IXS Enterprise is a conceptual interstellar superluminal spacecraft designed by NASA scientist Dr. Harold G. White, revealed at SpaceVision 2008, designed for the goal of achieving warp travel; the conceptual spacecraft would make use of a modified version of the Alcubierre drive. Dr. White is running the White–Juday warp-field interferometer experiment in order to develop a proof of concept for Alcubierre-style warp travel, if possible; the Alcubierre drive uses exotic matter to travel faster than light. While the concept had been out since 2008 the design of IXS Enterprise was popularized in June 2015 after a series of media outlets reported on the conceptual artwork done by Dutch artist Mark Rademaker in collaboration with NASA. According to Mark Rademaker, over 1,600 hours have been spent on the conceptual artwork that he created; the energy required to power the warp drive, according to White, is the negative mass–energy equivalence of Voyager 1, which has a mass of 700 kilograms. Using E=mc2, −700 kilograms of mass is equivalent to ~−63 exajoules of energy.
The ship has two thick outer rings that generate the warp field—a contraction of space ahead, expansion of space behind it. The space inside the rings is optimized to fit more space for cargo and equipment. IXS Enterprise, images by Mark Rademaker Warp Field Physics Video - Faster-Than-Light - SpaceVision 2013 on YouTube Video - NASA unveils IXS Enterprise on YouTube
USS Enterprise (CVN-80)
USS Enterprise will be the third Gerald R. Ford-class aircraft carrier to be built for the United States Navy, she will be the ninth United States naval vessel to bear the name, is scheduled to be in operation by 2027. Her construction began in August 2017 with a steel-cutting ceremony. On 1 December 2012, during the presentation of a pre-recorded speech at the inactivation ceremony for USS Enterprise, then-Secretary of the Navy Ray Mabus announced that CVN-80 would be named Enterprise, she will be the ninth ship and the third aircraft carrier in the history of the United States Navy to bear the name. CVN-80 will be the first American supercarrier since America was commissioned in 1966 not to be named in honor of a person. In December 2016, Mabus chose Olympic gold medalists Katie Ledecky and Simone Biles to sponsor the ship. CVN-80 will be built by Huntington Ingalls Industries-Newport News Shipbuilding in Newport News, Virginia. Enterprise is scheduled to begin active construction around 2018 and be delivered by 2025.
However, in an effort to save costs, the Congressional Research Service indicates that the Navy Department is reviewing the possibility of extending the length of time used to build both John F. Kennedy and Enterprise by two years. If approved, the ship would not enter service until 2027 and prevent any instance of 12 carriers being in service at any one time; the steel from CVN-65 will be recycled and used to construct CVN-80. The ship is scheduled to replace USS Dwight D. Eisenhower; the first cut of steel ceremony, marking the beginning of fabrication of the ship's components, was held on 21 August 2017, with ship's sponsors Katie Ledecky and Simone Biles present. Construction began in advance of the purchase contract and construction award, in early 2018. In the spring of 2018, a piece of steel from CVN-65 was melted down and remade into a keel plate for CVN-80. List of aircraft carriers List of aircraft carriers of the United States Navy List of ships of the United States Navy named Enterprise DoD press release naming CVN-80 Enterprise
The Enterprise was a gas inflated aerostat built by Prof. Thaddeus S. C. Lowe along with his father Clovis Lowe in 1858, it was the second balloon built by Lowe at his Hoboken, N. J. facility and named with the express approval of his wife Leontine because of the money and time they put into creating it. The Enterprise was built of the India silk, lightweight cording, Lowe's patent varnish which could keep the balloon envelope gassed up for as long as two weeks; the Enterprise was one in a set of smaller balloons taken to Cincinnati in March 1861 for use as a pre-flight test for a proposed transatlantic flight planned to take place in June 1861. Lowe had made a successful test flight in his super-gigantic balloon, the City of New York, in June 1860. However, his attempts to take off on a transatlantic attempt in September were thwarted by weather, which damaged the balloon to an extent the attempt would have to be delayed until the next spring. Prof. Joseph Henry of the Smithsonian Institution advised Lowe to take test flight from a point west to the eastern seaboard.
