Casa Grande-class dock landing ship
The Casa Grande class was a class of dock landing ships used by the Royal Navy and the United States Navy during the Second World War. Nineteen ships were planned, but two, USS Fort Snelling and USS Point Defiance were cancelled before being completed. The'Landing Ship Dock' or LSD developed from a British staff requirement for a type of self-propelled drydock to transport beaching craft over long distances, that would in turn deliver trucks and supplies onto the beach. A flooding deck aft capable of holding either two of the larger British Landing craft tanks or three of the new US LCTs was included in the designs. With the option of fitting extra decks, large numbers of vehicles could be transported, loaded into landing craft via ramps. Despite an initial specification for a speed of 17 knots, the LSDs were capable of only 15.6 knots. The British ordered seven of the class from US dockyards, numbered LSD-9 to 15. Only four were delivered, numbers 9 to 12, while 13 to 15 were retained by the US Navy, which ordered another twelve to the design, but only built ten.
In total thirteen of the ships served with the US Navy. Casa Grande class at Uboat.net "Mother of Minesweepers." Popular Mechanics, February 1952, pp. 97–104
USNS Taurus (T-AK-273)
USNS Taurus was a vehicle landing ship built for the United States Navy. The lone ship of her class, she was named for the constellation Taurus, was the second U. S. Naval vessel to bear the name. Taurus was laid down as the dock landing ship USS Fort Snelling on 8 November 1944 at Chickasaw, Alabama, by the Gulf Shipbuilding Corporation; the end of World War II made her services unnecessary, the Navy cancelled the contract for her acquisition. The unchristened hull changed hands twice before being completed in 1956 as the roll-on/roll-off ship SS Carib Queen for Trailer Marine Transport, Inc. In 1957, the ship received a Military Sea Transportation Service charter for transatlantic service. However, problems in her propulsion system caused delays and repairs which prevented her serving MSTS. In March, 1958 after Trailer Marine Transport, Inc. had defaulted on her mortgage, the Maritime Administration took over the vessel. She was assigned to MSTS on 15 January 1959, renamed Taurus, designated T-AK-273.
In May, 1959 Taurus made her first cargo run, from New York City to St. Nazaire. Over the next nine years, she continued to carry cargo for MSTS in both the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. On 1 January 1963 Taurus was re-designated vehicle landing ship LSV-8. During the mid-1960s she carried cargo to ports in South Vietnam in support of the American effort in the Vietnam War, she was used by NASA, along with the USNS Point Barrow, to carry S-IVB and S-II stages of the Saturn V moon rocket from their production facilities in California to the Mississippi Test Facility and the Kennedy Space Center during the mid-1960s. Never commissioned, Taurus went out of service at Yokosuka, Japan, in September 1968, she was transferred back to the Maritime Administration on 25 June 1969 and was sold on the same day to the Union Minerals and Alloy Corporation of New York City. Her name was struck from the Naval Vessel Register two years on 22 June 1971, her final fate is unknown. This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships.
"Taurus". Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Retrieved May 1, 2007. "LSD-23 Fort Snelling & T-AK-273 / T-LSV-8 Taurus". Amphibious Photo Archive. Retrieved May 1, 2007
USS Fort Snelling (LSD-30)
USS Fort Snelling was a Thomaston-class dock landing ship of the United States Navy. She was named for Fort Snelling at the confluence of the Minnesota and Mississippi Rivers, for many years the northernmost military post in the land of the Sioux and Chippewa, she was the second ship assigned that name, but the construction of Fort Snelling was canceled on 17 August 1945. Fort Snelling was laid down on 17 August 1953 by Ingalls Shipbuilding Corp. Pascagoula, Miss.. Homeported at Norfolk, Fort Snelling carried out an intensive exercise schedule along the east coast and in the Caribbean always with Marines embarked for amphibious training, she made her first deployment to the Mediterranean in 1956, returning the next year again to serve with the 6th Fleet. During her 1958 deployment, she was at sea bound for the island of Rhodes when on 14 July she was notified to land her Marines at Beirut, the next day. Thus, Fort Snelling took part in the immediate response of the U. S. Navy to the Middle Eastern crisis of summer 1958.
