The Vietnam War known as the Second Indochina War, in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America or the American War, was an undeclared war in Vietnam and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. It was the second of the Indochina Wars and was fought between North Vietnam and South Vietnam. North Vietnam was supported by the Soviet Union and other communist allies; the war is considered a Cold War-era proxy war from some US perspectives. It lasted some 19 years with direct U. S. involvement ending in 1973 following the Paris Peace Accords, included the Laotian Civil War and the Cambodian Civil War, resulting in all three countries becoming communist states in 1975. American military advisors began arriving in what was French Indochina in 1950 to support the French in the First Indochina War against the communist-led Viet Minh. Most of the funding for the French war effort was provided by the U. S. After the French quit Indochina in 1954, the US assumed financial and military responsibility for the South Vietnamese state.
The Việt Cộng known as Front national de libération du Sud-Viêt Nam or NLF, a South Vietnamese communist common front aided by the North, initiated a guerrilla war against the South Vietnamese government in 1959. U. S. involvement escalated in 1960, continued in 1961 under President John F. Kennedy, with troop levels surging under the MAAG program from just under a thousand in 1959 to 16,000 in 1963. By 1964, there were 23,000 U. S. troops in Vietnam, but this escalated further following the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin incident, in which a U. S. destroyer was alleged to have clashed with North Vietnamese fast attack craft. In response, the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution gave President Lyndon B. Johnson broad authorization to increase U. S. military presence, deploying ground combat units for the first time and increasing troop levels to 184,000. Past this point, the People's Army of Vietnam known as the North Vietnamese Army engaged in more conventional warfare with US and South Vietnamese forces; every year onward there was significant build-up of US forces despite little progress, with Robert McNamara, one of the principal architects of the war, beginning to express doubts of victory by the end of 1966.
U. S. and South Vietnamese forces relied on air superiority and overwhelming firepower to conduct search and destroy operations, involving ground forces and airstrikes. The U. S. conducted a large-scale strategic bombing campaign against North Vietnam. The Tet Offensive of 1968, proved to be the turning point of the war; the Tet Offensive showed that the end of US involvement was not in sight, increasing domestic skepticism of the war. The unconventional and conventional capabilities of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam increased following a period of neglect and became modeled on heavy firepower-focused doctrines like US forces. Operations crossed international borders. S. forces. Gradual withdrawal of U. S. ground forces began as part of "Vietnamization", which aimed to end American involvement in the war while transferring the task of fighting the communists to the South Vietnamese themselves and began the task of modernizing their armed forces. Direct U. S. military involvement ended on 15 August 1973 as a result of the Case–Church Amendment passed by the U.
S. Congress; the capture of Saigon by the NVA in April 1975 marked the end of the war, North and South Vietnam were reunified the following year. The war exacted a huge human cost in terms of fatalities. Estimates of the number of Vietnamese soldiers and civilians killed vary from 966,000 to 3.8 million. Some 275,000–310,000 Cambodians, 20,000–62,000 Laotians, 58,220 U. S. service members died in the conflict, a further 1,626 remain missing in action. The Sino-Soviet split re-emerged following the lull during the Vietnam War and confllict between North Vietnam and its Cambodian allies in the Royal Government of the National Union of Kampuchea, the newly-formed Democratic Kampuchea begun immediately in a series of border raids by the Khmer Rouge and erupted into the Cambodian–Vietnamese War, with Chinese forces directly intervening in the Sino-Vietnamese War; the end of the war and resumption of the Third Indochina War would precipitate the Vietnamese boat people and the bigger Indochina refugee crisis, which saw an estimated 250,000 people perish at sea.
