed First Sea Lord tha
Chuuk Lagoon previously known as Truk Lagoon, is a sheltered body of water in the central Pacific. About 1,800 kilometres north-east of New Guinea, it is located mid-ocean at 7 degrees North latitude, is part of Chuuk State within the Federated States of Micronesia; the atoll consists of a protective reef, 225 kilometres around, enclosing a natural harbour 79 by 50 kilometres, with an area of 2,130 square kilometres. It has a land area of 93.07 square kilometres, with a population of 36,158 people and a maximal height of 443 m. Weno city on Moen Island functions as the atoll's capital and as the state capital and is the largest city in the FSM with its 13,700 people. Chuuk means mountain in the Chuukese language; the lagoon was known as Truk, until 1990. Other names included Ruk, Torres and Lugulus. Chuuk Lagoon is part of the larger Caroline Islands group; the area consists of eleven major islands and forty-six smaller ones within the lagoon, plus forty-one on the fringing coral reef, is known today as the Chuuk islands, part of the Federated States of Micronesia in the Pacific Ocean.
This is the following list of islands and population following the 2010 census: It is not known when the islands of Chuuk were first settled, but archaeological evidence indicates that islands of Feefen and Wééné Islands had human settlements in the first and second century BC. Evidence indicates that widespread human settlements appeared in Chuuk during the 14th century AD; the first recorded sighting by Europeans was made by Spanish navigator Álvaro de Saavedra on board of the ship Florida during August or September 1528. They were visited by Spaniard Alonso de Arellano on 15 January 1565 on board of galleon patache San Lucas; as part of the Caroline Islands, Truk was claimed by the Spanish Empire, which made an effort to control the islands in the late 19th century. Chuuk lagoon was inhabited by several tribes that engaged in intermittent warfare, as well as a small population of foreign traders and missionaries. Spanish control over the islands was nominal; the Spaniards stopped to raise a flag over Chuuk in 1886, returned in 1895 as part of an attempt to assert control and negotiate peace between warring Chuukese tribes.
No permanent Spanish settlement was established, tribal violence continued until the German colonial era. The Caroline Islands were sold to the German Empire in 1899, after Spain withdrew from the Pacific in the aftermath of the Spanish–American War. Chuuk became a possession of the Empire of Japan under a mandate from the League of Nations following Germany's defeat in World War I. During World War II, Truk Lagoon was the Empire of Japan's main base in the South Pacific theatre. Truk was a fortified base for Japanese operations against Allied forces in New Guinea and the Solomon Islands, serving as the forward anchorage for the Imperial Japanese Navy. Truk Lagoon was considered the most formidable of all Japanese strongholds in the Pacific. On the various islands, the Japanese Civil Engineering Department and Naval Construction Department had built roads, trenches and caves. Five airstrips, seaplane bases, a torpedo boat station, submarine repair shops, a communications center and a radar station were constructed during the war.
Protecting these various facilities were coastal defense guns and mortar emplacements. The Japanese garrison consisted of 27,856 IJN men, under the command of Vice Admiral Masami Kobayashi Vice Admiral Chuichi Hara, 16,737 IJA men, under the command of Major General Kanenobu Ishuin. Due to its heavy fortifications, both natural and manmade, the base at Truk was known to Allied forces as "the Gibraltar of the Pacific."A significant portion of the Japanese fleet was based at Truk, with its administrative center on Tonoas. At anchor in the lagoon could be found the IJN's battleships, aircraft carriers, destroyers, cargo ships, gunboats, landing craft, submarines. In particular and Musashi, the largest battleships built, were stationed at Truk for months around 1943, unable to participate in battle due to lack of air cover; some have described Truk as Japan's equivalent of the Americans' Pearl Harbor, in that it was their respective nation's largest forward naval base. In 1944, Truk's capacity as a naval base was destroyed through naval air attack.