This would maintain the interest in his investors. Lowe decided on Cincinnati. Lowe's balloon used the normal easterly winds, below the jetstream, it was his intent to wait for perfect conditions, that is, a wind blowing west through which he would fly and catch the easterly wind home. It was a month. Lowe was hailed from a dinner being held in his honor to begin inflation. At 4 a.m. on April 19, 1861, Lowe boarded the Enterprise with a container of hot coffee wrapped in a blanket, another of water, a batch of freshly printed Cincinnati newspapers which would be proof of his flight should he succeed. Lowe ascended into the dark. By morning he was spotted over Kentucky, he had attained altitudes in excess of 20,000 feet according to his instrumentation, had flown some 900 circuitous miles to a landing in Unionville, South Carolina. There he was taken under house arrest as a Yankee spy, it was a few days deliberating his fate until which time a local college professor could vouch for Lowe's work as a scientist.
Lowe was given safe passage back to Cincinnati to pick up his balloons. It was at this point that he was asked to, offered his services to the Union Army. Lowe was called to Washington, D. C. by the Secretary of the Treasury Salmon P. Chase. By June 11 Lowe offered a demonstration of his balloon. With the use of a telegraph key and operator, Lowe ascended in the Enterprise 500 feet over the White House and transmitted: Balloon Enterprise in the Air To His Excellency, Abraham Lincoln President of the United StatesDear Sir:From this point of observation we command an extent of our country nearly fifty miles in diameter. I have the pleasure of sending you this first telegram dispatched from an aerial station, acknowledging indebtedness to your encouragement for the opportunity of demonstrating the availability of the science of aeronautics in the service of the country. I am, Your Excellency's obedient servant, T. S. C. LoweLowe was held up in Washington for a time while decisions on the use of balloons were being made.
At the same time, there were other applicants seeking the position of Chief Aeronaut. Lowe tried to convince the military that special duty balloons would need to be built for military purposes and that his own Enterprise was not up to the task. So as not to shrug from his purpose at hand, Lowe took the Enterprise out with General McDowell's army to the site of the Battle of First Bull Run. In his first free flight demonstration, Lowe's landing was rebuffed by Union soldiers who could not make out any type of military insignia for Lowe and his balloon — as he had none — and was forced to land behind enemy lines, he was rescued before the enemy could find him. In this escapade the Enterprise was badly damaged, but Lowe was given orders to build a proper balloon; the Enterprise was put back into light service with Lowe's father and assistant Capt. John Dickenson in Washington, D. C. After Lowe was able to build seven proper military balloons, the Enterprise was decommissioned. L class blimp Enterprise under US Navy designation L-5 was one of five Goodyear commercial blimps pressed into World War II service.
The others were the Resolute, Reliance and Ranger, Eugene B. Above the Civil War, Howell-North Book, Berkeley, Ca. 1966. Library of Congress CC# 66-15640 Hoehling, Thaddeus Lowe, America's One-Man Air Corps, Julian Messner, Inc. New York, N. Y. 1958. Library of Congress CC# 58-7260
Recruit Training Command, Great Lakes, Illinois
Recruit Training Command, Great Lakes, is a unit within the United States Navy responsible for conducting the initial orientation and indoctrination of incoming recruits. It is part of Naval Service Training Command, is located at Naval Station Great Lakes, Illinois. RTC Great Lakes is commonly referred to as boot camp and recruit training, or RTC. Since the BRAC-directed closures of Recruit Training Commands in Orlando, Florida in 1994 and San Diego, California in 1993, RTC Great Lakes has been the only enlisted basic training location in the U. S. Navy and has been called "The Quarterdeck of the Navy" since it was first utilized in July 1911. Running at eight weeks long, all enlistees into the U. S. Navy commence their enlistments at this command; some recruits may take longer than eight weeks. Upon successful completion of basic training, qualifying sailors are sent to various apprenticeship, or "A schools", located across the United States for training in their occupational speciality, or ratings.