Within the US the war gave rise to what was referred to as Vietnam Syndrome, a public aversion to American overseas military involvements, which together with Watergate contributed to the crisis of confidence that affected America throughout the 1970s. Various names have been applied to the conflict. Vietnam War is the most used name in English, it has been called the Second Indochina War and the Vietnam Conflict. As there have been several conflicts in Indochina, this particular conflict is known by the names of its primary protagonists to distinguish it from others. In Vietnamese, the war is known as Kháng chiến chống Mỹ, but less formally as'Cuộc chiến tranh Mỹ', it is called Chiến tranh Việt Nam. The primary military organizations involved in the war were as follows: One side consisted of th
The Persian Gulf is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia. The body of water is an extension of the Indian Ocean through the Strait of Hormuz and lies between Iran to the northeast and the Arabian Peninsula to the southwest; the Shatt al-Arab river delta forms the northwest shoreline. The body of water is and internationally known as the "Persian Gulf"; some Arab governments refer to it as the "Arabian Gulf" or "The Gulf", but neither term is recognized internationally. The name "Gulf of Iran" is used by the International Hydrographic Organization; the Persian Gulf was a battlefield of the 1980–1988 Iran–Iraq War, in which each side attacked the other's oil tankers. It is the namesake of the 1991 Gulf War, the air- and land-based conflict that followed Iraq's invasion of Kuwait; the gulf has many fishing grounds, extensive reefs, abundant pearl oysters, but its ecology has been damaged by industrialization and oil spills. The Persian Gulf resides in the Persian Gulf Basin, of Cenozoic origin and related to the subduction of the Arabian Plate under the Zagros Mountains.
The current flooding of the basin started 15,000 years ago due to rising sea levels of the Holocene glacial retreat. This inland sea of some 251,000 square kilometres is connected to the Gulf of Oman in the east by the Strait of Hormuz. In Iran this is called "Arvand Rood", where "Rood" means "river", its length is 989 kilometres, with Iran covering most of the northern coast and Saudi Arabia most of the southern coast. The Persian Gulf is about 56 km wide in the Strait of Hormuz; the waters are overall shallow, with a maximum depth of 90 metres and an average depth of 50 metres. Countries with a coastline on the Persian Gulf are: Iran. Various small islands lie within the Persian Gulf, some of which are the subject of territorial disputes between the states of the region; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the Persian Gulf's southern limit as "The Northwestern limit of Gulf of Oman". This limit is defined as "A line joining Ràs Limah on the coast of Arabia and Ràs al Kuh on the coast of Iran".
The gulf is connected to Indian Ocean through Strait of Hormuz. Writing the water balance budget for the Persian Gulf, the inputs are river discharges from Iran and Iraq, as well as precipitation over the sea, around 180mm/year in Qeshm Island; the evaporation of the sea is high, so that after considering river discharge and rain contributions, there is still a deficit of 416 cubic kilometers per year. This difference is supplied by currents at the Strait of Hormuz; the water from the Gulf has a higher salinity, therefore exits from the bottom of the Strait, while ocean water with less salinity flows in through the top. Another study revealed the following numbers for water exchanges for the Gulf: evaporation = -1.84m/year, precipitation = 0.08m/year, inflow from the Strait = 33.66m/year, outflow from the Strait = -32.11m/year, the balance is 0m/year. Data from different 3D computational fluid mechanics models with spatial resolution of 3 kilometers and depth each element equal to 1–10 meters are predominantly used in computer models.
The Persian Gulf and its coastal areas are the world's largest single source of crude oil, related industries dominate the region. Safaniya Oil Field, the world's largest offshore oilfield, is located in the Persian Gulf. Large gas finds have been made, with Qatar and Iran sharing a giant field across the territorial median line. Using this gas, Qatar has built up a substantial liquefied natural petrochemical industry. In 2002, the Persian Gulf nations of Bahrain, Iraq, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the UAE produced about 25% of the world's oil, held nearly two-thirds of the world's crude oil reserves, about 35% of the world's natural gas reserves; the oil-rich countries that have a coastline on the Persian Gulf are referred to as the Persian Gulf States. Iraq's egress to the gulf is narrow and blockaded consisting of the marshy river delta of the Shatt al-Arab, which carries the waters of the Euphrates and the Tigris rivers, where the east bank is held by Iran. In 550 BC, the Achaemenid Empire established the first ancient empire in Persis, in the southwestern region of the Iranian plateau.
