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USS Enterprise (NCC-1701)

USS Enterprise is a starship in the Star Trek media franchise. It is the main setting of the original Star Trek television series and several Star Trek films, it has been depicted in various spinoffs, books and fan-created media. Under the command of Captain James T. Kirk, the Enterprise carries its crew on a mission "to explore strange, new worlds. Matt Jefferies designed the Enterprise for television, its core design components – a saucer-shaped primary hull, two outset engine nacelles, a cylindrical secondary hull – have persisted across several television and film redesigns. After the Enterprise's destruction in the third franchise film, that vessel's filming model was redressed and depicted as its successor starship, the USS Enterprise, NCC-1701-A. A vision of the potential for human spaceflight, the original Enterprise became a popular culture icon; the vessel's original appearance influenced the design of subsequent franchise spacecraft. The model filmed for Star Trek has been on display for decades at the National Space Museum.

The Enterprise has been identified as one of the best-designed and most influential science fiction spacecraft. Pato Guzman was the original art director assigned to Star Trek. Jefferies, not a science fiction fan, was the primary designer of the Enterprise and based his work on concepts from series creator Gene Roddenberry. Roddenberry did not have any ideas about what the ship should look like, but he laid out several parameters for the ship: We're out in deep space, on the equivalent of a cruiser-size spaceship. We don't know what the mode of power is. No streaks of smoke, no jet intakes, rocket exhaust, or anything like that, it will be like a deep space exploration vehicle. Roddenberry further specified that the Enterprise would operate in space, have a crew of 100–150, be fast. Both Jefferies and Roddenberry did not want the Enterprise to look like any of the rocket ships used by the aerospace industry or in popular culture. To meet Roddenberry's requirement that the ship look believable, Jefferies tried "to visualize what the fourth, fifth or tenth generation of present-day equipment would be like".

Jefferies' experience with aviation led to his designs being imbued with what he called "aircraft logic". Jefferies imagined the ship's engines would be too powerful to be near the crew, requiring them to be set apart from the hull. While Jefferies rejected a disk-shaped component, worried about the similarities to flying saucers, a spherical module flattened into a saucer. During one visit to Jefferies, Roddenberry and NBC staff were drawn to a sketch of the Enterprise resembling its final configuration. Jefferies had created a small model of this design that, when held from a string, hung upside-down – an appearance he had to "unsell". Jefferies kept the hull smooth, with a sense; some of Jefferies' rejected design concepts – such as spherical hull sections and warp engines that encircle a ship – inspired the design of future Star Trek vessels. The Enterprise was going to be named Yorktown, but Roddenberry said he was fascinated by the story of the actual Enterprise and that he had "always been proud of that ship and wanted to use the name."

The ship's NCC-1701 registry stems from NC being one of the international aircraft registration codes assigned to the United States. The second C was added because Soviet aircraft used Cs, Jefferies believed a venture into space would be a joint operation by the United States and Russia. NCC is the Starfleet abbreviation for "Naval Construction Contract", comparable to what the U. S. Navy would call a hull number. Jefferies rejected 3, 6, 8, 9 as "too confused" on screen; the Making of Star Trek explains that USS means "United Space Ship" and that "Enterprise is a member of the Starship Class". The ship was changed to Constitution class with the release of Franz Joseph's Star Fleet Technical Manual in 1975; the first miniature built from Jefferies' drawings was a four-inch scale model. Desilu Studios, producing Star Trek, hired experienced film and television modelmaker Richard C. Datin to make a pre-production model. Datin used a subcontractor with a large lathe for major subcomponents and otherwise worked on the model for about 110 hours in November 1964.

The 33-inch model was made of pine, with Plexiglass and brass details. Datin made minor changes after Roddenberry's review, he submitted the completed model – which cost about $600 – to Desilu in December 1964. Desilu ordered a larger filming model, which Datin contracted to Volmer Johnson and Production Model Shop in Burbank. Datin supervised the model makers and did detail work on the model, constructed from plaster, sheet metal and wood; when completed, it was 11 feet 3.5 inches long, weighed 125 kilograms, cost $6,000. The filming model was delivered too late to be used much for the initial pilot, "The Cage"; the 11-foot model was filmed by Howard Anderson. When Roddenberry was approved to film the second pilot, "Where No Man Has Gone Before", various details of the 11-foot model were altered, the starboard windows and running lights were internally illuminated; when the series went into production, the model was altered yet again, the m

Guru Gobind Singh

Guru Gobind Singh, born Gobind Rai, was the tenth Sikh Guru, a spiritual master, warrior and philosopher. When his father, Guru Tegh Bahadur, was beheaded for refusing to convert to Islam, Guru Gobind Singh was formally installed as the leader of the Sikhs at age nine, becoming the tenth Sikh Guru, his four sons died during his lifetime -- two in two executed by the Mughal army. Among his notable contributions to Sikhism are founding the Sikh warrior community called Khalsa in 1699 and introducing the Five Ks, the five articles of faith that Khalsa Sikhs wear at all times. Guru Gobind Singh is credited with the Dasam Granth whose hymns are a sacred part of Sikh prayers and Khalsa rituals, he is credited as the one who finalized and enshrined the Guru Granth Sahib as Sikhism's primary scripture and eternal Guru. Gobind Singh was the only son of Guru Tegh Bahadur, the ninth Sikh guru, Mata Gujri, he was born in Patnaon 22 December 1666, Bihar in the Sodhi Khatri family while his father was visiting Bengal and Assam.

