The port city of Santander is the capital of the autonomous community and historical region of Cantabria situated on the north coast of Spain. Located east of Gijón and west of Bilbao, the city has a population of 172,000. Santander houses the headquarters of multinational bank Banco Santander, is the location of the founding of the namesake company; the origin of the earliest human settlements in the current Santander is not easy to establish because there is little written and archaeological data. However, there would appear to be good practical reasons for ancient settlers to have chosen the north side of the bay, sheltered from it and safer from the storms of the Bay of Biscay, on the north side of the promontory of Somorrostro and along the ancient Becedo estuary. Moreover, the hillside provided good visibility for spotting potential attackers, making this the ideal place for the foundation of a stable settlement, to evolve throughout the Middle Ages. Although it is mentioned for the first time in 1068, in a draft document made by King Sancho II, in the 9th century Alfonso II the Chaste founded the Abbey of the Holy Bodies in the existing chapel on the hill of Somorrostro, housing as holy relics the heads of Saint Emeterius and Saint Celedonius and the graves of other unknown martyrs, giving the abbey its name.
During the 12th and 13th centuries the population was contained within the walls of two different pueblas. La Puebla, the oldest, on the hill overlooking the city facing the bay, included the old castle, the Abbey of the Holy Bodies and the cloister, it had three rows of houses, separated by Rua Carnicerias and Rua Mayor, where the homes of prominent people of the town were, as well as those of the Abbot's canons. Meanwhile, the Puebla Nueva contained the convent of Santa Clara and San Francisco, which gave its name to one of the main streets; the two pueblas were joined by a bridge over the river that divided Becedo and flowed down to the shipyards, which were ordered by the king to take timber from the Cantabrian forests for shipbuilding. The villa was required to give the monarchy a ship per year; the city owes its existence to the excellent harbour of the Bay of Santander. Santander was an important port for Castile in the Middle Ages, for trade with the New World, it became a city in 1755.
See also: Incendio de Santander Santander fell victim to a great fire in 1941. Fanned by a strong south wind, the fire burned for two days; the fire started in Cádiz Street, next to the Cathedral and the medieval quarter. The fire destroyed the Old Town Hall, Jesús de Monasterio and Vargas streets and Atarazanas square buildings, it led to a major change in the architecture of Santander, away from the older small stone and wood buildings with balconies to the enormous blocks of flats built during the reconstruction. There was only one casualty of the fire, a firefighter from Madrid killed in the line of duty, but thousands of families were left homeless and the city was plunged into chaos; the fire destroyed the greater part of the medieval town centre and gutted the city's Romanesque cathedral. The city is located on the northern side of the Bahia de Santander; the city of Santander has an oceanic climate, the annual thermal oscillation of the average monthly temperatures reaching around 10°C.
The maximum temperature reached in Santander Airport was 37.8 °C on 27 June 2009, the minimum temperature −5.4 °C on 21 January 1957. The warmest maximum daytime average for a month was in August 2003, with 27.1 °C. Warm months are however rare. Sunshine hours are low by comparison with the rest of mainland and southern Spain. Compared with other areas of northern Spain, such as Galicia, which have much more sunshine hours in coastal cities such as Vigo or Pontevedra. With just around 1650 hours of sunshine, Santander is about as sunny as London and Paris, quite a bit less sunny than most of England's south coastal regions; the bars and restaurants of the old town are popular with tourists, as well as the El Sardinero beach a couple of kilometres away. The Cathedral of Santander: The lower temple, called "cripta del Cristo" was built around 1200 on other earlier Roman buildings, it is 18 wide, organised into three naves. Its style is a transition from romanesque to gothic; the Lighthouse of Cabo Mayor presides over the entrance to the Bay of Santander.
Parque de la Vaguada de las Llamas is one of the largest parks in northern Spain, covering 11 hectares of the city. Santander is pilot for a Smart city, it is embedded with 12,000 sensors. The PP were the leading party in the municipal elections of 1999, 2003 and 2007; as a service centre at the regional level, Santander contains important public institutions and private organisations with a large number of employees, including Marqués de Valdecilla University Hospital, the University of Cantabria and Grupo Santander. Activities related to culture and tourism are an important part of the city's economy, the regional and municipal authorities look to augment the summer tourist trade with additional offerings, including conventions, cultural festivals and cruises. Banco Santander, Spain's largest bank and corporation, is headquartered here, it has a ferry service from Plymouth operated by Brittany Ferries. University of Cantabria is the largest university in Cantabria. European University of the Atlantic is a private university founded in 2013.