Those who have not yet received a specific rating enter the fleet with a general designation of airman, fireman, or seaman. Recruit Training Command is located at Naval Station Great Lakes in the city of North Chicago, Illinois in Lake County, north of Chicago, it is a tenant command, meaning that although it is located on the base, it has a separate chain of command. After the Spanish–American War, the U. S. Navy began investigating 37 sites around Lake Michigan in order to locate a new training center in the Midwest, an area that contributed 43 percent of the Navy’s recruits at the time. Illinois Congressional Representative and chairman of the Committee on Naval Affairs George Edmund Foss pressed for the decision to locate the center at its present location and was called "The Father of Great Lakes". Foss Park, just north of the base in North Chicago, is named in his honor, it is the facility would have been located elsewhere had it not been for the $175,000 contribution of the Merchants Club of Chicago to purchase the land.
Rear Admiral Albert A. Ross was the station’s first commander and the base's Ross Field and Ross Auditorium were named in his honor; the first flag was planted on site on 1 July 1905. President William H. Taft dedicated the station six years on 28 October 1911. In that same year, the station received Seaman Recruit Joseph W. Gregg. Naval Station Great Lakes was at the forefront of the racial integration of the Navy. African-Americans were permitted to enlist for general service in the middle of 1942 receiving training at Great Lakes as well as Hampton, Virginia, they had been restricted to special duties. The Navy commissioned its first African-American officers known as the "Golden Thirteen", at Great Lakes in February 1944. In July 1987, building 1405, the Golden Thirteen Recruit In-Processing Center, was dedicated in their honor; the surviving eight attended the ceremony. Navy recruit training is now conducted at Naval Station Great Lakes' Recruit Training Command. Prior to the mid-1990s, recruit training facilities included Naval Training Center Orlando and Naval Training Center San Diego.
Female recruit training was limited to the Orlando facility. The Base Realignment and Closure Commission of 1993 resulted in the consolidation of recruit training to Great Lakes. Following the consolidation, the Navy undertook a massive recapitalization program to upgrade the Great Lakes Recruit Training facility; the recap included the construction of Camp John Paul Jones, a 48-acre site on land owned by the Veterans Administration Hospital adjacent to Camp Porter. New barracks were constructed and are referred to as "ships" by the recruits; each "ship" was named after an important ship in naval history, such as USS John F. Kennedy and USS Enterprise; each "ship" can house up to 1,300 recruits during training. A 210-foot Arleigh Burke-class destroyer simulator called USS Trayer was constructed as part of the recap program known as Battle Stations 21; the USS Enterprise Recruit Barracks Building is the eighth of fourteen built as part of a $763 million recapitalization program. The building is named after the eight USS Enterprises that have borne the name, including the two famous aircraft carriers pictured around the building's quarterdeck.
The first is CV-6, a ship of the Yorktown class launched in 1936 and one of only three American carriers commissioned prior to World War II to survive the war. The nautical flags hanging on the quarterdeck of BLDG 7115 are from CV-6; the second is the world's first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier. Many of the displays on the quarterdeck of USS Enterprise were donated by USS Enterprise; the USS Enterprise has 120,000 square feet of space, enough to accommodate 16 recruit divisions of up to 88 recruits each. This facility integrates berthing, learning resource centers, a galley, a quarterdeck, all under one roof; each "ship" has a ship's officer who fills the role of commanding officer, a ship's leading chief petty officer who fills the role of command master chief, a chaplain. USS Triton Recruit Barracks was dedicated in ceremonies held on 25 June 2004; the facility honors the memory of two submarines named Triton and includes memorabilia from both ships, USS Triton and USS Triton. Triton Hall is the fifth barracks constructed under the RTC Recapitalization Project, covering 172,000 square feet in floor space.
The facility is designed to accommodate 1056 recruits, it includes berthing, learning resource
USS Enterprise (NCC-1701-A)
USS Enterprise NCC-1701-A is a starship in several Star Trek films. Visual effects supervisor Ken Ralston had hoped the Enterprise's destruction in The Search for Spock would open the door to designing a new model for future films. However, producers for Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home decided to have the crew return to a duplicate of their previous ship. Although a new model was not created, it took ILM more than six weeks to restore and repaint the ship to appear as the new USS Enterprise, NCC-1701-A. Although the original bridge set had been refurbished and repainted to serve as the bridge for the Enterprise-A, it was scrapped in favor of a new bridge set for the fifth film; the sleek "Okudagrams" created for this Enterprise-A bridge, were adopted in subsequent films and television spin-offs. When production began on Star Trek: The Next Generation, several interior Enterprise sets, such as the bridge, were redressed for use on the television show; some Next Generation sets, such as the Enterprise-D's engine room and conference room, were modified to depict interiors of the Enterprise-A.
