Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region. Northern Ireland shares a border to the west with the Republic of Ireland. In 2011, its population was 1,810,863, constituting about 30% of the island's total population and about 3% of the UK's population. Established by the Northern Ireland Act 1998 as part of the Good Friday Agreement, the Northern Ireland Assembly holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters, while other areas are reserved for the British government. Northern Ireland co-operates with the Republic of Ireland in some areas, the Agreement granted the Republic the ability to "put forward views and proposals" with "determined efforts to resolve disagreements between the two governments". Northern Ireland was created in 1921, when Ireland was partitioned between Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland by the Government of Ireland Act 1920. Unlike Southern Ireland, which would become the Irish Free State in 1922, the majority of Northern Ireland's population were unionists, who wanted to remain within the United Kingdom.
Most of these were the Protestant descendants of colonists from Great Britain. However, a significant minority Catholics, were nationalists who wanted a united Ireland independent of British rule. Today, the former see themselves as British and the latter see themselves as Irish, while a distinct Northern Irish or Ulster identity is claimed both by a large minority of Catholics and Protestants and by many of those who are non-aligned. For most of the 20th century, when it came into existence, Northern Ireland was marked by discrimination and hostility between these two sides in what First Minister of Northern Ireland, David Trimble, called a "cold house" for Catholics. In the late 1960s, conflict between state forces and chiefly Protestant unionists on the one hand, chiefly Catholic nationalists on the other, erupted into three decades of violence known as the Troubles, which claimed over 3,500 lives and caused over 50,000 casualties; the 1998 Good Friday Agreement was a major step in the peace process, including the decommissioning of weapons, although sectarianism and religious segregation still remain major social problems, sporadic violence has continued.
Northern Ireland has been the most industrialised region of Ireland. After declining as a result of the political and social turmoil of the Troubles, its economy has grown since the late 1990s; the initial growth came from the "peace dividend" and the links which increased trade with the Republic of Ireland, continuing with a significant increase in tourism and business from around the world. Unemployment in Northern Ireland peaked at 17.2% in 1986, dropping to 6.1% for June–August 2014 and down by 1.2 percentage points over the year, similar to the UK figure of 6.2%. 58.2% of those unemployed had been unemployed for over a year. Prominent artists and sportspeople from Northern Ireland include Van Morrison, Rory McIlroy, Joey Dunlop, Wayne McCullough and George Best; some people from Northern Ireland prefer to identify as Irish while others prefer to identify as British. Cultural links between Northern Ireland, the rest of Ireland, the rest of the UK are complex, with Northern Ireland sharing both the culture of Ireland and the culture of the United Kingdom.
In many sports, the island of Ireland fields a single team, a notable exception being association football. Northern Ireland competes separately at the Commonwealth Games, people from Northern Ireland may compete for either Great Britain or Ireland at the Olympic Games; the region, now Northern Ireland was the bedrock of the Irish war of resistance against English programmes of colonialism in the late 16th century. The English-controlled Kingdom of Ireland had been declared by the English king Henry VIII in 1542, but Irish resistance made English control fragmentary. Following Irish defeat at the Battle of Kinsale, the region's Gaelic, Roman Catholic aristocracy fled to continental Europe in 1607 and the region became subject to major programmes of colonialism by Protestant English and Scottish settlers. A rebellion in 1641 by Irish aristocrats against English rule resulted in a massacre of settlers in Ulster in the context of a war breaking out between England and Ireland fuelled by religious intolerance in government.
