Naval Battle of Guadalcanal
The Naval Battle of Guadalcanal, sometimes referred to as the Third and Fourth Battles of Savo Island, the Battle of the Solomons, the Battle of Friday the 13th, or, in Japanese sources, the Third Battle of the Solomon Sea, took place from 12–15 November 1942, was the decisive engagement in a series of naval battles between Allied and Imperial Japanese forces during the months-long Guadalcanal Campaign in the Solomon Islands during World War II. The action consisted of combined air and sea engagements over four days, most near Guadalcanal and all related to a Japanese effort to reinforce land forces on the island; the only two U. S. Navy admirals to be killed in a surface engagement in the war. Allied forces landed on Guadalcanal on 7 August 1942 and seized an airfield called Henderson Field, under construction by the Japanese military. There were several subsequent attempts to recapture the airfield by the Imperial Japanese Army and Navy using reinforcements delivered to Guadalcanal by ship, efforts which failed.
In early November 1942, the Japanese organized a transport convoy to take 7,000 infantry troops and their equipment to Guadalcanal to attempt once again to retake the airfield. Several Japanese warship forces were assigned to bombard Henderson Field with the goal of destroying Allied aircraft that posed a threat to the convoy. Learning of the Japanese reinforcement effort, U. S. forces launched aircraft and warship attacks to defend Henderson Field and prevent the Japanese ground troops from reaching Guadalcanal. In the resulting battle, both sides lost numerous warships in two destructive surface engagements at night; the U. S. succeeded in turning back attempts by the Japanese to bombard Henderson Field with battleships. Allied aircraft sank most of the Japanese troop transports and prevented the majority of the Japanese troops and equipment from reaching Guadalcanal. Thus, the battle turned back Japan's last major attempt to dislodge Allied forces from Guadalcanal and nearby Tulagi, resulting in a strategic victory for the U.
S. and its allies and deciding the ultimate outcome of the Guadalcanal campaign in their favor. The six-month Guadalcanal campaign began on 7 August 1942, when Allied forces landed on Guadalcanal and the Florida Islands in the Solomon Islands, a pre-war colonial possession of Great Britain; the landings were meant to prevent the Japanese using the islands as bases from which to threaten the supply routes between the U. S. and Australia, to secure them as starting points for a campaign to neutralize the major Imperial Japanese military base at Rabaul and support of the Allied New Guinea campaign. The Japanese had occupied Tulagi in May 1942 and began constructing an airfield on Guadalcanal in June 1942. By nightfall on 8 August, the 11,000 Allied troops secured Tulagi, the nearby small islands, a Japanese airfield under construction at Lunga Point on Guadalcanal. Allied aircraft operating out of Henderson were called the "Cactus Air Force" after the Allied code name for Guadalcanal. To protect the airfield, the U.
S. Marines established a perimeter defense around Lunga Point. Additional reinforcements over the next two months increased the number of U. S. troops at Lunga Point to more than 20,000 men. In response, the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters assigned the Imperial Japanese Army's 17th Army, a corps-sized command based at Rabaul and under the command of Lieutenant-General Harukichi Hyakutake, with the task of retaking Guadalcanal. Units of the 17th Army began to arrive on Guadalcanal on 19 August, to drive Allied forces from the island; because of the threat posed by CAF aircraft based at Henderson Field, the Japanese were unable to use large, slow transport ships to deliver troops and supplies to the island. Instead, they used warships based at the Shortland Islands; the Japanese warships—mainly light cruisers or destroyers from the Eighth Fleet under the command of Vice Admiral Gunichi Mikawa—were able to make the round trip down "The Slot" to Guadalcanal and back in a single night, thereby minimizing their exposure to air attack.
