Andrew Hull Foote
Andrew Hull Foote was an American naval officer, noted for his service in the American Civil War and for his contributions to several naval reforms in the years prior to the war. When the war came, he was appointed to command of the Western Gunboat Flotilla, predecessor of the Mississippi River Squadron. In that position, he led the gunboats in the Battle of Fort Henry. For his services with the Western Gunboat Flotilla, Foote was among the first naval officers to be promoted to the then-new rank of rear admiral. Foote was born at New Haven, the son of Senator Samuel A. Foot and Eudocia Hull; as a child Foote was not known as a good student, but showed a keen interest in one day going to sea. His father compromised and had him entered at the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York. Six months in 1822, he left West Point and accepted an appointment as a midshipman in the United States Navy. Between 1822 and 1843, Foote saw service in the Caribbean and Mediterranean, African Coast and at the Philadelphia Navy Yard.
He first began as a midshipman on USS Grampus. In 1830, he was commissioned a lieutenant, was stationed in the Mediterranean. In 1837, Foote circumnavigated the globe in USS John Adams. After serving on sea, Foote was put in charge of the Philadelphia Naval Asylum. After serving on land he went back to sea, organized a Temperance Society aboard USS Cumberland; this group developed into a movement that resulted in ending the policy of supplying grog to U. S. Naval personnel. From 1849 to 1851, Foote commanded USS Perry, he was active in suppressing the slave trade there. This experience persuaded him to support the cause of abolition, in 1854, he published a 390 page book and the American Flag. In this book, Admiral Foote described the geography of the African continent, the customs of many of the African people, the establishment of American colonies in Africa, the slave-trade and its evils and the need to protect American citizens and commerce abroad, he became a frequent speaker on the Abolitionist circuit.
Foote was promoted to Commander in 1856, took command of USS Portsmouth in the East India Squadron. With this command, Foote was assigned the mission of observing British operations against Canton, during the Second Opium War; this resulted in his being attacked from Chinese shore batteries. Foote led a landing party that seized the barrier forts along the Pearl River in reprisal for the attack; this led to a short occupation by the U. S. Navy of Chinese territory. Foote returned to the Continental United States in 1858, took command of the Brooklyn Navy Yard, in Brooklyn, New York, a post he held until the outbreak of the hostilities of the Civil War; when the American Civil War began in 1861, Foote was in command of the New York Navy Yard. On June 29, 1861 Foote was promoted to captain. From 1861 to 1862, Foote commanded the Mississippi River Squadron with distinction and leading the gunboat flotilla in many of the early battles of the Western Theater of the American Civil War. Though Foote was an officer in the United States Navy, the Western Flotilla was under the jurisdiction of the Union Army.
In early February 1862, now holding the rank of flag officer, he cooperated with General Ulysses S. Grant against Fort Henry on the Tennessee River. Despite heavy damage to one of the gunboats, Foote was able to subdue the fort. Several days Grant, with three divisions, Foote with his fleet of ironclads, along with the assistance of Captain Seth Ledyard Phelps and his fleet of timberclad warships, moved against Fort Donelson on the Cumberland River. Hoping for a repeat of the success at Fort Henry, General Grant urged Foote to attack the fort's river batteries. Fort Donelson's guns, were better-placed than Fort Henry's were. Three of Foote's gunboats were damaged including USS St. Louis. Foote himself received a wound in his foot. For his service at Forts Henry and Donelson, Foote received the Thanks of Congress. After repairing his flotilla, Foote joined with General John Pope in a campaign against Island Number Ten on the Mississippi River. In July 1862 Foote received a second Thanks of Congress, this time for the battles of Fort Henry, Fort Donelson and Island Number Ten.