Victories by English forces in that war and further Protestant victories in the Williamite War in Ireland toward the close of the 17th century solidified Anglican rule in Ireland. In Northern Ireland, the victories of the Siege of Derry and the Battle of the Boyne in this latter war are still celebrated by some Protestants. Popes Innocent XI and Alexander VIII had supported William of Orange instead of his maternal uncle and father-in-law James II, despite William being Protestant and James a Catholic, due to William's participation in alliance with both Protesant and Catholic powers in Europe in wars against Louis XIV, the powerful King of France, in conflict with the papacy for decades. In 1693, Pope Innocent XII recognised James as continuing King of Great Britain and Ireland in place of William, after reconciliation with Louis. In 1695, contrary to the terms of the Treaty of Limerick, a series of penal laws were passed by the Anglican ruling class in Ireland in intense anger at the Pope's recognition of James over William, felt to be a betrayal.
The intention of the la
Destroyer escort was the United States Navy mid-20th-century classification for a 20-knot warship designed with endurance to escort mid-ocean convoys of merchant marine ships. Kaibōkan were designed for a similar role in the Imperial Japanese Navy; the Royal Navy and Commonwealth forces identified such warships as frigates, that classification was accepted when the United States redesignated destroyer escorts as frigates in 1975. Destroyer escorts and kaibōkan were mass-produced for World War II as a less expensive antisubmarine warfare alternative to fleet destroyers. Other similar warships include the 10 Kriegsmarine escort ships of the F-class and the two Amiral Murgescu-class vessels of the Romanian Navy. Postwar destroyer escorts and frigates were larger than those produced during wartime, with increased antiaircraft capability, but remained smaller and slower than postwar destroyers; as Cold War destroyer escorts became as large as wartime destroyers, the United States Navy converted some of their World War II destroyers to escort destroyers.
Full-sized destroyers must be able to steam as fast or faster than the fast capital ships such as fleet carriers and cruisers. This requires a speed of 25–35 knots, they must carry torpedoes and a smaller caliber of cannon to use against enemy ships, as well as antisubmarine detection equipment and weapons. A destroyer escort needed only to be able to maneuver relative to a slow convoy, be able to defend against aircraft, detect and attack submarines; these lower requirements reduce the size and crew required for the destroyer escort. Destroyer escorts were optimized for antisubmarine warfare, having a tighter turning radius and more specialized armament than fleet destroyers, their much slower speed was not a liability in this context, since sonar was useless at speeds over 20 knots. Destroyer escorts were considerably more sea-kindly than corvettes; as an alternative to steam-turbine propulsion found in full-sized destroyers and larger warships, many US destroyer escorts of the World War II period had diesel-electric or turboelectric drive, in which the engine rooms functioned as power stations supplying current to electric motors sited close to the propellers.
Electric drive was selected because it does not need gearboxes to adjust engine speed to the much lower optimum speed for the propellers. The current from the engine room can be used well for other purposes, after World War II, many destroyer escorts were recycled as floating power stations for coastal cities in Latin America under programs funded by the World Bank. Destroyer escorts were useful for coastal antisubmarine and radar picket ship duty. During World War II, seven destroyer escorts were converted to radar picket destroyer escorts, supplementing radar picket destroyers. Although these were relegated to secondary roles after the war, in the mid-1950s, 12 more DEs were converted to DERs, serving as such until 1960-1965, their mission was to extend the distant early warning line on both coasts, in conjunction with 16 Guardian-class radar picket ships, which were converted Liberty ships. In World War II, some 95 destroyer escorts were converted by the US to high-speed transports; this involved adding an extra deck which allowed space for 150 men.
Two large davits were installed, one on either side of the ship, from which landing craft could be launched. The Lend-Lease Act was passed into law in the United States in March 1941, enabling the United Kingdom to procure merchant ships, warships and other materiel from the US, to help with the war effort; this enabled the UK to commission the US to design and supply an escort vessel, suitable for antisubmarine warfare in deep open-ocean situations, which they did in June 1941. Captain E. L. Cochrane of the American Bureau of Shipping came up with a design, known as the British destroyer escort; the BDE designation was retained by the first six destroyer escorts transferred to the United Kingdom. When the United States entered the war, found they required an antisubmarine warfare ship and that the destroyer escort fitted their needs a system of rationing was put in place whereby out of every five destroyer escorts completed, four would be allocated to the U. S. Navy and one to the Royal Navy.