Forewarned by intelligence a week before the US raid, the Japanese had withdrawn their larger warships to Palau. Once the American forces captured the Marshall Islands, they used them as a base from which to launch an early morning attack on February 17, 1944 against Truk Lagoon. Operation Hailstone lasted for three days, as American carrier-based planes sank twelve smaller Japanese warships and thirty-two merchant ships, while destroying 275 aircraft on the ground; the consequences of the attack made "Truk lagoon the biggest graveyard of ships in the world."The attacks for the most part ended Truk as a major threat to Allied operations in the central Pacific. The Japanese garrison on Eniwetok was denied any realistic hope of reinforcement and support during the invasion that began on February 18, 1944 assisting U. S. forces in their conquest of that island. Truk was isolated by Allied forces, as they continued their advance towards Japan, by invading other Pacific islands, such as Guam, Saipan and Iwo Ji
In military operations, reconnaissance or scouting is the exploration outside an area occupied by friendly forces to gain information about natural features and other activities in the area. Examples of reconnaissance include patrolling by troops, ships or submarines, manned/unmanned reconnaissance aircraft, satellites, or by setting up covert observation posts. Espionage is not reconnaissance, because reconnaissance is a military's special forces operating ahead of its main forces. Called "recce" or "recon", the associated verb is reconnoitre. Traditionally, reconnaissance was a role, adopted by the cavalry. Speed was key in these maneuvers, thus infantry was ill-suited to the task. From horses to vehicles, for warriors throughout history, commanders procured their ability to have speed and mobility, to mount and dismount, during maneuver warfare. Military commanders favored specialized small units for speed and mobility, to gain valuable information about the terrain and enemy before sending the main troops into the area, covering force and exploitation roles.
Skirmishing is a traditional skill of reconnaissance, as well as harassment of the enemy. Reconnaissance conducted by ground forces includes special reconnaissance, armored reconnaissance, amphibious reconnaissance and civil reconnaissance. Aerial reconnaissance is reconnaissance carried out by aircraft; the purpose is to survey weather conditions, map terrain, may include military purposes such as observing tangible structures, particular areas, movement of enemy forces. Naval forces use aerial and satellite reconnaissance to observe enemy forces. Navies undertake hydrographic surveys and intelligence gathering. Reconnaissance satellites provide military commanders with photographs of enemy forces and other intelligence. Military forces use geographical and meteorological information from Earth observation satellites. A tracker needs to pay close attention to the psychology of his enemy. Knowledge of human psychology and cultural backgrounds is necessary to know the actions of the enemy and where the enemy is heading.
The celebrated Chief of Scouts Frederick Russell Burnham had this to say: It is imperative that a scout should know the history, religion, social customs, superstitions of whatever country or people he is called on to work in or among. This is as necessary as to know the physical character of the country, its climate and products. Certain people will do certain things without fail. Certain other things feasible, they will not do. There is no danger of knowing too much of the mental habits of an enemy. One should neither underestimate the credit him with superhuman powers. Fear and courage are latent in every human being, though roused into activity by diverse means. Types of reconnaissance: Terrain-oriented reconnaissance is a survey of the terrain. Force-oriented reconnaissance may include target acquisition. Civil-oriented reconnaissance focuses on the civil dimension of the battlespace; the techniques and objectives are not mutually exclusive. Units tasked with reconnaissance are armed only for self-defense, rely on stealth to gather information.
Others are well-enough armed to deny information to the enemy by destroying their reconnaissance elements. Reconnaissance-in-force is a type of military operation or military tactics used to probe an enemy's disposition. By mounting an offensive with considerable force, the commander hopes to elicit a strong reaction by the enemy that reveals its own strength and other tactical data; the RIF commander retains the option to fall back with the data or expand the conflict into a full engagement. Other methods consist of hit-and-run tactics using rapid mobility, in some cases light-armored vehicles for added fire superiority, as the need arises. Nazi Germany's reconnaissance during world war II is described in the following way: The purpose of reconnaissance and the types of units employed to obtain information are similar in the U. S. and the German Armies. German tactical principles of reconnaissance, diverge somewhat from those of the U. S; the Germans stress aggressiveness, attempt to obtain superiority in the area to be reconnoitered, strive for continuous observation of the enemy.
They believe in employing reconnaissance units in force as a rule. They are prepared to fight to obtain the desired information, they assign supplementary tasks to their reconnaissance units, such as sabotage behind enemy lines, harassment, or counter-reconnaissance. Only enough reconnaissance troops are sent on a mission to assure superiority in the area to be reconnoitred. Reserves are kept on hand to be committed when the reconnaissance must be intensified, when the original force meets strong enemy opposition, or when the direction and area to be reconnoitred are changed; the Germans encourage aggressive action against enemy security forces. When their reconnaissance units meet superior enemy forces, they fight a delaying action while other units attempt to flank the enemy. Reconnaissance by fire is the act of firing
China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
Pearl Harbor is a lagoon harbor on the island of Oahu, west of Honolulu. It has been long visited by the Naval fleet of the United States, before it was acquired from the Hawaiian Kingdom by the U. S. with the signing of the Reciprocity Treaty of 1875. Much of the harbor and surrounding lands is now a United States Navy deep-water naval base, it is the headquarters of the United States Pacific Fleet. The U. S. government first obtained exclusive use of the inlet and the right to maintain a repair and coaling station for ships here in 1887. The attack on Pearl Harbor by the Empire of Japan on December 7, 1941, was the immediate cause of the United States' entry into World War II. Pearl Harbor was an extensive shallow embayment called Wai Momi or Puʻuloa by the Hawaiians. Puʻuloa was regarded as the home of the shark goddess, Kaʻahupahau, her brother, Kahiʻuka, in Hawaiian legends. According to tradition, the head of the powerful Ewa chiefs, is credited with cutting a navigable channel near the present Puʻuloa saltworks, by which he made the estuary, known as "Pearl River," accessible to navigation.