Universidad Internacional Menéndez Pelayo specializes in teaching S
Bath is a city in Sagadahoc County, Maine, in the United States. The population was 8,514 at the 2010 census, 8,357 as of 2013, the population has had a change of -10.2% since 2000. It is the county seat of Sagadahoc County, which includes 10 towns; the city is popular with tourists. It is home to the Bath Iron Works and Heritage Days Festival, held annually on the Fourth of July weekend, it is known as "The City of Ships". Bath is part of the metropolitan statistical area of Greater Portland. Abenaki Indians called the area Sagadahoc, meaning "mouth of big river", it was a reference to the Kennebec River, which Samuel de Champlain explored in 1605. Popham Colony was established in 1607 downstream, together with Fort St George; the settlement failed due to harsh weather and lack of leadership, but the colonists built the New World's first oceangoing vessel constructed by English shipwrights, the Virginia of Sagadahoc. It provided passage back to England. Most of Bath, was settled by travelers from Bath, England.
The next settlement at Sagadahoc was about 1660, when the land was taken from an Indian sagamore known as Robinhood. Incorporated as part of Georgetown in 1753, Bath was set off and incorporated as a town on February 17, 1781, it was named by Dummer Sewell, after Bath in Somerset, England. In 1844, a portion of the town was set off to create West Bath. On June 14, 1847, Bath was incorporated as a city, in 1854 designated county seat. Land was annexed from West Bath in 1855. Several industries developed in the city, including lumber and brass, with trade in ice and coal, but Bath is renowned for shipbuilding, which began here in 1743 when Jonathan Philbrook and his sons built 2 vessels. Since roughly 5,000 vessels have been launched in the area, which at one time had more than 200 shipbuilding firms. Bath became the nation's fifth largest seaport by the mid-19th century, producing clipper ships that sailed to ports around the world; the last commercial enterprise to build wooden ships in the city was the Percy & Small Shipyard, acquired for preservation in 1971 by the Maine Maritime Museum.
But the most famous shipyard is the Bath Iron Works, founded in 1884 by Thomas W. Hyde who became the general manager of it in 1888, it has built hundreds of wooden and steel vessels warships for the U. S. Navy. During World War II, Bath Iron Works launched a new ship an average of every 17 days; the shipyard is a major regional employer, operates today as a division of the General Dynamics Corporation. In the Bath, anti-Catholic riot of 1854 an Irish Catholic church was burned; the city is noted for its Federal, Greek Revival, Italianate architecture, including the 1858 Custom House and Post Office designed by Ammi B. Young. Bath is sister city to Shariki in Japan, where the locally-built full rigged ship Cheseborough was wrecked in 1889. Scenes from the movies Message in a Bottle and The Man Without a Face were filmed in the city. Bath is located at 43°54′59″N 69°49′21″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 13.22 square miles, of which, 9.10 square miles is land and 4.12 square miles is water.
The city of Bath includes several nature preserves that are protected by the Kennebec Estuary Land Trust. These areas include, Thorne Head Preserve Butler Head Preserve there are numerous multiple parks, walking trails located throughout the town such as the Whiskeag Trail; as of the census of 2010, there were 8,514 people, 3,932 households, 2,172 families residing in the city. The population density was 935.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 4,437 housing units at an average density of 487.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.1% White, 1.2% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 0.4% from other races, 2.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.8% of the population. There were 3,932 households of which 27.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.5% were married couples living together, 13.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.2% had a male householder with no wife present, 44.8% were non-families. 36.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.14 and the average family size was 2.79. The median age in the city was 41 years. 22.2% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 53.3 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 9,266 people, 4,042 households, 2,344 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,016.8 people per square mile. There were 4,383 housing units at an average density of 481.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.92% White, 1.60% Black or African American, 0.58% Native American, 0.47% Asian, 0.13% Pacific Islander, 0.68% from other races, 1.62% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.76% of the population. There were 4,042 households out of which 29.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.8% were married couples living together, 13.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 42.0% were non-families. 34.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.26 and the average family size was 2.91. In the city, the population
Ship commissioning is the act or ceremony of placing a ship in active service, may be regarded as a particular application of the general concepts and practices of project commissioning. The term is most applied to the placing of a warship in active duty with its country's military forces; the ceremonies involved are rooted in centuries old naval tradition. Ship naming and launching endow a ship hull with her identity, but many milestones remain before she is completed and considered ready to be designated a commissioned ship; the engineering plant and electronic systems and multitudinous other equipment required to transform the new hull into an operating and habitable warship are installed and tested. The prospective commanding officer, ship's officers, the petty officers, seamen who will form the crew report for training and intensive familiarization with their new ship. Prior to commissioning, the new ship undergoes sea trials to identify any deficiencies needing correction; the preparation and readiness time between christening-launching and commissioning may be as much as three years for a nuclear powered aircraft carrier to as brief as twenty days for a World War II landing ship.