In 1862, Foote was promoted to rear admiral. In 1863, on his way to take command of the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron, he died, his untimely death in New York shocked the nation. He was interred at Grove Street Cemetery in New Haven. Three ships were named USS Foote for him. Civil War Fort Foote on the Potomac, now a National Park, was named for him on September 17, 1863. Bibliography of Naval history of the American Civil War Bibliography of American Civil War military leaders List of ships captured in the 19th century List of ships of the Confederate States Navy African Squadron Eicher, David j.. Civil War High Commands. Stanford University Press. ISBN 9780804780353. Hoppin, James Mason. Life of Andrew Hull Foote rear-admiral United States Navy. Harper & Brothers, New York. Davenport, Charles Benedict. Naval officers: their heredity and development. Carnegie Institution of Washington. Crofut, Florence S. Marcy. Fowler, William M. Under Two Flags: The American Navy in the Civil War and Company, 1990, ISBN 0-393-02859-3.
Gott, Kendall D. Where the South Lost the War: An Analysis of the Fort Henry-Fort Donelson Campaign, February 1862, Stackpole Books, 200
New Caledonia is a special collectivity of France in the southwest Pacific Ocean, located to the south of Vanuatu, about 1,210 km east of Australia and 20,000 km from Metropolitan France. The archipelago, part of the Melanesia subregion, includes the main island of Grande Terre, the Loyalty Islands, the Chesterfield Islands, the Belep archipelago, the Isle of Pines, a few remote islets; the Chesterfield Islands are in the Coral Sea. Locals refer to Grande Terre as Le Caillou. New Caledonia has a land area of 18,576 km2, its population of 268,767 consists of a mix of Kanak people, people of European descent, Polynesian people, Southeast Asian people, as well as a few people of Pied-Noir and North African descent. The capital of the territory is Nouméa; the earliest traces of human presence in New Caledonia date back to the Lapita period c. 1600 BC to c. 500 AD. The Lapita were skilled navigators and agriculturists with influence over a large area of the Pacific. British explorer Captain James Cook was the first European to sight New Caledonia, on 4 September 1774, during his second voyage.
He named it "New Caledonia". The west coast of Grande Terre was approached by the Comte de Lapérouse in 1788, shortly before his disappearance, the Loyalty Islands were first visited between 1793 and 1796 when Mare, Lifou and Ouvea were mapped by William Raven; the English whaler encountered the island named Britania, today known as Maré, in November 1793. From 1796 until 1840, only a few sporadic contacts with the archipelago were recorded. About fifty American whalers have been recorded in the region between 1793 and 1887. Contacts became more frequent because of the interest in sandalwood; as trade in sandalwood declined, it was replaced by a new business enterprise, "blackbirding", a euphemism for taking Melanesian or Western Pacific Islanders from New Caledonia, the Loyalty Islands, New Hebrides, New Guinea, the Solomon Islands into indentured or forced labour in the sugar cane plantations in Fiji and Queensland by various methods of trickery and deception. Blackbirding was practiced by both French and British-Australian traders, but in New Caledonia's case, the trade in the early decades of the twentieth century involved relocating children from the Loyalty Islands to the Grand Terre for labour in plantation agriculture.
New Caledonia's primary experience with blackbirding revolved around a trade from the New Hebrides to the Grand Terre for labour in plantation agriculture, mines, as well as guards over convicts and in some public works. The historian Dorothy Shineberg's milestone study, The People Trade, discusses this'migration'. In the early years of the trade, coercion was used to lure Melanesian islanders onto ships. In years indenture systems were developed; this represented a departure from the British experience, since increased regulations were developed to mitigate the abuses of blackbirding and'recruitment' strategies on the coastlines. The first missionaries from the London Missionary Society and the Marist Brothers arrived in the 1840s. In 1849, the crew of the American ship Cutter was eaten by the Pouma clan. Cannibalism was widespread throughout New Caledonia. On 24 September 1853, under orders from Emperor Napoleon III, Admiral Febvrier Despointes took formal possession of New Caledonia. Captain Louis-Marie-François Tardy de Montravel founded Port-de-France on 25 June 1854.