The Constitution-class starship Enterprise-A was commissioned in 2286, at the end of the events depicted in Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home and is the second Constitution-class Federation starship to carry the name Enterprise. While the ship's history before its recommissioning as Enterprise has never been stated, several non-canon sources have claimed it to be USS Yorktown; the ship is placed under the command of newly demoted Captain James T. Kirk as "punishment" for his and his crew's actions in the rescue of Captain Spock in Star Trek III: The Search for Spock, it replaces the original Enterprise, destroyed in Star Trek III. Though outwardly identical to its refitted and updated predecessor, in its debut, the new ship is beset with teething problems and Chief Engineer Montgomery Scott and Commander Uhura are shown making numerous repairs and reconfigurations to the new ship before deployment. In Star Trek V: The Final Frontier, the ship is dispatched to rescue hostages on Nimbus III; the Vulcan renegade Sybok and his followers hijack the ship and take it to a planet at the center of the galaxy, where Kirk and his crew regain control of the ship.
Several novels and comics explore the six-year period between the sixth films. In Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country, Enterprise escorts Klingon chancellor Gorkon to a peace summit on Earth; the renegade Klingon general Chang, assisted by traitors aboard Enterprise, makes it appear that Enterprise had fired on the chancellor's vessel. The Klingons take Leonard McCoy prisoner. Enterprise encounters and, with aid from Captain Sulu and the USS Excelsior, destroys Chang's ship, the crew protects the Federation President from an assassination attempt; the film concludes with Starfleet ordering a return to Spacedock to be decommissioned, an order which Kirk and the crew gleefully disregard. There is no canon information about the ship's fate beyond Star Trek VI. In the epilogue of Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country, Uhura had stated they received a communication from Starfleet Command that ordered Enterprise to report to space dock to be decommissioned. However, she may have been speaking only of the ship's original crew members as Captain James T.
Kirk stated his crew was due to stand down in three months, while Spock noted this would be his last voyage on Enterprise as a member of her crew. Documentation provided with the Bandai model states that the ship was displayed in the Starfleet Museum at Memory Alpha. According to the non-canon novel The Ashes of Eden, written by William Shatner, Starfleet Commander-in-Chief Androvar Drake orders Enterprise-A decommissioned and destroyed during war games and weapons testing, but the Chal government intervenes. Enterprise is destroyed to prevent Drake's completion of a disastrous personal agenda. Enterprise was under construction at the time of its predecessor's arrival at Starbase Yorktown. Following the destruction of its predecessor, its crew was reassigned to the NCC-1701-A after its completion. A new design for Enterprise NCC-1701-A appears in Star Trek Beyond, designed by Sean Hargreaves. Hargreaves, who designed the swarm ships and USS Franklin for the film, stated that he was given the brief to "beef up the neck and arms" on the Ryan Church design, but went further to give the ship echoes of Matt Jeffries' original design.
In October 2006, Christie's auctioned the Enterprise-A shooting model for $240,000. USS Enterprise at Memory Alpha USS Enterprise at Memory Alpha
VSS Enterprise was the first SpaceShipTwo spaceplane, built by Scaled Composites for Virgin Galactic. As of 2004, it was planned to be the first of five commercial suborbital SS2 spacecraft planned by Virgin Galactic, it was the first ship of the Scaled Composites Model 339 SpaceShipTwo class, based on upscaling the design of record-breaking SpaceShipOne. The VSS Enterprise's name was an acknowledgement of the USS Enterprise from the Star Trek television series; the spaceplane shared its name with NASA's prototype Space Shuttle orbiter, as well as the aircraft carrier USS Enterprise. It was rolled out on 7 December 2009. SpaceShipTwo made its first powered flight in April 2013. Richard Branson said it "couldn't have gone more smoothly". Enterprise was destroyed during a powered test flight on 31 October 2014, killing one pilot and injuring another; this was the first spacecraft-related accident. An investigation revealed the accident was caused by premature deployment of the "feathering" system, the ship's descent device.