In the Greek sources, the body of water that bordered this province came to be known as the "Persian Gulf". During the years 550 to 330 BC, coinciding with the sovereignty of the Achaemenid Persian Empire over the Middle East area the whole part of the Persian Gulf and some parts of the Arabian Peninsula, the name of "Pars Sea" is found in the compiled written texts. In the travel account of Pythagoras, several chapters are related to description of his travels accompanied by the Achaemenid king Darius the Great, to Susa and Persepolis, the area is described. From among the writings of others in the same period, there is the inscription and engraving of Darius the Great, installed at junction of waters of Red Sea and the Nile river and the Rome river which belongs to t
Naval Base San Diego
Naval Base San Diego, which locals refer to as 32nd Street Naval Station, is the second largest Surface Ship base of the United States Navy and is located in San Diego, California. Naval Base San Diego is the principal homeport of the Pacific Fleet, consisting of over 50 ships and over 190 tenant commands; the base is composed of 13 piers stretched over 326 acres of water. The total on base population is over 10,000 civilians; the 977 acres of the land on which the Naval Base sits today was occupied in 1918 by a coalition of concrete ship building firms known as the Emergency Fleet Corporation, under the single company name Pacific Marine Construction. But Pacific Marine began to lose profits with the conclusion of World War I, negotiated a return of the land back to the City of San Diego. Meanwhile, the Navy was exploring the small tract of land to establish a west coast ship repair facility and moved on the opportunity to acquire the land. By 1920, the Navy and the Emergency Fleet Corporation had negotiated the transfer of land improvements to the United States Navy.
Still, three obstacles stood in the way of a Navy repair facility: the coalition company, Schofield Engineering Co. still retained an option to purchase the existing plant, a local shipping board had not granted permission for more construction, Congress had not yet passed an appropriations bill to authorize funds to begin work. By June 1920, Congress passed the appropriations bill- $750,000 of, earmarked for the navy repair base. With the money appropriated, Schofield still delayed in releasing their option on the land. At the time, Admiral Roger Welles Commandant of the 11th Naval District, had grown weary of Schofield's delaying tactics and threatened to pull stakes and establish a repair base in San Pedro, Los Angeles, California, his threats worked. On 21 February 1921, Welles assumed formal custody of the property. In May 1921, Commander H. N. Jensen, Commanding Officer of the repair tender USS Prairie, was directed to moor at the site to establish repair operations. On 23 February 1922, acting Secretary of the Navy, Teddy Roosevelt Jr. issued General Order 78 establishing the facility as the U.
S. Destroyer Base, San Diego; the base has been renamed half-a-dozen times during its lifetime. During its first years in commission, the base grew as repair facilities expanded and radio schools were established and more shops were constructed. During 1924, the base commissioned seven. By 1937, the Destroyer Base had added two additional tracts of land and by its 29 buildings and other improvements amounted to a cost of more than $3.2 million. The base expanded during World War II and by 1942, the Navy had added expanded fleet training schools, an amphibious force training unit. By the following year, it was determined the scope of operations exceeded the base’s basic function as a Destroyer Base. On 7 October 1943, the base was re-designated the U. S. Repair Base, San Diego, a title it retained throughout World War II. Between 1943 and 1945 the newly named base performed conversion, overhaul and battle damage repair to more than 5,117 ships. Central to this maintenance were the Navy’s construction and delivery of 155 new floating dry docks deployed to various bases, including three 3,000-ton, three 1,000-ton and one 900-ton floating docks remaining at the San Diego Repair Base.