A few dozen free settlers settled on the west coast in the following years. New Caledonia became a penal colony in 1864, from the 1860s until the end of the transportations in 1897, France sent about 22,000 criminals and political prisoners to New Caledonia; the Bulletin de la Société générale des prisons for 1888 indicates that 10,428 convicts, including 2,329 freed ones, were on the island as of 1 May 1888, by far the largest number of convicts detained in French overseas penitentiaries. The convicts included many Communards, arrested after the failed Paris Commune of 1871, including Henri de Rochefort and Louise Michel. Between 1873 and 1876, 4,200 political prisoners were "relegated" to New Caledonia. Only 40 of them settled in the colony. In 1864 nickel was discovered on the banks of the Diahot River. To work the mines the French imported labourers from neighbouring islands and from the New Hebrides, from Japan, the Dutch East Indies, French Indochina; the French government attempted to encourage European immigration, without much success.
The indigenous population or Kanak people were excluded from the French economy and from mining work, confined to reservations. This sparked a violent reaction in 1878, when High Chief Atal of La Foa managed to unite many of the central tribes and launched a guerrilla war that killed 200 Frenchmen and 1,000 Kanaks. A second guerrilla war took place in 1917, with Catholic missionaries like Maurice Leenhardt functioning as witnesses to the events of this war. Leenhardt would pen a number of ethnographic works on the Kanak of New Caledonia. Noel of Tiamou led the 1917 rebellion, which resulted in a number of orphaned children, one of whom was taken into th
The Fletcher class was a class of destroyers built by the United States during World War II. The class was designed in 1939, as a result of dissatisfaction with the earlier destroyer leader types of the Porter and Somers classes; some went on to serve into the Vietnam War. The United States Navy commissioned 175 Fletcher-class destroyers between 1942 and 1944, more than any other destroyer class, the design was regarded as successful. Fletchers had a design speed of 38 knots and an armament of five 5" guns in single mounts with 10 21" torpedoes in two quintuple centerline mounts; the Allen M. Sumner and Gearing classes were Fletcher derivatives; the long-range Fletcher-class ships performed every task asked of a destroyer, from anti-submarine warfare and anti-aircraft warfare to surface action. They could cover the vast distances required by fleet actions in the Pacific and served exclusively in the Pacific Theater of Operations during World War II, during which they accounted for 29 Imperial Japanese Navy submarines sunk.
In a massive effort, the Fletchers were built by shipyards across the United States and, after World War II ended, 11 were sold to countries that they had been built to fight against: Italy and Japan, as well as other countries, where they had longer, distinguished careers. Three have been preserved as museum ships in the U. S. and one in Greece. The Fletcher class was the largest class of destroyer ordered, was one of the most successful and popular with the destroyer men themselves. Compared to earlier classes built for the Navy, they carried a significant increase in anti-aircraft weapons and other weaponry, which caused displacements to rise, their flush deck construction added structural strength, although it did make them rather cramped, as less space was available below decks compared with a raised forecastle. The Fletcher-class was the first generation of destroyers designed after the series of Naval Treaties that had limited ship designs heretofore; the growth in the design was in part to answer a question that always dogged U.
S. Navy designs, they were to carry no less than five 5 in guns and ten deck-mounted torpedo tubes on the centerline, allowing them to meet any foreign design on equal terms. Compared to earlier designs, the Fletchers were large, allowing them to absorb the addition of two 40 mm Bofors quadruple mount AA guns as well as six 20 mm Oerlikon dual AA gun positions; this addition to the AA suite required the deletion of the forward quintuple torpedo mount, a change done under the 4 April 1945 anti-kamikaze program. Fletchers were much less top-heavy than previous classes, allowing them to take on additional equipment and weapons without major redesign, they were fortunate in catching American production at the right moment, becoming "the" destroyer design, only Fletcher-class derivatives, the Sumner and Gearing classes, would follow it. The first design inputs were in the fall of 1939 from questionnaires distributed around design bureaus and the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations; the design parameters were the armaments desired of the next destroyer.