Several times more before leaving the Mediterranean she returned to the coast of Lebanon to support the Marines ashore. Through 1959 and 1963, Fort Snelling continued her training operations with marines in the Caribbean and on the Carolina coast. In April 1965, Fort Snelling was ordered to the Dominican Republic as part of a task force which included the USS Boxer, USS Rankin, USS Wood County, USS Ruchamakin, USS Yancey and USS Raleigh, its main mission along with the task force was to deploy marines to evacuate U. S. Canadian and British citizens; some 14,000 marines participated. In 1966, while returning from a Mediterranean deployment, Fort Snelling was assigned as task group commander of the Navy's Palomares Incident recovery operations; because of her large well deck, Fort Snelling carried the deep diving submarine Aluminaut. In addition, Fort Snelling deployed the small submarine Alvin from its flight deck via its cranes. In 1966, she participated in the extraction of U. S. Marines from the Dominican Republican crisis.
On 3 April 1978, Fort Snelling and the replenishment oiler Waccamaw collided north of Corsica when the Waccamaw lost steering control during refueling. Despite structural damage both ships proceeded under their own power to Naples, for repairs. In August 1982, Fort Snelling embarked members of 24 MAU for a Med cruise. Over the course of 7 months, the Fort Snelling participated amphibious landings in Denmark and Turkey, with a liberty call at the Port of Naples, Italy. After a 5 day liberty, the Fort Snelling and other members of her squadron rushed the 24 MAU to Beirut Lebanon to become the backbone of the Multi National Peacekeeping Force. In early March 1983, the 24 MAU was relieved by the 22 MAU; the 24 MAU was returned Stateside by the Fort Snelling and her squadron mates. In October 1983, Fort Snelling participated in Operation URGENT FURY as part of Amphibious Squadron Four. Upon conclusion of Operation Urgent Fury, Ft. Snelling continued on her deployment with PHIBRON-4 to support peacekeeping operations in Lebanon.
During March 1984, Ft. Snelling assisted in the evacuation of noncombatants from Beirut, conducting flight operations and subsequently transporting hundreds of evacuees to Cyprus; the US Navy forces had published Notices to Mariners not to approach within 2,000 yards of navy ships. While Ft Snelling was conducting fueling operations with USS Sylvania, it was struck by a merchant vessel - the merchant sunk in 20 minutes. Leading many to believe the collision was intentional; the damage suffered from the impact led to her decommissioning following the deployment. Fort Snelling was decommissioned on 28 September 1984 and transferred to the Maritime Administration on 7 September 1989, her name was struck from the Naval Vessel Register on 24 February 1992 and she was sold for scrapping on 25 August 1995 to Peck Recycling, Virginia, for $268,707. This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships; the entry can be found here. Melson, Lewis B. CAPT USN. "Contact 261".
United States Naval Institute Proceedings. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list nvr.navy.mil: USS Fort Snelling Photo gallery of USS Fort Snelling at NavSource Naval History hazegray.org: USS Fort Snelling navysite.de: USS Fort Snelling
Thomaston-class dock landing ship
The Thomaston class was a class of eight dock landing ships built for the United States Navy in the 1950s. The class is named after a town of Thomaston, the home of General Henry Knox, the first Secretary of War to serve under the United States Constitution; the Thomaston class was the third class of U. S. Navy dock landing ships; the class was approved in the early 1950s. Compared to the Ashland and Casa Grande-class dock landing ships of World War II, the ships of this class were about a third larger and five knots faster; the class was designed to be able to transport: 3 Landing Craft Utility, or 9 LCM-8 Landing Craft Mechanized, or 16 LCM-6, or ca. 50 LVT-5 or LVTP-7. The dock was covered by removable segments that were able to carry the weight of two medium helicopters. Both cranes could lift weights of up to 50 tons; the machinery spaces were located underneath the dock, in contrast to the earlier Ashland class, where the machinery spaces were located to port and starboard of the dock. All ships were armed with eight 3"/50 caliber gun Mark 33 twin mounts.