His birth name was Gobind Rai, a shrine named Takht Sri Patna Harimandar Sahib marks the site of the house where he was born and spent the first four years of his life. In 1670, his family returned to Punjab, in March 1672 they moved to Chakk Nanaki in the Himalayan foothills of north India, called the Sivalik range, where he was schooled, his father Guru Tegh Bahadur was petitioned by Kashmiri Pandits in 1675 for protection from the fanatic persecution by Iftikar Khan, the Mughal governor of Kashmir under Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. Tegh Bahadur considered a peaceful resolution by meeting Aurangzeb, but was cautioned by his advisors that his life may be at risk; the young Gobind Rai – to be known as Gobind Singh after 1699 – advised his father that no one was more worthy to lead and make a sacrifice than him. His father made the attempt, but was arrested publicly beheaded in Delhi on 11 November 1675 under the orders of Aurangzeb for refusing to convert to Islam and the ongoing conflicts between Sikhism and the Islamic Empire.

After this martyrdom, the young Gobind Rai was installed by the Sikhs as the tenth Sikh Guru on Vaisakhi on 29 March 1676. The education of Guru Gobind Singh continued after he became the 10th Guru, both in reading and writing as well as martial arts such as horse riding and archery. In 1684, he wrote the Chandi di Var in Punjabi language – a legendary war between the good and the evil, where the good stands up against injustice and tyranny, as described in the ancient Sanskrit text Markandeya Purana, he stayed in Paonta, near the banks of river Yamuna, till 1685. Guru Gobind Singh had three wives: at age 10, he married Mata Jito on 21 June 1677 at Basantgaṛh, 10 km north of Anandpur; the couple had three sons: Jujhar Singh, Zorawar Singh and Fateh Singh. at age 17, he married Mata Sundari on 4 April 1684 at Anandpur. The couple had one son, Ajit Singh. at age 33, he married Mata Sahib Devan on 15 April 1700 at Anandpur. They had no children. Guru Gobind Singh proclaimed her as the Mother of the Khalsa.

The life example and leadership of Guru Gobind Singh have been of historical importance to the Sikhs. He institutionalized the Khalsa, who played the key role in protecting the Sikhs long after his death, such as during the nine invasions of Panjab and holy war led by Ahmad Shah Abdali from Afghanistan between 1747 and 1769. In 1699, the Guru requested the Sikhs to congregate at Anandpur on Vaisakhi. According to the Sikh tradition, he asked for a volunteer from those who gathered, someone willing to sacrifice his head. One came forward; the Guru with a bloody sword. He asked for another volunteer, repeated the same process of returning from the tent without anyone and with a bloodied sword four more times. After the fifth volunteer went with him into the tent, the Guru returned with all five volunteers, all safe, he called them the first Khalsa in the Sikh tradition. Guru Gobind Singh mixed water and sugar into an iron bowl, stirring it with a double-edged sword to prepare what he called Amrit.

He administered this to the Panj Pyare, accompanied with recitations from the Adi Granth, thus founding the khande ka pahul of a Khalsa – a warrior community. The Guru gave them a new surname "Singh". After the first five Khalsa had been baptized, the Guru asked the five to baptize him as a Khalsa; this made the Guru the sixth Khalsa, his name changed from Guru Gobind Rai to Guru Gobind Singh. Guru Gobind Singh initiated the Five K's tradition of the Kesh: uncut hair. Kangha: a wooden comb. Kara: an iron or steel bracelet worn on the wrist. Kirpan: a sword or dagger. Kacchera: short breeches, he announced a code of discipline for Khalsa warriors. Tobacco, eating'halal' meat and adultery were forbidden; the Khalsas agreed to never interact with those who followed rivals or their successors. The co-initiation of men and women from different castes into the ranks of Khalsa institutionalized the principle of equality in Sikhism regardless of one's caste or gender. Guru Gobind Singh's significance to the Sikh tradition has been important, as he institutionalized the Khalsa, resisted the ongoing persecution by the Mughal Empire, continued "the defence of Sikhism and Hinduism against the Muslim assault of Aurangzeb".

He introduced ideas that indirectly challenged the discriminatory taxes imposed by Islamic authorities. For

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