As such, the questions were of how many guns and depth charges were seen as desirable. Asked was at what point would the design grow large enough to become a torpedo target instead of a torpedo delivery system; the answer that came back was that five 5 in dual purpose guns, twelve torpedoes, twenty-eight depth charges would be ideal, while a return to the 1500-ton designs of the past was seen as undesirable. Speed requirements varied from 35 to 38 kn, shortcomings in the earlier Sims class, which were top heavy and needed lead ballast to correct this fault, caused the Fletcher design to be widened by 18 in of beam; as with other previous U. S. flush deck destroyer designs, seagoing performance suffered. This was mitigated by deployment to the Pacific Ocean, calm. To achieve 38 kn with a 500-ton increase in displacement, shaft horsepower was increased from 50,000 to 60,000 compared to the previous Benson and Gleaves classes; the Fletchers featured air-encased boilers producing steam at 600 psi and 850 °F, with emergency diesel generators providing 80 kW of electric power.
Babcock & Wilcox boilers and General Electric geared steam turbines were equipped, although other designs and manufacturers were used to maximize the rate of production. The main gun armament was five dual-purpose 5 inch/38 caliber guns in single mounts, guided by a Mark 37 Gun Fire Control System, including a Mk 12 fire control radar and a Mk 22 height-finder linked by a Mark 1A Fire Control Computer and stabilized by a Mk 6 8,500 rpm gyro. Ten 21 in torpedo tubes were fitted in firing the Mark 15 torpedo. Initial designed anti-aircraft armament was a quadruple 1.1"/75 caliber gun mount and six.50 caliber machine guns. Anti-submarine armament was two depth charge racks at the stern, augmented by up to six K-gun depth charge throwers as the war progressed. Throughout the course of World War II, the number of anti-aircraft weapons increased resulting in five twin 40 mm Bofors mounts plus seven single 20 mm Oerlikons by 1945. Due to the increasing threat from kamikaze attacks, fifty-one ships received further AA modifications beginning
Espiritu Santo is the largest island in the nation of Vanuatu, with an area of 3,955.5 km2 and a population of around 40,000 according to the 2009 census. The island belongs to the archipelago of the New Hebrides in the Pacific region of Melanesia, it is in the Sanma Province of Vanuatu. The town of Luganville, on Espiritu Santo's southeast coast, is Vanuatu's second-largest settlement and the provincial capital. Roads run north and west from Luganville, but most of the island is far from the limited road network. Around Espiritu Santo lie a number of small islets. Vanuatu's highest peak is the 1879 metre Mount Tabwemasana in west-central Espiritu Santo. In 1998, Espiritu Santo hosted the Melanesia Cup. A Spanish expedition led by Portuguese explorer Pedro Fernandes de Queirós, established a settlement in 1606 at Big Bay on the north side of the island. Espiritu Santo takes its name from Queirós, who named the entire island group La Austrialia del Espíritu Santo in acknowledgment of the Spanish king's descent from the royal House of Austria, believing he had arrived in the Great Southern Continent, Terra Australis.
During the time of the British–French Condominium, Hog Harbour, on the northeast coast, was the site of the British district administration, while Segond, near Luganville was the French district administration. During World War II after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the island was used by American naval and air forces as a military supply and support base, naval harbor, airfield. In fictionalized form, this was the locale of James Michener's Tales of the South Pacific, of the following Rodgers and Hammerstein musical, South Pacific; the presence of the Americans contributed to the island's tourism in scuba diving, as the Americans dumped most of their used military and naval equipment, their refuse, at what is now known as "Million Dollar Point". A shipwreck off Espiritu Santo, that of the SS President Coolidge, is a popular diving spot; the SS President Coolidge was a converted luxury liner that hit a sea mine during the war and was sunk. Between May and August 1980 the island was the site of a rebellion during the transfer of power over the colonial New Hebrides from the condominium to the independent Vanuatu.