After World War II, United States Navy destroyer escorts were referred to as ocean escorts, but retained the hull classification symbol DE. However, other navies, most notably those of NATO countries and the USSR, followed different naming conventions for this type of ship, which resulted in some confusion. To remedy this problem, the 1975 ship reclassification declared; this brought the USN's nomenclature more in line with NATO, made comparing ship types with the Soviet Union easier. As of 2006, no plans existed for future frigates for the US Navy. USS Zumwalt and the littoral combat ship were the main ship types planned in this area. However, by 2017 the Navy had reversed course, put out a Request For Proposals for a new frigate class, temporarily designated FFG. One major problem with ship classification is whether to base it on a ship's role, or on its size (s
A depth charge is an anti-submarine warfare weapon. It is intended to destroy a submarine by being dropped into the water nearby and detonating, subjecting the target to a powerful and destructive hydraulic shock. Most depth charges use high explosive charges and a fuze set to detonate the charge at a specific depth. Depth charges can be dropped by ships, patrol aircraft, helicopters. Depth charges were developed during World War I, were one of the first effective methods of attacking a submarine underwater, they were used in World War I and World War II. They remained part of the anti-submarine arsenals of many navies during the Cold War. Depth charges have now been replaced by anti-submarine homing torpedoes. A depth charge fitted with a nuclear warhead is known as a "nuclear depth bomb"; these were designed to be dropped from a patrol plane or deployed by an anti-submarine missile from a surface ship, or another submarine, located a safe distance away. All nuclear anti-submarine weapons were withdrawn from service by the United States, the United Kingdom, France and China in or around 1990.
They were replaced by conventional weapons whose accuracy and range had improved as ASW technology improved. The first attempt to fire charges against submerged targets was with aircraft bombs attached to lanyards which triggered them. A similar idea was a 16 lb guncotton charge in a lanyarded can. Two of these lashed together became known as the "depth charge Type A". Problems with the lanyards tangling and failing to function led to the development of a chemical pellet trigger as the "Type B"; these were effective at a distance of around 20 ft. A 1913 Royal Navy Torpedo School report described a device intended for countermining, a "dropping mine". At Admiral John Jellicoe's request, the standard Mark II mine was fitted with a hydrostatic pistol preset for 45 ft firing, to be launched from a stern platform. Weighing 1,150 lb, effective at 100 ft, the "cruiser mine" was a potential hazard to the dropping ship; the design work was carried out by Herbert Taylor at the RN Torpedo and Mine School, HMS Vernon.
The first effective depth charge, the Type D, became available in January 1916. It was a barrel-like casing containing a high explosive. There were two sizes—Type D, with a 300 lb charge for fast ships, Type D* with a 120 lb charge for ships too slow to leave the danger area before the more powerful charge detonated. A hydrostatic pistol actuated by water pressure at a pre-selected depth detonated the charge. Initial depth settings were 40 or 80 ft; because production could not keep up with demand, anti-submarine vessels carried only two depth charges, to be released from a chute at the stern of the ship. The first success was the sinking of U-68 off Kerry, Ireland, on 22 March 1916, by the Q-ship Farnborough. Germany became aware of the depth charge following unsuccessful attacks on U-67 on 15 April 1916, U-69 on 20 April 1916; the only other submarines sunk by depth charge during 1916 were UC-19 and UB-29. Numbers of depth charges carried per ship increased to four in June 1917, to six in August, 30-50 by 1918.