USS Monitor, of American Civil War fame, was commissioned less than three weeks after launch. Regardless of the type of ship in question, a vessel's journey towards commissioning in its nation's navy begins with a process known as sea trials. Sea trials take place some years after a vessel was laid down, mark the interim step between the completion of a ship's construction and its official acceptance for service with its nation's navy. Sea trials begin when the ship in question is floated out of its dry dock, at which time the initial crew for a ship will assume command of the vessel in question; the ship is sailed in littoral waters for the purpose of testing the design and other ship specific systems to ensure that they work properly and can handle the equipment that they will be using in the coming years. Tests done during this phase can include launching missiles from missile magazines, firing the ship's gun, conducting basic flight tests with rotary and fixed-wing aircraft that will be assigned to the ship in the future, various tests of the electronic and propulsion equipment.
During this phase of testing problems arise relating to the state of the equipment on the ship in question, which can result in the ship returning to the builder's shipyard to address the concerns in question. In addition to problems with a ship's arms and equipment, the sea trial phase a ship undergoes prior to commissioning can identify issues with the ship's design that may need to be addressed before it can be accepted into service with its nation's navy. During her sea trials in 1999 French Naval officials determined that the French aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle was too short to safely operate the E2C Hawkeye, resulting in her return to the builder's shipyard for enlargement. After a ship has cleared its sea trial period, it will be accepted into service with its nation's navy. At this point, the ship in question will undergo a process of degaussing and/or deperming, which will vastly reduce the ship in question's magnetic signature. Once a ship's sea trials are completed plans for the actual commissioning ceremony will take shape.
Depending on the naval traditions of the nation in question, the commissioning ceremony may be an elaborately planned event with guests, the ship's future crew, other persons of interest in attendance, or the nation in question may forgo a ceremony and instead administratively place the ship in commission. At a minimum, on the day on which the ship in question is to be commissioned the crew will report for duty aboard the ship and the commanding officer will read through the orders given for the ship and its personnel. If the ship's ceremony is a public affair the Captain may make a speech to the audience, along with other VIPs as the ceremony dictates. Religious ceremonies, such as blessing the ship or the singing of traditional hymns or songs, may occur. Once a ship has been commissioned its final step toward becoming an active unit of the navy it now serves is to report to its home port and load or accept any remaining equipment. To decommission a ship is to terminate its career in service in the armed forces of a nation.
Unlike wartime ship losses, in which a vessel lost to enemy action is said to be struck, decommissioning confers that the ship has reached the end of its usable life and is being retired from a given country's navy. Depending on the naval traditions of the country in question, a ceremony commemorating the decommissioning of the ship in question may take place, or the vessel may be removed administratively with little to no fanfare; the term "paid off" is alternatively used in British Commonwealth contexts, originating in the age-of-sail practice of ending an officer's commission and paying crew wages once the ship completed its voyage. Ship decommissioning occurs some years after the ship was commissioned and is intended to serve as a means by which a vessel that has become too old or too obsolete can be retired with honor from the operating country's armed force. Decommissioning of the vessel may occur due to treaty agreements or for safety reasons (such as a ship's nuclear reactor and assoc
Menorca or Minorca is one of the Balearic Islands located in the Mediterranean Sea belonging to Spain. Its name derives from its size. Menorca has a population of 91,170, it is located 39°47' to 40°00'N, 3°52' to 4°24'E. Its highest point, called El Toro or Monte Toro, is 358 metres above sea level; the island is known for its collection of megalithic stone monuments: navetes and talaiots, which indicate early prehistoric human activity. Some of the earliest culture on Menorca was influenced by other Mediterranean cultures, including the Greek Minoans of ancient Crete. For example, the use of inverted plastered timber columns at Knossos is thought to have influenced early peoples of Menorca in imitating this practice; the end of the Punic wars saw an increase in piracy in the western Mediterranean. The Roman occupation of Hispania had meant a growth of maritime trade between the Iberian and Italian peninsulas. Pirates took advantage of the strategic location of the Balearic Islands to raid Roman commerce, using both Menorca and Majorca as bases.