Jimmy Stevens' Nagriamel movement, in alliance with private French interests and backed by the Phoenix Foundation and American libertarians hoping to establish a tax-free haven, declared the island of Espiritu Santo to be independent of the new government. The "Republic of Vemerana" was proclaimed on May 28. France recognized the independence on June 3. On June 5, the tribal chiefs of Santo named the French Ambassador Philippe Allonneau the "King of Vemerana", Jimmy Stevens became the Prime Minister. Luganville is renamed Allonneaupolis. Next, negotiations with Port-Vila failed, from July 27 to August 18, British Royal Marines and a unit of the French Garde Mobile were deployed to the Vanuatu's capital island, but they did not invade Espiritu Santo as the soon-to-be government had hoped; the troops were recalled shortly before independence. Following independence, now governed by Father Walter Lini, requested assistance from Papua New Guinea, whose army invaded and conquered Espiritu Santo, keeping it in Vanuatu.
Espiritu Santo, with many wrecks and reefs to be explored, is a popular tourist destination for divers. Champagne Beach draws tourists with clear waters; the "Western Side" of the island contains many caves which can be explored, cruise ships stop in at Luganville. The local people make their living by supporting the tourist trade, by cash-crop farming copra, but some cocoa beans and kava, as well as peanuts, or by subsistence farming and fishing. Most of the people are Christians; the largest church groups on the island are the Presbyterian Church of Vanuatu, the Roman Catholic Church, the Church of Melanesia. Active are the Apostolic Church, the Church of Christ, the Seventh-day Adventist Church, others. However, in many villages in Big Bay and South Santo, the people are "heathen", a term that in Vanuatu has no pejorative connotation — it denotes someone who has not embraced Christianity. Customary beliefs of a more modern sort are found among followers of the Nagriamel movement based in Fanafo.
For all of Espiritu Santo's people, custom plays a large part in their lives, regardless of their religion. The chief system continues in most areas; the people of Santo face some health problems malaria and tuberculosis. Although there is a hospital, most local people consult either their own witch doctor or medical clinics set up by western missionaries. Kava is the popular drug of the island. With the rising number of adults using alcohol, there is a rising crime rate involving violence toward women, tribal warfare. Luganville is the only true town on the island. From Luganville, three "main roads" emerge. Main Street leaves the town to the west and winds along the south coast of the island for about 40 km ending at the village of Tasiriki on the southwest coast. Canal Road runs along the southern and eastern coasts of the island, north through Hog Harbor and Golden Beach, ending at Port Olry. Big Bay Highway splits off from Canal Road near Turtle Bay on the east coast, runs west to the mountains, it leads north to Big Bay.
The international airport is about five km east of the center of Luganville. Numerous rivers run to the
Bernard L. Austin
Bernard Lige Austin was a vice admiral of the United States Navy. His career included service in World War II, the Korean War, the Cold War and command of submarines and surface ship forces, during which he became a distinguished combat commander of destroyers, he commanded the United States Second Fleet, held numerous diplomatic and administrative staff positions, a served a lengthy tour of duty as President of the Naval War College. Bernard Lige Austin was born on 15 December 1902 in Wagener, South Carolina, the son of Elijah Andrew Austin and Loula Ola Austin nee Gantt, he attended The Citadel in Charleston, South Carolina, from 1918 to 1920 before his appointment to the United States Naval Academy on 17 July 1920. As a midshipman, he participated in creating the U. S. Naval Academy yearbook, Lucky Bag, he was commissioned an ensign upon graduation on 4 June 1924. Austin's first assignment was to temporary duty at the Bureau of Ordnance at the United States Department of the Navy in Washington, D.
C. during which he was under instruction at the Naval Gun Factory at the Washington Navy Yard in Washington, the Naval Proving Ground at Dahlgren and the Naval Powder Factory at Indian Head, Maryland. He completed this assignment in August 1924 and reported aboard the battleship USS New York, upon which he served for two years. From July to December 1926, he underwent instruction at the Naval Torpedo Station at Newport, Rhode Island, he trained until June 1927 on board the minesweeper USS Chewink, the station ship at Submarine Base New London, Connecticut. In June 1927 he reported based in Pearl Harbor, Territory of Hawaii. In June 1929, he transferred to the submarine USS R-6, serving on board her until May 1931. During the next three years, Austin was an instructor in the Department of Electrical Engineering and Physics at the U. S. Naval Academy, teaching physics and chemistry, he returned to sea in May 1934 as the commanding officer of the submarine USS R-11, serving aboard her until June 1937 when he became executive officer of the presidential yacht USS Potomac.