The weight of charges and racks caused ship instability unless heavy guns and torpedo tubes were removed to compensate. Improved pistols allowed greater depth settings in 50-foot increments, from 50 to 200 ft. Slower ships could safely use the Type D at below 100 ft and at 10 kn or more, so the ineffective Type D* was withdrawn. Monthly use of depth charges increased from 100 to 300 per month during 1917 to an average of 1745 per month during the last six months of World War I; the Type D could be detonated as deep as 300 ft by that date. By the war's end, 74,441 depth charges had been issued by the RN, 16,451 fired, scoring 38 kills in all, aiding in 140 more; the United States requested full working drawings of the device in March 1917. Having received them, Commander Fullinwider of the U. S. Bureau of Naval Ordnance and U. S. Navy engineer Minkler made some modifications and patented it in the U. S, it has been argued. The Royal Navy Type D depth charge was designated the "Mark VII" in 1939. Initial sinking speed was 7 ft/s with a terminal velocity of 9.9 ft/s at a depth of 250 ft if rolled off the stern, or upon water contact from a depth charge thrower.
Cast iron weights of 150 lb were attached to the Mark VII at the end of 1940 to increase sinking velocity to 16.8 ft/s. New hydrostatic pistols increased the maximum detonation depth to 900 ft; the Mark VII's 290 lb amatol charge was estimated to be capable of splitting a 7⁄8 inch submarine pressure hull at a distance of 20 ft, forcing the submarine to surface at twice that. The change of explosive to Torpex at the end of 1942 was estimated to increase those distances to 26 and 52 ft; the British Mark X depth charge weighed 3,000 pounds and was launched from 21-inch torpedo tubes of older destroyers to achieve a sinking velocity of 21 ft/s. The launching ship needed to clear the area at 11 knots to avoid damage, the charge was used. Only 32 were fired, they were known to be troublesome; the teardrop-shaped United States Mark 9 depth charge entered service in the spring of 1943. The charge was 200 lb of Torpex with a sinking speed of 14.4 ft/s and depth settings of up to 600 ft. Versions increased depth to 1,000 ft and sinking
An oil is any nonpolar chemical substance, a viscous liquid at ambient temperatures and is both hydrophobic and lipophilic. Oils have a high carbon and hydrogen content and are flammable and surface active; the general definition of oil includes classes of chemical compounds that may be otherwise unrelated in structure and uses. Oils may be animal, vegetable, or petrochemical in origin, may be volatile or non-volatile, they are used for food, medical purposes and the manufacture of many types of paints and other materials. Specially prepared oils are used in some religious rituals as purifying agents. First attested in English 1176, the word oil comes from Old French oile, from Latin oleum, which in turn comes from the Greek ἔλαιον, "olive oil, oil" and that from ἐλαία, "olive tree", "olive fruit"; the earliest attested forms of the word are the Mycenaean Greek, e-ra-wo and, e-rai-wo, written in the Linear B syllabic script. Organic oils are produced in remarkable diversity by plants and other organisms through natural metabolic processes.
Lipid is the scientific term for the fatty acids and similar chemicals found in the oils produced by living things, while oil refers to an overall mixture of chemicals. Organic oils may contain chemicals other than lipids, including proteins and alkaloids. Lipids can be classified by the way that they are made by an organism, their chemical structure and their limited solubility in water compared to oils, they have a high carbon and hydrogen content and are lacking in oxygen compared to other organic compounds and minerals. Crude oil, or petroleum, its refined components, collectively termed petrochemicals, are crucial resources in the modern economy. Crude oil originates from ancient fossilized organic materials, such as zooplankton and algae, which geochemical processes convert into oil; the name "mineral oil" is a misnomer, in that minerals are not the source of the oil—ancient plants and animals are. Mineral oil is organic. However, it is classified as "mineral oil" instead of as "organic oil" because its organic origin is remote, because it is obtained in the vicinity of rocks, underground traps, sands.