Delivering the troops in this manner, prevented most of the soldiers' heavy equipment and supplies—such as heavy artillery and much food and ammunition—from being carried to Guadalcanal with them. These high-speed warship runs to Guadalcanal occurred throughout the campaign and came to be known as the "Tokyo Express" by Allied forces and "Rat Transportation" by the Japanese; the first Japanese attempt to recapture Henderson Field failed when a 917-man force was defeated on 21 August in the Battle of the Tenaru. The next attempt took place from 12 to 14 September, ending in the defeat of the 6,000 men under the command of Major General Kiyotake Kawaguchi at the Battle of Edson's Ridge. In October, the Japanese again tried to recapture Henderson Field by delivering 15,000 more men—mainly from the Army's 2nd Infantry Division — to Guadalcanal. In addition to delivering the troops and their equipment by Tokyo Express runs, the Japanese successfully pushed through one large convoy of slower transport ships.
Enabling the approach of the transport convoy was a nighttime bombardment of Henderson Field by two battleships on 14 October that damaged the airfield's runways, destroyed half of the CAF's aircraft, burned most of the available aviation fuel. In spite of the damage, Henderson personnel were able to restore the two runways to service and replacement aircraft and fuel were delivered restoring the CAF to its prebombardment level over the next few weeks; the next Imperial attempt to retake the island with the newly arrived troops occurred from 20 to
3"/50 caliber gun
The 3″/50 caliber gun in United States naval gun terminology indicates the gun fired a projectile 3 inches in diameter, the barrel was 50 calibers long. Different guns of this caliber were used by the U. S. Navy and U. S. Coast Guard from 1890 through the 1990s on a variety of combatant and transport ship classes; the gun is still in use with the Spanish Navy on Serviola-class patrol boats. The US Navy's first 3″/50 caliber gun was an early model with a projectile velocity of 2,100 feet per second. Low-angle mountings for this gun had a range of 7000 yards at the maximum elevation of 15 degrees; the gun entered service around 1900 with the Bainbridge-class destroyers, was fitted to Connecticut-class battleships. By World War II these guns were found only on a few Coast Guard cutters and Defensively Equipped Merchant Ships. Low-angle 3″/50 caliber guns were mounted on ships built from the early 1900s through the early 1920s and were carried by submarines and merchant ships during the Second World War.
These guns fired the same 2,700 feet per second ammunition used by the following dual-purpose Marks, but with range limited by the maximum elevation of the mounting. These were built-up guns with a tube, partial-length jacket and vertical sliding breech block. Dual-purpose 3″/50 caliber guns first entered service in 1915 as a refit to USS Texas, were subsequently mounted on many types of ships as the need for anti-aircraft protection was recognized. During World War II, they were the primary gun armament on destroyer escorts, patrol frigates, submarine chasers, some fleet submarines, other auxiliary vessels, were used as a secondary dual-purpose battery on some other types of ships, including some older battleships, they replaced the original low-angle 4"/50 caliber guns on "flush-deck" Wickes and Clemson-class destroyers to provide better anti-aircraft protection. The gun was used on specialist destroyer conversions; these dual-purpose guns were "quick-firing", meaning that they used fixed ammunition, with powder case and projectile permanently attached, handled as a single unit weighing 34 pounds.
The shells alone weighed about 13 pounds including an explosive bursting charge of 0.81 pounds for anti-aircraft rounds or 1.27 pounds for High Capacity rounds, the remainder of the weight being the steel casing. Maximum range was 14,600 yards at 45 degrees elevation and ceiling was 29,800 feet at 85 degrees elevation. Useful life expectancy was 4300 effective full charges per barrel; the 3"/50 caliber gun Marks 17 and 18 was first used as a submarine deck gun on R-class submarines launched in 1918-1919. At the time it was an improvement on the earlier 3"/23 caliber gun. After using larger guns on many other submarines, the 3"/50 caliber gun Mark 21 was specified as the standard deck gun on the Porpoise- through Gato-class submarines launched in 1935-1942; the small gun was chosen to remove the temptation to engage enemy escort vessels on the surface. The gun was mounted aft of the conning tower to reduce submerged drag, but early in World War II it was shifted to a forward position at the commanding officer's option.