In December 1937, Austin became Press Relations Officer for the Department of the Navy. The position lent itself to his interest in oral communications and allowed him to develop it as a professional skill, during his tour he delivered speeches written for him by United States Secretary of the Navy Charles Edison and Chief of Naval Operations Admiral Harold R. Stark, he wrote articles on submarine warfare for Encyclopædia Britannica and the World Book Encyclopedia. Austin believed. Austin remained in the press relations assignment until August 1940, when he was sent to the United States Embassy in London, England, as deputy to Rear Admiral Robert L. Ghormley who, as Special Naval Observer there, was charged with negotiating the operational and technical details of cooperation between the Royal Navy and U. S. Navy in the event that the United States entered World War II. Austin was the only member of Ghormley's mission other than Ghormley himself to attend every meeting with the United Kingdom's political and naval leadership, including Winston Churchill and Admiral Sidney Bailey.
During his tour at the embassy, the United States entered World War II on 7 December 1941. Austin became commanding officer of the destroyer USS Woolsey on 12 February 1942. A lieutenant commander by August 1942, he commanded her until December 1942. While he was in command, Woolsey operated in the Atlantic Ocean, escorting convoys from North America to Iceland, the British Isles, Puerto Rico, she took part in Operation Torch, the Allied amphibious invasion of North Africa in November 1942, by which time Austin was a commander. During Torch, Woolsey detected and assisted the destroyers USS Quick and USS Swanson in sinking the German submarine U-173 off Casablanca, French Morocco, on 16 November 1942. For meritorious achievement in command of Woolsey that day, Austin received the Bronze Star Medal with Combat Distinguishing Device “V.” On 22 December 1942, Austin assumed command of the newly commissioned destroyer USS Foote, took her to the Pacific Theater, where in May 1943 he became Commander, Destroyer Division 46, which along with Destroyer Division 45 made up Captain Arleigh Burke's Destroyer Squadron 23, the famed "Little Beavers."
Seeing action in the Solomon Islands campaign, Austin – with the destroyer USS Spence as his flagship – commanded Destroyer Division 46 in two battles off Bougainville Island, the Battle of Empress Augusta Bay on 2 November 1943 and the Battle of Cape St. George on 25 November 1943. In recognition of his service in command of Destroyer Division 46 he was awarded the Navy Cross and, in lieu of a second Navy Cross, a Gold Star, he received the Silver Star Medal for gallantry while in command during November 1943, was awarded the Ribbon for the Presidential Unit Citation given to Destroyer Squadron 23 – the only destroyer squadron to receive a Presidential Unit Citation during World War II – for "extraordinary heroism in action against enemy Japanese forces during the Solomon Islands Campaign from November 1, 1943 to February 23, 1944."In December 1943, Austin took command of Destroyer Squadron 14, with additional duty as Commander, Destroyer Division 27. Promoted to commodore after his exploits in the Solomons, Austin became the youngest flag officer in the U.
S. Navy at the time. On 15 April 1944 he became Assistant Chief of Staff for Operations and Training on the staff of Commander, United States Pacific Fleet. On 9 June 1944, he became Assistant Chief of Staff for Administration to the Commander-i
Radar is a detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects. It can be used to detect aircraft, spacecraft, guided missiles, motor vehicles, weather formations, terrain. A radar system consists of a transmitter producing electromagnetic waves in the radio or microwaves domain, a transmitting antenna, a receiving antenna and a receiver and processor to determine properties of the object. Radio waves from the transmitter reflect off the object and return to the receiver, giving information about the object's location and speed. Radar was developed secretly for military use by several nations in the period before and during World War II. A key development was the cavity magnetron in the UK, which allowed the creation of small systems with sub-meter resolution; the term RADAR was coined in 1940 by the United States Navy as an acronym for RAdio Detection And Ranging The term radar has since entered English and other languages as a common noun, losing all capitalization.