Mineral oil refers to several specific distillates of crude oil. Several edible vegetable and animal oils, fats, are used for various purposes in cooking and food preparation. In particular, many foods are fried in oil much hotter than boiling water. Oils are used for flavoring and for modifying the texture of foods. Cooking oils are derived either from animal fat, as butter and other types, or plant oils from the olive, maize and many other species. Oils are applied to hair to give it a lustrous look, to prevent tangles and roughness and to stabilize the hair to promote growth. See hair conditioner. Oil has been used throughout history as a religious medium, it is considered a spiritually purifying agent and is used for anointing purposes. As a particular example, holy anointing oil has been an important ritual liquid for Judaism and Christianity. Color pigments are suspended in oil, making it suitable as a supporting medium for paints; the oldest known extant oil paintings date from 650 AD. Oils are used for instance in electric transformers.
Heat transfer oils are used both as coolants, for heating and in other applications of heat transfer. Given that they are non-polar, oils do not adhere to other substances; this makes them useful as lubricants for various engineering purposes. Mineral oils are more used as machine lubricants than biological oils are. Whale oil is preferred for lubricating clocks, because it does not evaporate, leaving dust, although its use was banned in the USA in 1980, it is a long-running myth that spermaceti from whales has still been used in NASA projects such as the Hubble Telescope and the Voyager probe because of its low freezing temperature. Spermaceti is not an oil, but a mixture of wax esters, there is no evidence that NASA has used whale oil; some oils burn in liquid or aerosol form, generating light, heat which can be used directly or converted into other forms of energy such as electricity or mechanical work. To obtain many fuel oils, crude oil is pumped from the ground and is shipped via oil tanker or a pipeline to an oil refinery.
There, it is converted from crude oil to diesel fuel, fuel oils, jet fuel, kerosene and liquefied petroleum gas. A 42-US-gallon barrel of crude oil produces 10 US gallons of diesel, 4 US gallons of jet fuel, 19 US gallons of gasoline, 7 US gallons of other products, 3 US gallons split between heavy fuel oil and liquified petroleum gases, 2 US gallons of heating oil; the total production of a barrel of crude into various products results in an increase to 45 US gallons. Not all oils used as fuels are mineral oils, see biodiesel and vegetable oil fuel. In the 18th and 19th cent
Turbo-electric transmission uses electric generators to convert the mechanical energy of a turbine into electric energy and electric motors to convert it back into mechanical energy to power the driveshafts. Turbo-electric drives are used in some rail ships. An advantage of turbo-electric transmission is that it allows the adaptation of high-speed turning turbines to the turning propellers or wheels without the need of a heavy and complex gearbox, it has the advantage of being able to provide electricity for the ship or train's other electrical systems, such as lighting, computers and communications equipment. Colorado-class USS New Mexico Tennessee-class USS Langley Lexington-class Buckley-class Rudderow-class Admiral W. S. Benson-class transports Gilliam-class attack transports USS Glenard P. Lipscomb USS Tullibee Triomphant-class submarines Columbia-class submarines Suamico-class oilers Tampa-class cutters USCGC Haida, USCGC Modoc, USCGC Mojave and USCGC Tampa. California and Virginia Canberra – the most powerful steam turbo-electric units in a passenger ship, 42,500 shp per shaft, 2 shafts RMS Mooltan Morro Castle and Oriente Normandie – most powerful steam turbo-electric passenger ship 40,000 shp per shaft, 4 shafts Potsdam and Scharnhorst President Cleveland and President Wilson President Hoover and President Coolidge RMS Queen Mary 2 – powered by General Electric gas turbines as well as her diesel generators to generate the current for her four Rolls-Royce electric podded azimuth thrusters Santa Clara Strath-class ocean liners RMS Strathnaver and RMS Strathaird RMS Viceroy of India Cuba, converted to turbo-electric transmission in 1920 Princess Marguerite and Princess Patricia TEV Wahine TEV Rangatira – the World's last steam-powered turbo-electric merchant ship.