The floating dry docks became the central repair and training facilities on the base which were crucial to the World War II mission. After World War II, base operations were again reorganized, with a post-war mission to provide logistical support to ships of the active fleet. On 15 September 1946, the Secretary of the Navy re-designated the repair base Naval Station, San Diego. By the end of 1946 the base had grown to 294 buildings with floor space square footage of more than 6,900,000 square feet, berthing facilities included five piers of more than 18,000 feet of berthing space. Land totaled more than 921 acres and 16 miles of roads. Barracks could accommodate 18,000 enlisted men. More than 3,500 sailors could be fed in the galley at a single sitting on the base. In the 1990s, the Naval Station became the principal homeport of the U. S. Pacific Fleet when the Long Beach Naval Shipyard was closed for the final time on 30 September 1994. Naval Station San Diego was realigned under Commander, Navy Region Southwest and became one in a triad of metropolitan Navy bases that now make up the bulk of the metro area Navy’s presence.
With that change, the base became the hub of all Navy port operations for the Region, assumed logistical responsibility for both Naval Medical Center San Diego and the Region headquarters and was re-designated Naval Base San Diego. Because of its geographic location, the positioning of its main entrance, the Naval Base has been known as the 32nd Street Naval Station not only by the local community, but by sailors and veterans around the world. Naval Base San Diego is home port to 54 ships, including 46 U. S. Navy ships, two Littoral Combat Ships, two U. S. Coast Guard cutters, eight ships of the Military Sealift Command, as well as research and auxiliary vessels. Ashore, the base has 120 separate tenant commands and other Navy support facilities, each having specific and specialized fleet support missions; the base is a workplace for 26,000 military and contract personnel. Additionally, the base has rooms to house more than 4,000 men and women in modern apartment-like barracks, including newer state-of-the-art resi
A torpedo tube is a cylinder shaped device for launching torpedoes. There are two main types of torpedo tube: underwater tubes fitted to submarines and some surface ships, deck-mounted units installed aboard surface vessels. Deck-mounted torpedo launchers are designed for a specific type of torpedo, while submarine torpedo tubes are general-purpose launchers, are also capable of deploying mines and cruise missiles. Most modern launchers are standardised on a 12.75-inch diameter for light torpedoes or a 21-inch diameter for heavy torpedoes, although other sizes of torpedo tube have been used: see Torpedo classes and diameters. A submarine torpedo tube is a more complex mechanism than a torpedo tube on a surface ship, because the tube has to accomplish the function of moving the torpedo from the normal atmospheric pressure within the submarine into the sea at the ambient pressure of the water around the submarine, thus a submarine torpedo tube operates on the principle of an airlock. The diagram on the right illustrates the operation of a submarine torpedo tube.
The diagram does show the working of a submarine torpedo launch. A torpedo tube has a considerable number of interlocks for safety reasons. For example, an interlock prevents the breech muzzle door from opening at the same time; the submarine torpedo launch sequence is, in simplified form: Open the breech door in the torpedo room. Load the torpedo into the tube. Hook up the wire-guide connection and the torpedo power cable. Shut and lock the breech door. Turn on power to the torpedo. A minimum amount of time is required for torpedo warmup. Fire control programs are uploaded to the torpedo. Flood the torpedo tube; this may be done manually or automatically, from sea or from tanks, depending on the class of submarine. The tube must be vented during this process to allow for complete filling and eliminate air pockets which could escape to the surface or cause damage when firing. Open the equalizing valve to equalize pressure in the tube with ambient sea pressure. Open the muzzle door. If the tube is set up for Impulse Mode the slide valve will open with the muzzle door.
If Swim Out Mode is selected, the slide valve remains closed. The slide valve allows water from the ejection pump to enter the tube; when the launch command is given and all interlocks are satisfied, the water ram operates, thrusting a large volume of water into the tube at high pressure, which ejects the torpedo from the tube with considerable force. Modern torpedoes have a safety mechanism that prevents activation of the torpedo unless the torpedo senses the required amount of G-force; the power cable is severed at launch. However, if a guidance wire is used, it remains connected through a drum of wire in the tube. Torpedo propulsion systems vary but electric torpedoes swim out of the tube on their own and are of a smaller diameter. 21" weapons with fuel-burning engines start outside the tube. Once outside the tube the torpedo begins its run toward the target as programmed by the fire control system. Attack functions are programmed but with wire guided weapons, certain functions can be controlled from the ship.