The modern uses of radar are diverse, including air and terrestrial traffic control, radar astronomy, air-defense systems, antimissile systems, marine radars to locate landmarks and other ships, aircraft anticollision systems, ocean surveillance systems, outer space surveillance and rendezvous systems, meteorological precipitation monitoring and flight control systems, guided missile target locating systems, ground-penetrating radar for geological observations, range-controlled radar for public health surveillance. High tech radar systems are associated with digital signal processing, machine learning and are capable of extracting useful information from high noise levels. Radar is a key technology that the self-driving systems are designed to use, along with sonar and other sensors. Other systems similar to radar make use of other parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. One example is "lidar". With the emergence of driverless vehicles, Radar is expected to assist the automated platform to monitor its environment, thus preventing unwanted incidents.
As early as 1886, German physicist Heinrich Hertz showed that radio waves could be reflected from solid objects. In 1895, Alexander Popov, a physics instructor at the Imperial Russian Navy school in Kronstadt, developed an apparatus using a coherer tube for detecting distant lightning strikes; the next year, he added a spark-gap transmitter. In 1897, while testing this equipment for communicating between two ships in the Baltic Sea, he took note of an interference beat caused by the passage of a third vessel. In his report, Popov wrote that this phenomenon might be used for detecting objects, but he did nothing more with this observation; the German inventor Christian Hülsmeyer was the first to use radio waves to detect "the presence of distant metallic objects". In 1904, he demonstrated the feasibility of detecting a ship in dense fog, but not its distance from the transmitter, he obtained a patent for his detection device in April 1904 and a patent for a related amendment for estimating the distance to the ship.
He got a British patent on September 23, 1904 for a full radar system, that he called a telemobiloscope. It operated on a 50 cm wavelength and the pulsed radar signal was created via a spark-gap, his system used the classic antenna setup of horn antenna with parabolic reflector and was presented to German military officials in practical tests in Cologne and Rotterdam harbour but was rejected. In 1915, Robert Watson-Watt used radio technology to provide advance warning to airmen and during the 1920s went on to lead the U. K. research establishment to make many advances using radio techniques, including the probing of the ionosphere and the detection of lightning at long distances. Through his lightning experiments, Watson-Watt became an expert on the use of radio direction finding before turning his inquiry to shortwave transmission. Requiring a suitable receiver for such studies, he told the "new boy" Arnold Frederic Wilkins to conduct an extensive review of available shortwave units. Wilkins would select a General Post Office model after noting its manual's description of a "fading" effect when aircraft flew overhead.
Across the Atlantic in 1922, after placing a transmitter and receiver on opposite sides of the Potomac River, U. S. Navy researchers A. Hoyt Taylor and Leo C. Young discovered that ships passing through the beam path caused the received signal to fade in and out. Taylor submitted a report, suggesting that this phenomenon might be used to detect the presence of ships in low visibility, but the Navy did not continue the work. Eight years Lawrence A. Hyland at the Naval Research Laboratory observed similar fading effects from passing aircraft. Before the Second World War, researchers in the United Kingdom, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, the Soviet Union, the United States, independently and in great secrecy, developed technologies that led to the modern version of radar. Australia, New Zealand, South Africa followed prewar Great Britain's radar development, Hungary generated its radar technology during the war. In France in 1934, following systematic studies on the split-anode magnetron, the research branch of the Compagnie Générale de Télégraphie Sans Fil headed by Maurice Ponte with Henri Gutton, Sylvain Berline and M. Hugon, began developing an obstacle-locatin
Kamikaze Tokubetsu Kōgekitai, were a part of the Japanese Special Attack Units of military aviators who initiated suicide attacks for the Empire of Japan against Allied naval vessels in the closing stages of the Pacific campaign of World War II, designed to destroy warships more than possible with conventional air attacks. About 3,800 kamikaze pilots died during the war, more than 7,000 naval personnel were killed by kamikaze attacks. Kamikaze aircraft were pilot-guided explosive missiles, purpose-built or converted from conventional aircraft. Pilots would attempt to crash their aircraft into enemy ships in what was called a "body attack" in planes laden with some combination of explosives and torpedoes. Accuracy was much higher than that of conventional attacks, the payload and explosion larger. A kamikaze could sustain damage that would disable a conventional attacker and still achieve its objective; the goal of crippling or destroying large numbers of Allied ships aircraft carriers, was considered by the Empire of Japan to be a just reason for sacrificing pilots and aircraft.