Wartime experience showed. This need was met by transferring 4"/50 caliber guns from S-class submarines as they were shifted from combat to training roles beginning in late 1942; the 5"/25 caliber gun removed from battleships sunk or damaged in the attack on Pearl Harbor and manufactured in a submarine version, became standard. When multiple hits from Oerlikon 20 mm cannon and Bofors 40 mm guns were unable to prevent kamikaze strikes during the final year of the second world war. Post-war experimentation with an extended range variant was abandoned as shipboard surface-to-air missiles were developed; the United States Navy considered contemporary 5"/38 caliber guns and 5″/54 caliber guns more effective against surface targets. The 3″/50 caliber gun was a semiautomatic anti-aircraft weapon with a power driven automatic loader; these monobloc 3 ″ guns were fitted to both twin mountings. The single was to be exchanged for a twin 40 mm antiaircraft gun mount and the twin for a quadruple 40 mm mount.
This was performed on Essex-class aircraft carriers, Allen M. Sumner and Gearing-class destroyers and other ships circa 1946-50. Although intended as a one-for-one replacement for the 40 mm mounts, the final version of the new 3-inch mounts was heavier than expected, on most ships the mounts could be replaced only on a two-for-three basis; the mounts were of open-base-ring type. The right and left gun assemblies were identical in the twin mounts; the mounts used a common power drive that could train at a rate of 30 degree/second and elevate from 15 degrees to 85 degrees at a rate of 24 degree/second. The cannon was fed automatically from an on-mount magazine, replenished during action by two loaders on each side of the cannon. With proximity fuze and fire-control radar, a twin 3″/50 mount firing 50 rounds per minute per
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
The lead ship, name ship, or class leader is the first of a series or class of ships all constructed according to the same general design. The term is applicable to larger civilian craft. Large ships may take as much as five to ten years to construct. Any changes or advances that are available when building a ship are to be included, so it is rare to have two that are identical. Constructing one ship is likely to reveal better ways of doing things and errors; the second and ships are started before the first one is completed and tested. Building copies is still more efficient and cost-effective than building prototypes, the lead ship will be followed by copies with some improvements rather than radically different versions; the improvements will sometimes be retrofitted to the lead ship. The lead ship will be launched and commissioned for shakedown testing before following ships are completed, making the lead ship a combination of template and prototype, rather than expending resources on a prototype that will never see actual use.
Ship classes are named in one of two ways. If a ship class is produced for another fleet, the first active unit will become the lead ship for that fleet. Larger civilian craft, such as Sun Princess, the lead ship of the Sun-class cruise ships, sometimes follow this convention as well. Example of a lead ship announcement from US Navy USS Pennsylvania BB-38
USS Helena (CL-50)
USS Helena was a St. Louis-class light cruiser of the United States Navy. Completed shortly before World War II, she was damaged in the attack on Pearl Harbor and was at the center of three significant battles during the Solomon Islands campaign of the Pacific War, she was sunk by three surface-fired torpedoes at the battle of Kula Gulf in 1943. She was one of three U. S. light cruisers to be sunk during the war. In March 1945, for actions in October and November 1942, in her final engagement on 5 July 1943, Helena became the first US Navy ship to be awarded the Navy Unit Commendation Medal. On 11 April 2018, her wreck was discovered in the Solomon Islands by Paul Allen's research ship RV Petrel; the St. Louis-class cruisers were a two ship class consisting of St. Helena; these were improved Brooklyn-class cruiser, referred to as Brooklyn-class in some tables, which arose from the London Naval Treaty of 1930, which limited the construction of heavy cruisers, i.e. ships carrying guns with calibers between 6.1 inches and 8 inches.
The United States did not favor this outcome, being of the opinion that the heavier-gunned ships more suited its needs in the Pacific. Brooklyn-class designs started in 1930, with the first four ships of the class ordered in 1933 and an additional three in 1934. Basic criteria had been that speed and range should match heavy cruisers and, when the Japanese Mogami-class cruiser carrying fifteen six-inch main guns appeared, the new U. S. ships would match their weaponry. Various combinations of armor and power plants were tried in the efforts to stay below the Treaty's 10,000 ton limit; the General Naval Board, in questioning 1935 changes to the London Naval Treaty, decided the following regarding the new St. Louis class cruisers: Since the question of numbers is regulated by the total tonnage allowed and since that total tonnage after 1936 is indefinite owing to the uncertainties of the 1935 Conference, the Board considers that for now the properties of the individual ship are of greater importance than the number of ships.