Initial projections by Virgin Galactic in 2008 called for test flights to begin in late 2009 and commercial service to start in 2011. This schedule was not achieved, with captive carry and glide flight tests beginning in 2010, the first test flight under rocket power in 2013. In October 2009, Virgin Galactic CEO Will Whitehorn outlined the flight test program for SpaceShipTwo; the test program includes seven phases: Vehicle ground testing Captive carry under White Knight Two Unpowered glide testing Subsonic testing with only a brief firing of the rocket Supersonic atmospheric testing Full flight into suborbital space Execute a detailed and lengthy appraisal process with the FAA/AST to demonstrate the system's robustness and obtain a commercial launch license to begin commercial operations. On 22 March 2010, the SpaceShipTwo vehicle VSS Enterprise underwent a captive carry test flight, with the parent White Knight Two aircraft, VMS Eve, performing a short flight while carrying the Enterprise.
A second test flight was made on 16 May 2010, reaching SS2's launch altitude and lasting nearly five hours, in order to facilitate "cold soak" testing of SS2's avionics and pressurization system. Thereafter, "a simulated spaceship descent/glide mission was made from altitude." Between these two flights, the SpaceShipTwo airframe was modified by the addition of two interior fins, with one fin being added to the inside of each of the craft's twin vertical stabilizers. On 15 July 2010, VSS Enterprise made its first crewed flight; the craft remained attached to VMS Eve as planned, underwent a series of combined vehicle systems tests. The flight lasted a total of 21 minutes. A second, similar crewed flight of VSS Enterprise and VMS Eve was carried out on 30 September 2010, lasting 5 hours. Among the objectives of these flights was the improvement of pilot proficiency, the results of the flights were deemed to show that the systems were capable of supporting future glide missions. On 10 October 2010, VSS Enterprise made its first manned gliding test flight.
It was released from VMS Eve at 13700 m feet and glided to a safe landing at the Mojave Air and Spaceport. A second gliding test flight took place on 28 October 2010 and a third on 17 November 2010; as of December 2010, Scaled reported. The fourth test flight took place on 13 January 2011, while the fifth and sixth glide flights occurred on 22 and 27 April 2011, respectively. Following this, the feathered reentry configuration was tested in flight on 4 May 2011, with weekly test flights continuing through the end of May. On 9 June 2011, SS2 failed to separate from White Knight Two during its 11th planned glide flight due to a technical problem. Testing resumed with five successful glide flights in June 2011. In July 2011, after 15 successful glide flights, flight testing of SS2 was halted for two months while planned revisions to the spaceplane were made. Flight tests resumed in late September 2011, although the 16th glide flight – on 29 September – was marred by a brief loss of control aboard SS2, forcing the crew to utilise the feathered wing configuration to land safely.
This test was followed by another hiatus, during which some of the spacecraft's engine components were installed. In June 2012, Scaled Composites received an FAA permit to conduct rocket-powered supersonic test flights. SpaceShipTwo flight tests resumed in June 2012. In September 2012, Virgin Galactic announced that the unpowered subsonic glide flight test program was complete; the company thereafter stated its intention to fit the hybrid rocket motor and control system to the vehicle, before resuming the glide flight test program with the rocket motor installed, in order to recharacterize the spacecraft's glide performance with different weight distribution and aerodynamics. In October 2012, Scaled Composites installed key components of the rocket motor, SpaceShipTwo performed its first glide flight with the engine installed in December 2012; the spacecraft's first powered test flight took place on 29 April 2013 driving SpaceShipTwo to a supersonic velocity. Richard Branson said it "couldn't have gone more smoothly".