These attacks, which began in October 1944, followed several critical military defeats for the Japanese. They had long since lost aerial dominance as a result of having outdated aircraft and enduring the loss of experienced pilots. Japan suffered from a diminishing capacity for war and a declining industrial capacity relative to that of the Allies. Japan was losing pilots faster than it could train their replacements; these combined factors, along with Japan's unwillingness to surrender, led to the use of kamikaze tactics as Allied forces advanced towards the Japanese home islands. While the term kamikaze refers to the aerial strikes, it has been applied to various other suicide attacks; the Japanese military used or made plans for non-aerial Japanese Special Attack Units, including those involving submarines, human torpedoes and divers. The tradition of death instead of defeat and shame was entrenched in Japanese military culture. One of the primary traditions in the samurai life and the Bushido code: loyalty and honor until death.
The Japanese word kamikaze is translated as "divine wind". The word originated from Makurakotoba of waka poetry modifying "Ise" and has been used since August 1281 to refer to the major typhoons that dispersed Mongol-Koryo fleets who invaded Japan under Kublai Khan in 1274. A Japanese monoplane that made a record-breaking flight from Tokyo to London in 1937 for the Asahi newspaper group was named Kamikaze, she was a prototype for the Mitsubishi Ki-15. In Japanese, the formal term used for units carrying out suicide attacks during 1944–1945 is tokushu kōgekitai, which means "special attack unit"; this is abbreviated to tokkōtai. More air suicide attack units from the Imperial Japanese Navy were called shinpū tokubetsu kōgeki tai. Shinpū is the on-reading of the same characters. During World War II, the pronunciation kamikaze was used only informally in the Japanese press in relation to suicide attacks, but after the war this usage gained acceptance worldwide and was re-imported into Japan; as a result, the special attack units are sometimes known in Japan as kamikaze tokubetsu kōgeki tai.
Before the formation of kamikaze units, pilots had made deliberate crashes as a last resort when their planes had suffered severe damage and they did not want to risk being captured, or wanted to do as much damage to the enemy as possible, since they were crashing anyway. Such situations occurred in both the Allied air forces. Axell and Kase see these suicides as "individual, impromptu decisions by men who were mentally prepared to die". In most cases, little evidence exists that such hits represented more than accidental collisions of the kind that sometimes happen in intense sea or air battles. One example of this occurred on 7 December 1941 during the attack on Pearl Harbor. First Lieutenant Fusata Iida's plane had taken a hit and had started leaking fuel when he used it to make a suicide attack on Naval Air Station Kaneohe. Before taking off, he had told his men that if his plane were to become badly damaged he would crash it into a "worthy enemy target"; the carrier battles in 1942 Midway, inflicted irreparable damage on the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service, such that they could no longer put together a large number of fleet carriers with well-trained aircrews.
Japanese planners had assumed a quick war and lacked comprehensive programmes to replace the losses of ships and sailors. The following Solomon Islands campaign and the New Guinea campaign, notably the Battles of Eastern Solomons and Santa Cruz, further decimated the IJNAS veteran aircrews, replacing their combat experience proved impossible. During 1943–1944, U. S. forces advanced toward Japan. Newer U. S.-made planes the Grumman F6F Hellcat and Vought F4U Corsair and soon outnumbered Japan's fighter planes. Tropical diseases, as well as shortages of spare parts and fuel, made operations more and more difficult for the IJNAS. By the Battle of the Philippine Sea, the Japanese had to make do with obsolete aircraft and inexperienced aviators in the f