In reaction to this, the Romans invaded Menorca. By 123 BC both islands were under Roman control being incorporated into the province of Hispania Citerior. In 13 BC Roman emperor Augustus reorganised the provincial system and the Balearic Islands became part of the Tarraconensis imperial province; the ancient town of Mago was transformed from a Carthaginian town to a Roman town. The island had a Jewish population; the Letter on the Conversion of the Jews by a 5th-century bishop named Severus tells of the forced conversion of the island's 540 Jewish men and women in AD 418. Several Jews, including Theodore, a rich representative Jew who stood high in the estimation of his coreligionists and of Christians alike, underwent baptism; the act of conversion brought about, within a peaceful coexisting community, the expulsion of the ruling Jewish elite into the bleak hinterlands, the burning of synagogues, the gradual reinstatement of certain Jewish families after the forced acceptance of Christianity, allowing the survival of those Jewish families who had not perished.
Many Jews remained within the Jewish faith. Some of these Jews form part of the Xueta community; when Menorca became a British possession in 1713, they encouraged the immigration of foreign non-Catholics, which included Jews who were not accepted by the predominantly Christian inhabitants. When the Jewish community in Mahon requested the use of a room as a synagogue, their request was refused and they were denounced by the clergy. In 1781, when Louis des Balbes de Berton de Crillon, duc de Mahon invaded Menorca, he ordered all Jews to leave in four days. At that time, the Jewish community consisted of about 500 people and they were transported from Menorca in four Spanish ships to the port of Marseille; the Vandals conquered the island in the 5th century. The Byzantine Empire recovered it in 534. Following the Moorish conquest of peninsular Spain, Menorca was annexed to the Caliphate of Córdoba in 903, with many Moors emigrating to the island. Manûrqa was the Arabicized name given to the island by the Muslims from its annexation to the Caliphate of Cordoba by'Isâm al-Khawlânî in 903 until the rule of the last Muslim ra'îs, Abû'Umar ibn Sa'îd in 1287.
The only urban centre of the island was al Manûrqa. Most of the population lived in small farm communities organized under a tribal structure. In 1231, after Christian forces took Majorca, Menorca chose to become an independent Islamic state, albeit one tributary to King James I of Aragon; the island was ruled first by Abû'Uthmân Sa'îd Hakam al Qurashi, following his death by his son, Abû'Umar ibn Sa'îd. A Catalan-Aragonese invasion, led by Alfonso III, came on 17 January 1287. Once the island was captured, most of its Muslim inhabitants were enslaved and sold in the slave markets of Ibiza and Barcelona, while others became Christians. Only one hundred Muslims were allowed to remain on the island; until 1344 the island was part of the Kingdom of a vassal state of the Crown of Aragon. Aragon subsequently annexed the kingdom and was absorbed itself into the unified Spanish crown. During the 16th century, Turkish naval attacks destroyed Mahon, the capital, Ciutadella. In Mahon, Barbary pirates from North Africa took as many as 6,000 slaves.
Various Spanish kings, including Philip III and Philip IV, styled themselves "King of Minorca" as a subsidiary title. Invaded by Britain's Royal Navy in 1708 during the War of the Spanish Succession, Minorca temporarily became a British possession. Great Britain took possession under the terms of Article XI of the Treaty of Utrecht. Under the governorship of General Richard Kane, this period saw the island's capital moved to Port Mahon and a naval base established in that town's harbour. In 1756, during the Seven Years' War, France captured the island after the Siege of Fort St Philip and a failed British relief attempt. Thanks to the Treaty of Paris of 1763, the British returned to the island again following Britain's victory in the Seven Years' War. In 1781, during the American War of Independence, the British were defeated for a second time, in this instance by a combination of French and Spanish forces, on 5 January 1782 the Spanish regained control of the island, after a long siege of St. Philip's Castle in Port Mahon.