For wire-guided torpedoes, the muzzle door must remain open because the guidance wire is still connected to the inside of the breech door to receive commands from the submarine's fire-control system. A wire cutter on the inside of the breech door is activated to release the wire and its protective cable; these are drawn clear of the ship prior to shutting the muzzle door. The drain cycle is a reverse of the flood cycle. Water can be moved as necessary; the tube must be vented to drain the tube since it is by gravity. Open the breech door and remove the remnants of the torpedo power cable and the guidance wire basket; the tube must be wiped dry to prevent a buildup of slime. This process is called "diving the tube" and tradition dictates that "ye who shoots, dives". Shut and lock the breech door. Spare torpedoes are stored behind the tube in racks. Speed is a desirable feature of a torpedo loading system. There are various manual and hydraulic handling systems for loading torpedoes into the tubes. Prior to the Ohio class, US SSBNs utilized manual block and tackle which took about 15 minutes to load a tube.
SSNs prior to the Seawolf class used a hydraulic system, much faster and safer in conditions where the ship needed to maneuver. The German Type 212 submarine uses a new development of the water ram expulsion system, which ejects the torpedo with water pressure to avoid acoustic detection. List of torpedoes by diameter The Fleet Type Submarine Online 21-Inch Submerged Torpedo Tubes United States Navy Restricted Ordnance Pamphlet 1085, June 1944 Torpedo tubes of German U-Boats
The AN/SPG-55 was an American tracking / illumination radar for Terrier and RIM-67 Standard missiles. It was used for target tracking and surface-to-air missile guidance as part of the Mk 76 missile fire control system, it was controlled by a UNIVAC 1218 computer. The designation "AN" stands for "Army-Navy" while "SPG" is not an acronym, but part of the MIL-STD-196E Type Designation System: First letter - S = Water Second letter - P = Radar Third letter - G = Fire Control or Searchlight Directing AN/SPG-55 was fitted on numerous ships in the United States Navy including Kitty Hawk-class aircraft carriers and Leahy-class cruisers and Farragut class destroyers, it was used on the nuclear-powered single units Long Beach and Truxtun. The Italian Navy used it aboard the cruisers Andrea Doria, Caio Duilio, Giuseppe Garibaldi and Vittorio Veneto. AN/SPG 55 - Original version supported Beam riding Terrier missiles. AN/SPG 55A - Supported Beam-riding and homing Terrier missiles AN/SPG 55B - Supported Beam-riding and homing Terrier missiles as well as newer Standard missiles.
List of radars Radars and Computers aboard USS Sterett and other Warships during the Vietnam War
The RIM-67 Standard ER is an extended range surface-to-air missile and anti ship missile developed for the United States Navy. The RIM-67 was developed as a replacement for the RIM-8 Talos, a 1950s system deployed on a variety of USN ships, replaced the RIM-2 Terrier as well, since it was of a similar size and fitted existing Terrier launchers and magazines; the RIM-66 Standard MR was the same missile without the booster stage, designed to replace the RIM-24 Tartar. The RIM-66/67 series thus became the US Navy's universal SAM system, hence the "Standard Missile" moniker; the RIM-67A was the Navy's replacement for RIM-8 Talos missile. Improved technology allowed the RIM-67 to be reduced to the size of the earlier RIM-2 Terrier missile. Existing ships with the Mk86 guided missile fire control system, or "Terrier" were adapted to employ the new missile in place of the older RIM-2 Terrier missile. Ships that switched from the RIM-2 Terrier to the RIM-67A were still referred to as Terrier ships though they were equipped with the newer missile.