Making due allowance for legendary amplification, the estuary had an outlet for its waters where the present gap is. During the early 19th century, Pearl Harbor was not used for large ships due to its shallow entrance; the interest of United States in the Hawaiian Islands grew as a result of its whaling and trading activity in the Pacific. As early as 1820, an "Agent of the United States for Commerce and Seamen" was appointed to look after American business in the Port of Honolulu; these commercial ties to the American continent were accompanied by the work of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. American missionaries and their families became an integral part of the Hawaiian political body. Throughout the 1820s and 1830s, many American warships visited Honolulu. In most cases, the commanding officers carried letters from the U. S. Government giving advice on governmental affairs and of the relations of the island nation with foreign powers. In 1841, the newspaper Polynesian, printed in Honolulu, advocated that the U.
S. establish a naval base in Hawaii for protection of American citizens engaged in the whaling industry. The British Hawaiian Minister of Foreign Affairs Robert Crichton Wyllie, remarked in 1840 that "... my opinion is that the tide of events rushes on to annexation to the United States." From the conclusion of the Civil War, to the purchase of Alaska, to the increased importance of the Pacific states, the projected trade with countries in Asia and the desire for a duty-free market for Hawaiian staples, Hawaiian trade expanded. In 1865, the North Pacific Squadron was formed to embrace Hawaii. Lackawanna in the following year was assigned to cruise among the islands, "a locality of great and increasing interest and importance." This vessel surveyed the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands toward Japan. As a result, the United States claimed Midway Island; the Secretary of the Navy was able to write in his annual report of 1868, that in November 1867, 42 American flags flew over whaleships and merchant vessels in Honolulu to only six of other nations.
This increased activity caused the permanent assignment of at least one warship to Hawaiian waters. It praised Midway Island as possessing a harbor surpassing Honolulu's. In the following year, Congress approved an appropriation of $50,000 on March 1, 1869, to deepen the approaches to this harbor. After 1868, when the Commander of the Pacific Fleet visited the islands to look after American interests, naval officers played an important role in internal affairs, they served as arbitrators in business disputes, negotiators of trade agreements and defenders of law and order. Periodic voyages among the islands and to the mainland aboard U. S. warships were arranged for members of the Hawaiian royal family and important island government officials. When King Lunalilo died in 1873, negotiations were underway for the cession of Pearl Harbor as a port for the duty-free export of sugar to the U. S. With the election of King Kalākaua in March 1874, riots prompted landing of sailors from USS Tuscarora and Portsmouth.
The British warship, HMS Tenedos landed a token force. During the reign of King Kalākaua the United States was granted exclusive rights to enter Pearl Harbor and to establish "a coaling and repair station." Although this treaty continued in force until August 1898, the U. S. did not fortify Pearl Harbor as a naval base. As it had for 60 years, the shallow entrance constituted a formidable barrier against the use of the deep protected waters of the inner harbor; the United States and the Hawaiian Kingdom signed the Reciprocity Treaty of 1875 as supplemented by Convention on December 6, 1884, the Reciprocity Treaty was made by James Carter and ratified it in 1887. On January 20, 1887, the United States Senate allowed the Navy to exclusive right to maintain a coaling and repair station at Pearl Harbor.. The Spanish–American War of 1898 and the desire for the United States to have a permanent presence in the Pacific both contributed to the decision. Following the overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom, the United States Navy established a base on the island in 1899.
On December 7, 1941, the base was attacked by the Imperial Japanese Navy airplanes and midget submarines, causing the American entry into World War II. One of the main reasons that Pearl Harbor happened was because the United States had major communication breakdowns among several branches of the U. S. armed services and departments of the U. S. government. This led to the surprise Japanese attack at the Hawai