The St. Louis class had newer and improved higher-pressure boilers, the boiler arrangement used the "unit system" of the alternating boiler and engine rooms; this was to prevent a ship from being immobilized by a single hit. Additionally, anti-aircraft armament was improved, they were the first U. S. cruisers to be armed with twin five-inch 38-caliber guns. They could be distinguished visually from the Brooklyn's by the placement of the after deckhouse abaft the second funnel, by the twin 5" mounts. Helena, the second Navy ship bearing the name of the city of Helena, was launched on 27 August 1938 by the New York Navy Yard, sponsored by Ms. Elinor Carlyle Gudger, granddaughter of Senator Thomas J. Walsh of Montana, commissioned on 18 September 1939, Captain Max B. Demott in command. Helena departed 14 October 1939 from New York Navy Yard for her sea trials and shakedown cruise, she arrived in Annapolis on 22 December 1939 and departed there on 27 December 1939 for her first voyage to South America.
She stopped in many ports including Norfolk, Virginia from 27 December 1939 to 3 January 1940 and Guantánamo Bay, Cuba from 6–7 January 1940. She crossed the equator on Longitude 40 West on 13 January 1940. Helena visited Buenos Aires, Argentina from 22–28 January 1940. From 19 January to 3 February 1940, she stopped at Montevideo, where her sailors boarded the wreck of the German pocket battleship Admiral Graf Spee. Further stops included Santos, Brazil from 5–10 February 1940, Guantanamo Bay from 12–24 February 1940, Norfolk from 27 February to 1 March 1940, she arrived back at the Navy Yard in New York on 2 March 1940. Helena—assigned to the Pacific Fleet—was at Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941 when the Japanese attacked. Helena was under the command of Robert Henry English at the time, she was moored at 1010 Dock Navy Yard on the base side of the harbor. Outboard was the minelayer Oglala. By chance, Helena was in the berth assigned to the battleship Pennsylvania, thus became a prime target for the Japanese planes."Japanese planes are attacking Ford Island, All hands to General Quarters!" was the call over the ship's intercom system at about 0757 hours.
A tremendous explosion lifted the ship bodily amidships just forward of gun mount number 3 some three minutes into the Japanese attack. Some 20 men were killed; this attack was from one torpedo bomber which launched a torpedo and hit the Helena on the starboard side, just as the crew raced to battle stations. Several Japanese planes, still loaded with torpedoes, overflew the ship to attack the battleships at Ford Island. Reports are inconsistent that some Japanese pilots aborted their attacks on Helena after realizing she was not the USS Pennsylvania. Helena began to flood and a slight list of no more than five degrees was maintained by counter-flooding. Only one of the two engine rooms and one boiler room were flooded. Wiring to the main and secondary gun batteries was severed, but prompt action by damage control brought the forward diesel generator up within minutes, making power available to all gun mounts, for fire fighting and counter-flooding. With attacking planes flying overhead, the crew began to break out the service ammunition, by 0801 hours the ship began to fight back by sending up anti-aircraft fire.
There had been a flash fire that caused heavy smoke from the explosion. Some sailors were perished due to this dense smoke. Fire control parties were confused because they found no active fires. Crew members responding to the General Quarters alarm closed water-tight doors and vents. This, with outstanding damage control work, kept Helena afloat. Crew members in
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. It is located on a peninsula, bordered on the north and east by the state of New York along the extent of the length of New York City on its western edge. New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, with 9 million residents as of 2017, the most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. New Jersey lies within the combined statistical areas of New York City and Philadelphia. New Jersey was the second-wealthiest U. S. state by median household income as of 2017. New Jersey was inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2,800 years, with historical tribes such as the Lenape along the coast. In the early 17th century, the Dutch and the Swedes founded the first European settlements in the state; the English seized control of the region, naming it the Province of New Jersey after the largest of the Channel Islands and granting it as a colony to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton.