On the feast of the Epiphany, as an
The Phalanx CIWS is a close-in weapon system for defense against anti-ship missiles, etc. It was manufactured by the General Dynamics Corporation, Pomona Division. Consisting of a radar-guided 20 mm Vulcan cannon mounted on a swiveling base, the Phalanx has been used by multiple navies around the world, notably the U. S. Navy on every class of surface combat ship with the exception of the San Antonio-class LPD, by the Canadian Royal Canadian Navy, the British Royal Navy, by the U. S. Coast Guard aboard its Hamilton and Legend-class cutters; the Phalanx is used by 15 other allied nations. A land variant, known as the LPWS, part of the C-RAM system, has been deployed in a short range missile defense role, to counter incoming rockets and mortar fire; because of their distinctive barrel-shaped radome and their automated nature of operation, Phalanx CIWS units are sometimes nicknamed "R2-D2" after the famous droid character from the Star Wars films. The Phalanx Close-In Weapons System was developed as the last line of automated weapons defense against antiship missiles and attacking aircraft, including high-g and maneuvering sea-skimmers.
The first prototype system was offered to the U. S. Navy for evaluation on the destroyer leader USS King in 1973 and it was determined that additional improvements were required to improve performance and reliability. Subsequently, the Phalanx Operational Suitability Model completed its Operational Test and Evaluation on board the destroyer USS Bigelow in 1977; the model exceeded operational maintenance and availability specifications. Another evaluation followed, the weapon system was approved for production in 1978. Phalanx production started with orders for 14 foreign military systems; the first ship fitted out was the aircraft carrier USS Coral Sea in 1980. The Navy began placing CIWS systems on non-combatant vessels in 1984; the basis of the system is the 20 mm M61 Vulcan Gatling gun autocannon, used since 1959 by the United States military on various tactical aircraft, linked to a Ku band fire control radar system for acquiring and tracking targets. This proven system was combined with a purpose-made mounting, capable of fast elevation and traverse speeds, to track incoming targets.
An self-contained unit, the mounting houses the gun, an automated fire-control system and all other major components, enabling it to automatically search for, track and confirm kills using its computer-controlled radar system. Due to this self-contained nature, Phalanx is ideal for support ships, which lack integrated targeting systems and have limited sensors; the entire unit has a mass between 12,400 to 13,500 lb. Due to the evolution of threats and computer technology, the Phalanx system has been developed through several configurations; the basic style is the Block 0, equipped with first-generation, solid-state electronics and with marginal capability against surface targets. The Block 1 upgrade offered various improvements in radar, computing power, rate of fire, an increase in maximum engagement elevation to +70 degrees; these improvements were intended to increase the system's capability against emerging Russian supersonic antiship missiles. Block 1A introduced a new computer system to counter more maneuverable targets.
The Block 1B PSuM adds a forward-looking infrared sensor to make the weapon effective against surface targets. This addition was developed to provide ship defense against small vessel threats and other "floaters" in littoral waters and to improve the weapon's performance against slower low-flying aircraft; the FLIR's capability is of use against low-observability missiles and can be linked with the RIM-116 Rolling Airframe Missile system to increase RAM engagement range and accuracy. The Block 1B allows for an operator to visually identify and target threats; as the system model manager, the U. S. Navy is in the process of upgrading all their Phalanx systems to the Block 1B configuration. All U. S Navy Phalanx systems are scheduled for upgrade to Block 1B by the end of FY 2015. In addition to the FLIR sensor, the Block 1B incorporates an automatic acquisition video tracker, optimized gun barrels, Enhanced Lethality Cartridges for additional capabilities against asymmetric threats such as small maneuvering surface craft, slow-flying fixed and rotary-winged aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles.