"Turboelectric drive in American Capital Ships". The Naval Technical Board. NavWeaps. Draper, John L. "The Paddle Wheel to Electric Drive". Popular Mechanics: 898–902. — detailed article with drawing and charts on turbo-electric drive for ships and the advantages
USS Buckley (DE-51)
USS Buckley was the lead ship of her class of destroyer escorts in the service with the United States Navy from 1943 to 1946. After spending 23 years in reserve, she was scrapped in 1969. USS Buckley was named in honor of Aviation Ordnanceman John D. Buckley, killed in action during the Japanese attack on the Hawaiian Islands on 7 December 1941. Buckley was launched on 9 January 1943 by Inc.. Hingham, sponsored by Mrs. James Buckley, mother of Aviation Ordnanceman Buckley. Between July 1943 and 22 April 1944, Buckley operated along the eastern seaboard as training ship for prospective officers and nucleus crews of other destroyer escorts. On 22 April 1944, she joined hunter-killer Task Group 21.11 for a sweep of the North Atlantic and Mediterranean convoy routes. On the morning of 6 May, aircraft from the escort carrier Block Island reported an enemy submarine near Buckley, she steamed toward the surfaced submarine, evading her torpedoes and gunfire, commenced firing. At 0328 Buckley rammed the German submarine U-66 and backed off.
Shortly thereafter, the submarine struck Buckley, opening a hole in the escort vessel's starboard side. Hand-to-hand combat ensued between crew members of the two combatants on Buckley's foredeck, among other weapons, coffee mugs and shell casings; the U-66 drew astern of Buckley and sank at 0341 in 17°17′N 32°24′W, after hand grenades were dropped down its hatch. Buckley picked up 36 German survivors, transferred them to the Block Island and retired to New York where she underwent repairs until 14 June 1944. For this most interesting action, regarded by several high naval officers as being the most "exciting" anti-submarine kill in the Battle of the Atlantic, Buckley personnel were authorized to wear a combat star in the European-African Theater ribbon; the commanding officer, Lt. Comdr. Brent M. Abel, USNR, of Cambridge, was awarded the Navy Cross for his part in its execution. After completing refresher training at Casco Bay, Maine, in July 1944, Buckley escorted two convoys to North Africa.
She operated on anti-submarine and convoy escort duty along the eastern seaboard and in the North Atlantic until June 1945. During this period Buckley and Reuben James sank the German submarine U-879 on 19 April 1945 in 42°19′N 61°45′W. Buckley escorted one more convoy to Algeria during June–July 1945, before returning to the United States. Upon her return to the east coast, she commenced conversion to a radar picket ship. In October 1945, she participated in the Navy Day ceremonies at Jacksonville, on 31 October reported to the 16th Fleet at St. Johns River, Florida. Buckley was placed out of commission in reserve on 3 July 1946. On 26 April 1949 her classification was changed to DER-51, on 29 September 1954, she was reclassified back to DE-51. Buckley was stricken from the Naval Vessel Register on 1 June 1968; some scenes in the 1957 movie The Enemy Below seem to be inspired by Buckley's battle with U-66 near the end of the movie where the U. S. Navy destroyer escort grounds on the deck of the submarine.
The battle with U-66 is detailed in an episode of the YouTube channel History Worth Remembering. Navy Unit Commendation American Campaign Medal with one battle star European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal with two battle stars World War II Victory Medal This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships; the entry can be found here. A 1/249 scale plastic model kit of the USS Buckley is available by Revell Models. Photo gallery of USS Buckley at NavSource Naval History Historical Record of the USS Buckley
Derry Londonderry, is the second-largest city in Northern Ireland and the fourth-largest city on the island of Ireland. The name Derry is an anglicisation of the Old Irish name Daire meaning "oak grove". In 1613, the city was granted a Royal Charter by King James I and gained the "London" prefix to reflect the funding of its construction by the London guilds. While the city is more known colloquially as Derry, Londonderry is commonly used and remains the legal name; the old walled city lies on the west bank of the River Foyle, spanned by two road bridges and one footbridge. The city now covers both banks; the population of the city was 83,652 at the 2001 Census, while the Derry Urban Area had a population of 90,736. The district administered by Derry City and Strabane District Council contains both Londonderry Port and City of Derry Airport. Derry is close to the border with County Donegal, with which it has had a close link for many centuries; the person traditionally seen as the founder of the original Derry is Saint Colmcille, a holy man from Tír Chonaill, the old name for all of modern County Donegal, of which the west bank of the Foyle was a part before 1610.