New Jersey was the site of several decisive battles during the American Revolutionary War in the 18th century. In the 19th century, factories in cities, Paterson, Trenton, Jersey City, Elizabeth helped to drive the Industrial Revolution. New Jersey's geographic location at the center of the Northeast megalopolis, between Boston and New York City to the northeast, Philadelphia and Washington, D. C. to the southwest, fueled its rapid growth through the process of suburbanization in the second half of the 20th century. In the first decades of the 21st century, this suburbanization began reverting with the consolidation of New Jersey's culturally diverse populace toward more urban settings within the state, with towns home to commuter rail stations outpacing the population growth of more automobile-oriented suburbs since 2008. Around 180 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period, New Jersey bordered North Africa; the pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the Appalachian Mountains.
Around 18,000 years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers. As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic, as well as many rivers and gorges. New Jersey was settled by Native Americans, with the Lenni-Lenape being dominant at the time of contact. Scheyichbi is the Lenape name for the land, now New Jersey; the Lenape were several autonomous groups that practiced maize agriculture in order to supplement their hunting and gathering in the region surrounding the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, western Long Island Sound. The Lenape society was divided into matrilinear clans; these clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign: Turtle and Wolf. They first encountered the Dutch in the early 17th century, their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade; the Dutch became the first Europeans to lay claim to lands in New Jersey. The Dutch colony of New Netherland consisted of parts of modern Middle Atlantic states. Although the European principle of land ownership was not recognized by the Lenape, Dutch West India Company policy required its colonists to purchase the land that they settled.
The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in 1630 along the North River which became the Bergen. Peter Minuit's purchase of lands along the Delaware River established the colony of New Sweden; the entire region became a territory of England on June 24, 1664, after an English fleet under the command of Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into what is now New York Harbor and took control of Fort Amsterdam, annexing the entire province. During the English Civil War, the Channel Island of Jersey remained loyal to the British Crown and gave sanctuary to the King, it was from the Royal Square in Saint Helier that Charles II of England was proclaimed King in 1649, following the execution of his father, Charles I. The North American lands were divided by Charles II, who gave his brother, the Duke of York, the region between New England and Maryland as a proprietary colony. James granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had remained loyal through the English Civil War: Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton.
The area was named the Province of New Jersey. Since the state's inception, New Jersey has been characterized by religious diversity. New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scots Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrants. While the majority of residents lived in towns with individual landholdings of 100 acres, a few rich proprietors owned vast estates. English Quakers and Anglicans owned large landholdings. Unlike Plymouth Colony and other colonies, New Jersey was populated by a secondary wave of immigrants who came from other colonies instead of those who migrated directly from Europe. New Jersey remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, commercial farming developed sporadically; some townships, such as Burlington on the Delaware River and Perth Amboy, emerged as important ports for shipping to New York City and Philadelphia. The colony's fertile lands and tolerant religious policy drew more settlers, New Jersey's population had increased to 120,000 by 1775. Settlement for the first 10 years of English rule took place along Hackensack River and Arthur Kill –
Kearny, New Jersey
Kearny is a town in Hudson County, New Jersey, United States and a suburb of Newark. As of the 2010 United States Census, the town's population was 40,684, reflecting an increase of 171 from the 40,513 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 5,639 from the 34,874 counted in the 1990 Census. Kearny is named after Civil War general Philip Kearny, it began as a township formed by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on April 8, 1867, from portions of Harrison Township. Portions of the township were taken on July 1895, to form East Newark. Kearny was incorporated as a town on January 19, 1899, based on the results of a referendum held two days earlier; the Arlington section of town was named for Arlington Station on the Erie Railroad at the Arlington Mill plant, owned by Arlington Mills of Lawrence, Massachusetts. The area of Kearny Township, created in 1867, had been part of the original Crown Grant of 30,000 acres obtained by Major William Sandford of Barbados on July 4, 1668.