The FLIR sensor improves performance against antiship cruise missiles, while the OGB and ELC provide tighter dispersion and increased "first-hit" range. Another system upgrade is the Phalanx 1B Baseline 2 radar to improve detection performance, increase reliability, reduce maintenance, it has a surface mode to track and destroy threats closer to the water's surface, increasing the ability to defend against fast-attack boats and low-flying missiles. S. Navy Phalanx system-equipped vessels by FY 2019; the Block 1B is used by other navies, such as Canada, Japan, Egypt and the UK. In April 2017, Raytheon tested a new electric gun for the Phalanx allowing the system to fire at varying rates to conserve ammunition; the new design replaces the pneumatic motor and storage tanks, reducing system weight by 180 lb while increasing reliability and reducing operating costs. The CIWS is designed to be the last
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. It is the largest and most capable navy in the world and it has been estimated that in terms of tonnage of its active battle fleet alone, it is larger than the next 13 navies combined, which includes 11 U. S. allies or partner nations. With the highest combined battle fleet tonnage and the world's largest aircraft carrier fleet, with eleven in service, two new carriers under construction. With 319,421 personnel on active duty and 99,616 in the Ready Reserve, the Navy is the third largest of the service branches, it has 282 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of March 2018, making it the second-largest air force in the world, after the United States Air Force. The U. S. Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, established during the American Revolutionary War and was disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter.
The U. S. Navy played a major role in the American Civil War by blockading the Confederacy and seizing control of its rivers, it played the central role in the World War II defeat of Imperial Japan. The US Navy emerged from World War II as the most powerful navy in the world; the 21st century U. S. Navy maintains a sizable global presence, deploying in strength in such areas as the Western Pacific, the Mediterranean, the Indian Ocean, it is a blue-water navy with the ability to project force onto the littoral regions of the world, engage in forward deployments during peacetime and respond to regional crises, making it a frequent actor in U. S. foreign and military policy. The Navy is administratively managed by the Department of the Navy, headed by the civilian Secretary of the Navy; the Department of the Navy is itself a division of the Department of Defense, headed by the Secretary of Defense. The Chief of Naval Operations is the most senior naval officer serving in the Department of the Navy.
The mission of the Navy is to maintain and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression and maintaining freedom of the seas. The U. S. Navy is a seaborne branch of the military of the United States; the Navy's three primary areas of responsibility: The preparation of naval forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war. The maintenance of naval aviation, including land-based naval aviation, air transport essential for naval operations, all air weapons and air techniques involved in the operations and activities of the Navy; the development of aircraft, tactics, technique and equipment of naval combat and service elements. U. S. Navy training manuals state that the mission of the U. S. Armed Forces is "to be prepared to conduct prompt and sustained combat operations in support of the national interest." As part of that establishment, the U. S. Navy's functions comprise sea control, power projection and nuclear deterrence, in addition to "sealift" duties, it follows as certain as that night succeeds the day, that without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive, with it, everything honorable and glorious.
Naval power... is the natural defense of the United States The Navy was rooted in the colonial seafaring tradition, which produced a large community of sailors and shipbuilders. In the early stages of the American Revolutionary War, Massachusetts had its own Massachusetts Naval Militia; the rationale for establishing a national navy was debated in the Second Continental Congress. Supporters argued that a navy would protect shipping, defend the coast, make it easier to seek out support from foreign countries. Detractors countered that challenging the British Royal Navy the world's preeminent naval power, was a foolish undertaking. Commander in Chief George Washington resolved the debate when he commissioned the ocean-going schooner USS Hannah to interdict British merchant ships and reported the captures to the Congress. On 13 October 1775, the Continental Congress authorized the purchase of two vessels to be armed for a cruise against British merchant ships. S. Navy; the Continental Navy achieved mixed results.
In August 1785, after the Revolutionary War had drawn to a close, Congress had sold Alliance, the last ship remaining in the Continental Navy due to a lack of funds to maintain the ship or support a navy. In 1972, the Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Elmo Zumwalt, authorized the Navy to celebrate its birthday on 13 October to honor the establishment of the Continental Navy in 1775; the United States was without a navy for nearly a decade, a state of affairs that exposed U. S. maritime merchant ships to a series of attacks by the Barbary pirates. The sole armed maritime presence between 1790 and the launching of the U. S. Navy's first warships in 1797 was the U. S. Revenue-Marine, the primary predecessor of the U. S. Coast Guard. Although the USRCS conducted operations against the pirates, their depredations far outstripped its abilities and Congress passed the Naval Act of 1794 that established a permanent standing navy on 27 March 1794; the Naval Act ordered the construction and manning of six frigates and, by October 1797, the first three were brought into service: USS United States, USS Constellation, USS Constitution.
Due to his strong posture on having a strong standing Navy during this period, John Adams is "often called the father of the American Navy". In 1798–99 the Navy was involved in an undeclared Quasi-War with France. From 18