The second generation of Standard missile, the Standard Missile 2, was developed for the Aegis combat system, New Threat Upgrade program, planned for existing Terrier and Tartar ships. The destroyer USS Mahan served as the test platform for the development of the CG/SM-2 missile program project; the principal change over the Standard missile 1 is the introduction of inertial guidance for each phase of the missile's flight except the terminal phase where semi-active homing was retained. This design change was made so that missiles could time share illumination radars and enable equipped ships to defend against saturation missile attacks. Terrier ships reequipped as part of the New Threat Upgrade were refit to operate the RIM-67B missile. However, Aegis ships were not equipped with launchers that had space enough for the longer RIM-67B; the RIM-156A Standard SM-2ER Block IV with the Mk 72 booster was developed to compensate for the lack of a long range SAM for the Ticonderoga class of Aegis cruisers.
The Mk72 booster allows the RIM-156A to fit into the Mk41 guided missile launch system. This configuration can be used for Terminal phase Ballistic Missile Defense. There was a plan to build a nuclear armed standard missile mounting a W81 nuclear warhead as a replacement for the earlier Nuclear Terrier missile; the USN rescinded the requirement for the nuclear armed missile in the 1980s, the project was canceled. The Standard can be used against ships, either at line-of-sight range using its semi-active homing mode, or over the horizon using inertial guidance and terminal infrared homing. RIM-174 Standard Missile 6 ERAM is a new generation of Standard extended range missiles, which became operational in 2013. During the Iran–Iraq War the United States deployed Standard missiles to protect its navy, as well as other ships in the Persian Gulf from the threat of Iranian attacks. According to the Iranian Air Force, its F-4 Phantom IIs were engaged by SM-2ERs but managed to evade them, with one aircraft sustaining non-fatal damage due to shrapnel.
During the same war the United States Navy accidentally shot down an Iranian civilian airliner, Iran Air Flight 655 using two SM-2 missiles. On April 18, 1988, during Operation Praying Mantis, the frigate USS Simpson fired four RIM-66 Standard missiles and the cruiser USS Wainwright fired two RIM-67 Standard missiles at Joshan, an Iranian Kaman-class missile boat; the attacks did not sink it. An 18 July 2015 test firing damaged the destroyer USS The Sullivans, restricting the older SM-2s to wartime use only. RIM-67 Standard was deployed on ships of the following classes, replacing the RIM-2 Terrier, it never was VLS-capable. All of the ships used the AN/SPG-55 for guidance; the Mk10 guided missile launching system was used as the launching system. New Threat Upgrade equipped vessels operated the RIM-67B which used inertial guidance for every phase of the intercept except for the terminal phase where the AN/SPG-55 radar illuminates the target. USS Long Beach SM-1ER SM-2ER with NTU. Farragut-class destroyers SM-1ER SM-2ER with NTU.
Leahy-class cruisers SM-1ER SM-2ER with NTU. USS Bainbridge SM-1ER SM-2ER with NTU. Belknap-class cruisers SM-1ER SM-2ER with NTU. USS Truxtun SM-1ER SM-2ER with NTU. Italian cruiser Vittorio Veneto SM-1ER Only; the RIM-156 Standard Block IV, is a version, developed for Aegis Combat System it has a smaller compact sized booster stage for firing from the Mk41 Guided missile launch system. Like the earlier RIM-67B it employs inertial/command guidance with terminal semi-active homing. Ticonderoga-class cruisers Arleigh Burke-class destroyersThe last vessel to operate the RIM-67 was the Italian cruiser Vittorio Veneto, retired in 2003; the RIM-174 Standard ERAM or Standard Missile Six has superseded the RIM-156A in production. The RIM-156A remains in service as of 2010. RIM-67 Standard missiles have been withdrawn from service, remaining rounds are being re-manufactured in to GQM-163 Coyote supersonic targets. RIM-2 Terrier – predecessor RIM-8 Talos – predecessor RIM-24 Tartar AGM-78 Standard ARM RIM-66 Standard Medium Range RIM-161 Standard SM-3 RIM-174 Standard ERAM – successor Raytheon Standard missile website, mfr of Standard missiles Designation systems.net - RIM-67 FAS - SM-2ER GlobalSecurity.org - SM-2 Navweaps.com