Major Sandford named it New Barbadoes Neck after his old home. As was the custom of the time, the Major paid 20 pounds sterling to Chief Tantaqua of the Hackensack tribe for all their reserve rights and titles. Sanford's friend Major Nathaniel Kingsland acquired the property in 1708 and sold the upper western tract of the Grant for 300 pounds sterling to Captain Arent Schuyler two years later; the new purchase included present-day Kearny, North Arlington and Kingsland. Shortly after Schuyler's purchase of his new homestead, a peculiar green stone was uncovered, it was sent to England for analysis and he learned that it contained 80% copper. His opening of a copper mine brought the first steam engine to America from England; the engine was secretly delivered by Josiah Hornblower. The engine and mines remained idle for some years. Schuyler Mansion played a role during the American Revolutionary War Era; when Lord Howe of England took possession of New York Harbor, the proximity of Schuyler Mansion drew many of his officers.
They traveled over a road that today is referred to as the Belleville Turnpike, constructed in 1759 using cedar logs from the nearby swamps. During September 1777, General Henry Clinton, head of the British Expeditionary Forces in America, selected Schuyler Mansion for his headquarters during one of his more important raiding operations which included the famed Battle of Second River; the Mansion stood until 1924, a period of 214 years, when it was torn down by a land development company, despite the company's offers to transfer the land an organization that would be able to pay to maintain the property. In the middle 19th century, Kearny was the northern, section of the Township of Harrison. A prominent citizen and resident of the upper section, General N. M. Halsted, felt it was impossible under these political conditions for his section to obtain proper recognition, he engaged an energetic campaign for an independent township. He succeeded when the NJ Legislature of 1867 on March 14, adopted "an act creating the Township of Kearny".
The town was named to honor Major General Phil Kearny, Commander of the New Jersey Forces in the Civil War and the owner of the mansion known as Belle Grove, locally called "Kearny Castle". On April 8, 1867, the first election of town officers was held. General N. M. Halsted was elected Chairman; the first official seat of Government was three rooms in the old Lodi Hotel, on the northeast corner of Schuyler and Harrison Avenues. In the early 1870s, Kearny erected its first Town Hall, on the corner of Kearny and Woodland Avenues, the present site of the Knox Presbyterian Church Parish Hall; this served as a Town Hall, Court House, Schoolhouse. The Minute Book of the Township states on August 16, 1870, the first step toward establishing Kearny's present public school system was taken; the first schoolhouse was housed in the Town Hall built at Kearny and Woodland Avenues in 1873. The Highland Hose No. 4 firehouse, now on the National Register of Historic Places list was built in 1895. The town's nickname, "Soccer Town, U.
S. A." is derived from a soccer tradition that originated in the mid-1870s, when thousands of Scottish and Irish immigrants settled in the town, after two Scottish companies, Clark Thread Company and Nairn Linoleum, opened two local mills and a factory. When the town's growth demanded larger quarters, the present Kearny Town Hall, built of Indiana limestone, was erected in 1909; the early influx and development of industry in Kearny dates back to 1875 when the Clark Thread Company of Paisley in Scotland extended its activities to the United States by erecting two large mills in Kearny, adding two others in 1890. These mills brought to Kearny thousands of Scots immigrants. Many of them would play on Kearny's soccer teams in National Association Football League. Many are buried at Arlington Memorial Park in the Kearny Uplands. In 1876, the Mile End Thread Mills started operating, giving employment to several hundred operators. In 1883, the Marshall Flax Spinning Company of England erected a large plant in Kearny, known as the Linen Thread Company.
Their need for experienced flax spinners brought an influx of workers from other sections of the British Isles. Families of those early textile workers were the nucleus of Kearny's present population; the Puraline Manufacturing Company called the Arlington Company, which became a subsidiary of E. I. DuPont de Nemours Company, had purchased a large tract of land east of the Arlington Station on the Erie Railroad extending well out, north of the railroad embankment, into the meadowland. In 1887, Sir Michael Nairn established the Nairn Linoleum Company of Kirkcaldy in Scotland, now the