On 5 September 2013, the second powered flight was made by the SpaceShipTwo. It broke the sound barrier achieving a speed of mach 1.43, climbed to 69.000 feet over the Mojave Desert under rocket power and descended using its tilt-wing "feathering" maneuver. Space journalist Doug Messier reported that "the engine plume featured white smoke, not
Space Shuttle Enterprise
Space Shuttle Enterprise was the first orbiter of the Space Shuttle system. Rolled out on September 17, 1976, it was built for NASA as part of the Space Shuttle program to perform atmospheric test flights after being launched from a modified Boeing 747, it was constructed without engines or a functional heat shield, was therefore not capable of spaceflight. Enterprise had been intended to be refitted for orbital flight to become the second space-rated orbiter in service. However, during the construction of Space Shuttle Columbia, details of the final design changed, making it simpler and less costly to build Challenger around a body frame, built as a test article. Enterprise was considered for refit to replace Challenger after the latter was destroyed, but Endeavour was built from structural spares instead. Enterprise was restored and placed on display in 2003 at the Smithsonian's new Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center in Virginia. Following the retirement of the Space Shuttle fleet, Discovery replaced Enterprise at the Udvar-Hazy Center, Enterprise was transferred to the Intrepid Sea, Air & Space Museum in New York City, where it has been on display since July 2012.
The design of Enterprise was not the same as that planned for the first flight model. A large number of subsystems—ranging from main engines to radar equipment—were not installed on Enterprise, but the capacity to add them in the future was retained, as NASA intended to refit the orbiter for spaceflight at the conclusion of its testing. Instead of a thermal protection system, its surface was covered with simulated tiles made from polyurethane foam. Fiberglass was used for the leading edge panels in place of the reinforced carbon–carbon ones of spaceflight-worthy orbiters. Only a few sample thermal tiles and some Nomex blankets were real. Enterprise used fuel cells to generate its electrical power, but these were not sufficient to power the orbiter for spaceflight. Enterprise lacked RCS thrusters and hydraulic mechanisms for the landing gear; as it was only used for atmospheric testing, Enterprise featured a large nose probe mounted on its nose cap, common on test aircraft because the location provides the most accurate readings for the test instruments, being mounted out in front of the disturbed airflow.
Enterprise was equipped with Lockheed-manufactured zero-zero ejection seats like those its sister Columbia carried on its first four missions. Construction began on Enterprise on June 4, 1974. Designated OV-101, it was planned to be named Constitution and unveiled on Constitution Day, September 17, 1976. Fans of Star Trek asked US President Gerald Ford, through a letter-writing campaign, to name the orbiter after the television show's fictional starship, USS Enterprise. White House advisors cited "hundreds of thousands of letters" from Trekkies, "one of the most dedicated constituencies in the country", as a reason for giving the shuttle the name. Although Ford did not publicly mention the campaign, the president said that he was "partial to the name" Enterprise, directed NASA officials to change the name. In mid-1976 the orbiter was used for ground vibration tests, allowing engineers to compare data from an actual flight vehicle with theoretical models. On September 17, 1976, Enterprise was rolled out of Rockwell's plant at California.
In recognition of its fictional namesake, Star Trek creator Gene Roddenberry and most of the principal cast of the original series of Star Trek were on hand at the dedication ceremony. On January 31, 1977, Enterprise was taken by road to Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base to begin operational testing. While at NASA Dryden Enterprise was used by NASA for a variety of ground and flight tests intended to validate aspects of the shuttle program; the initial nine-month testing period was referred to by the acronym ALT, for "Approach and Landing Test". These tests included a maiden "flight" on February 18, 1977, atop a Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft to measure structural loads and ground handling and braking characteristics of the mated system. Ground tests of all orbiter subsystems were carried out to verify functionality prior to atmospheric flight; the mated Enterprise/SCA combination was subjected to five test flights with Enterprise unmanned and unactivated. The purpose of these test flights was to measure the flight characteristics of the mated combination.
These tests were followed with three test flights with Enterprise manned to test the shuttle flight control systems. On August 12, 1977, Enterprise flew on its own for the first time. Enterprise underwent four more free flights where the craft separated from the SCA and was landed under astronaut control; these tests verified the flight characteristics of the orbiter design and were carried out under several aerodynamic and weight configurations. The first three flights were flown with a tailcone placed at the end of Enterprise's aft fuselage, which reduced drag and turbulence when mated to the SCA; the final two flights saw the tailcone mockup main engines installed. On the fifth and final glider flight, pilot-induced oscillation problems were revealed, which had to be addressed before the first orbital launch occurred. Following the conclusion of the ALT test flight program, on March 13, 1978, Enterprise was flown once again, but this time halfway across the country to NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Alabama for the Mated Vertical Ground Vibration Testing.
The orbiter was lift