The number was reduced. Spiegel Grove was a trial ship for the Jeff landing craft in the mid-1980s. Jeff was developed into the Landing Craft Air Cushion. All ships were decommissioned by the U. S. Navy between 1983 and 1990, Alamo and Hermitage were sold to Brazil in 1989-1990
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. It is the largest and most capable navy in the world and it has been estimated that in terms of tonnage of its active battle fleet alone, it is larger than the next 13 navies combined, which includes 11 U. S. allies or partner nations. With the highest combined battle fleet tonnage and the world's largest aircraft carrier fleet, with eleven in service, two new carriers under construction. With 319,421 personnel on active duty and 99,616 in the Ready Reserve, the Navy is the third largest of the service branches, it has 282 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of March 2018, making it the second-largest air force in the world, after the United States Air Force. The U. S. Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, established during the American Revolutionary War and was disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter.
The U. S. Navy played a major role in the American Civil War by blockading the Confederacy and seizing control of its rivers, it played the central role in the World War II defeat of Imperial Japan. The US Navy emerged from World War II as the most powerful navy in the world; the 21st century U. S. Navy maintains a sizable global presence, deploying in strength in such areas as the Western Pacific, the Mediterranean, the Indian Ocean, it is a blue-water navy with the ability to project force onto the littoral regions of the world, engage in forward deployments during peacetime and respond to regional crises, making it a frequent actor in U. S. foreign and military policy. The Navy is administratively managed by the Department of the Navy, headed by the civilian Secretary of the Navy; the Department of the Navy is itself a division of the Department of Defense, headed by the Secretary of Defense. The Chief of Naval Operations is the most senior naval officer serving in the Department of the Navy.
The mission of the Navy is to maintain and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression and maintaining freedom of the seas. The U. S. Navy is a seaborne branch of the military of the United States; the Navy's three primary areas of responsibility: The preparation of naval forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war. The maintenance of naval aviation, including land-based naval aviation, air transport essential for naval operations, all air weapons and air techniques involved in the operations and activities of the Navy; the development of aircraft, tactics, technique and equipment of naval combat and service elements. U. S. Navy training manuals state that the mission of the U. S. Armed Forces is "to be prepared to conduct prompt and sustained combat operations in support of the national interest." As part of that establishment, the U. S. Navy's functions comprise sea control, power projection and nuclear deterrence, in addition to "sealift" duties, it follows as certain as that night succeeds the day, that without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive, with it, everything honorable and glorious.
Naval power... is the natural defense of the United States The Navy was rooted in the colonial seafaring tradition, which produced a large community of sailors and shipbuilders. In the early stages of the American Revolutionary War, Massachusetts had its own Massachusetts Naval Militia; the rationale for establishing a national navy was debated in the Second Continental Congress. Supporters argued that a navy would protect shipping, defend the coast, make it easier to seek out support from foreign countries. Detractors countered that challenging the British Royal Navy the world's preeminent naval power, was a foolish undertaking. Commander in Chief George Washington resolved the debate when he commissioned the ocean-going schooner USS Hannah to interdict British merchant ships and reported the captures to the Congress. On 13 October 1775, the Continental Congress authorized the purchase of two vessels to be armed for a cruise against British merchant ships. S. Navy; the Continental Navy achieved mixed results.
In August 1785, after the Revolutionary War had drawn to a close, Congress had sold Alliance, the last ship remaining in the Continental Navy due to a lack of funds to maintain the ship or support a navy. In 1972, the Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Elmo Zumwalt, authorized the Navy to celebrate its birthday on 13 October to honor the establishment of the Continental Navy in 1775; the United States was without a navy for nearly a decade, a state of affairs that exposed U. S. maritime merchant ships to a series of attacks by the Barbary pirates. The sole armed maritime presence between 1790 and the launching of the U. S. Navy's first warships in 1797 was the U. S. Revenue-Marine, the primary predecessor of the U. S. Coast Guard. Although the USRCS conducted operations against the pirates, their depredations far outstripped its abilities and Congress passed the Naval Act of 1794 that established a permanent standing navy on 27 March 1794; the Naval Act ordered the construction and manning of six frigates and, by October 1797, the first three were brought into service: USS United States, USS Constellation, USS Constitution.
Due to his strong posture on having a strong standing Navy during this period, John Adams is "often called the father of the American Navy". In 1798–99 the Navy was involved in an undeclared Quasi-War with France. From 18
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.