In 2013, Derry was the inaugural UK City of Culture, having been awarded the title in 2010. According to the city's Royal Charter of 10 April 1662, the official name is "Londonderry"; this was reaffirmed in a High Court decision in 2007 when Derry City Council sought guidance on the procedure for effecting a name change. The council had changed its name from "Londonderry City Council" to "Derry City Council" in 1984; the decision of the court was that it had not but it was clarified that the correct procedure to do so was via a petition to the Privy Council. Derry City Council since started this process and were involved in conducting an equality impact assessment report. Firstly it held an opinion poll of district residents in 2009, which reported that 75% of Catholics and 77% of Nationalists found the proposed change acceptable, compared to 6% of Protestants and 8% of Unionists; the EQIA held two consultative forums, solicited comments from the general public on whether or not the city should have its name changed to Derry.
A total of 12,136 comments were received, of which 3,108 were broadly in favour of the proposal, 9,028 opposed to it. On 23 July 2015, the council voted in favour of a motion to change the official name of the city to Derry and to write to Mark H. Durkan, Northern Ireland Minister of the Environment, to ask how the change could be effected. Despite the official name, the city is more known as "Derry", an anglicisation of the Irish Daire or Doire, translates as "oak-grove/oak-wood"; the name derives from Daire Calgaich. The name was changed from Derry in 1613 during the Plantation of Ulster to reflect the establishment of the city by the London guilds; the name "Derry" is preferred by nationalists and it is broadly used throughout Northern Ireland's Catholic community, as well as that of the Republic of Ireland, whereas many unionists prefer "Londonderry". Linguist Kevin McCafferty argues that "It is not speaking, correct that Northern Ireland Catholics call it Derry, while Protestants use the Londonderry form, although this pattern has become more common locally since the mid-1980s, when the city council changed its name by dropping the prefix".
In McCafferty's survey of language use in the city, "only few interviewees—all Protestants—use the official form". Apart from the name of Derry City Council, the city is known as Londonderry in official use within the UK. In the Republic of Ireland, the city and county are always referred to as Derry, on maps, in the media and in conversation. In April 2009, the Republic of Ireland's Minister for Foreign Affairs, Micheál Martin, announced that Irish passport holders who were born there could record either Derry or Londonderry as their place of birth. Whereas official road signs in the Republic use the name Derry, those in Northern Ireland bear Londonderry, although some of these have been defaced with the reference to London obscured. Usage varies with both names being used. Examples are City of Derry Airport, City of Derry Rugby Club, Derry City FC and the Protestant Apprentice Boys of Derry, as opposed to Londonderry Port, Londonderry YMCA Rugby Club and Londonderry Chamber of Commerce; the bishopric has always remained that of Derry, both in the Church of Ireland, in the Roman Catholic Church.
Most companies within the city choose local area names such as Pennyburn, Rosemount or "Foyle" from the River Foyle to avoid alienating the other community. Londonderry railway station is referred to as Waterside railway station within the city but is called Derry/Londonderry at other stations; the council changed the name of the local government district covering the city to Derry on 7 May 1984 renaming itself Derry City Council. This did not change the name of the city, although the city is coterminous with the district, in law the city council is the "Corporation of Londonderry" or, more formally, the "Mayor and Citizens of the City of Londonderry"; the form "Londonderry" is used for the post town by the Royal Mail, however use of Derry will still ensure delivery. The city is nicknamed the Maiden City by virtue of the fact that its walls were never