Bay City, Michigan
Bay City is a city in Bay County, located near the base of the Saginaw Bay on Lake Huron. As of the 2010 census, the city's population was 34,932, is the principal city of the Bay City Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Saginaw-Midland-Bay City Combined Statistical Area; the city, along with nearby Midland and Saginaw, form the Greater Tri-Cities region of Central Michigan, which has more been called the Great Lakes Bay Region. The city is geographically divided by the Saginaw River, travel between the east and west sides of the city is made possible by four modern bascule-type drawbridges: Liberty Bridge, Veterans Memorial Bridge, Independence Bridge, Lafayette Avenue Bridge, which allow large ships to travel down the river; the city is served by MBS International Airport, located in nearby Freeland, James Clements Municipal Airport. Leon Tromblé is regarded as the first settler within the limits of Bay County, in an area which would become Bay City. In 1831, he built a log cabin on the east bank of the Saginaw river.
Bay City was first established in 1837, was incorporated as a city in 1865. In 1834 John B. Trudell built a log-cabin near the present corner of Broadway. Trudell purchased land that extended from his residence north along the river to what became the location for the Industrial Brownhoist, making him the first permanent resident of what has become Bay County. Bay City became the largest community in the county and the location of the county seat of government. Most of the county's agencies and associations are located here; the city shares common borders with Essexville and the townships of Bangor, Hampton, Merritt and Portsmouth. Bay City was known as "Lower Saginaw," and fell within the boundaries of Saginaw County On June 4, 1846, the Hapton, or Hampton, Post Office opened to service Lower Saginaw; the community was placed in Bay County, when the county was organized in 1857. It was at this time; the Post Office changed its name to Bay City on March 22, 1858. While Saginaw had the first white settlement in this area in 1819, larger ships had difficulty navigating the shallower water near the Saginaw settlement.
Due to this fact, many of the early pioneers moved to Lower Saginaw as it became clear its deeper waters made it a better location for the growth of industry which relied on shipping. By 1860, Lower Saginaw had become a bustling community of about 2,000 people with several mills and many small businesses in operation. In 1865, the village of Bay City was incorporated as a city. Rapid economic growth took place during this time period, with lumbering and shipbuilding creating many jobs; the early industrialists in the area used the Saginaw River as a convenient means to float lumber to the mills and factories and as a consequence amass large fortunes. Many of the mansions built during this era are registered as historical landmarks by the state and federal government. In 1873, Charles C. Fitzhugh, Jr. a Bay City pioneer, his wife, purchased land and built a home on property bounded by Washington, Saginaw and Tenth Streets, which became the location for City Hall. Fitzhugh dealt on a large scale in wild lands and farms, being an agent for over 25,000 acres of land in Bay County.
During this time, Washington Avenue was developed with residential homes. Businesses were concentrated along Water Street near the Saginaw River; as time went on, businesses started to expand along Washington Avenue. In 1891, the Fitzhughs sold the land to the City of Bay City for $8,500 "to be used for the erection of a City Hall and offices and for no other purposes whatever." Until 1905, the City of Bay City was limited to the east bank of the Saginaw River. When West Bay City was annexed. During the latter half of the 19th century Bay City was the home of several now-closed industries including many sawmills and shipbuilders; the Defoe Shipbuilding Company, which ceased operations December 31, 1975 built destroyer escorts, guided missile destroyers, patrol craft for the United States Navy and the Royal Australian Navy. To maintain this strong Naval heritage, the Saginaw Valley Naval Ship Museum worked through the Naval Sea Systems Command to bring the USS Edson to Bay City as a museum ship.
It was delivered to its temporary home in Essexville, Michigan on August 7, 2012. Another important part of the city's industrial history is Industrial Brownhoist, well known for its construction of large industrial cranes. On December 10, 1977 a deadly fire claimed the lives of 10 at the Wenonah Hotel in downtown Bay City; the Wenonah Hotel was located at the corner of Center Ave and Water Street, the current site of the Delta College Planetarium. Built in 1907, the 4 story Wenonah Hotel had been converted into apartments at the time of the fire. Strong winds and cold weather hampered the efforts of the fire department. There was some controversy over the cause of the fire and it remains the deadliest fire in Bay County history. In September 1990, the tankship MV Jupiter was unloading gasoline at the Total Petroleum Terminal. A passing cargo ship, MV Buffalo, moving at excessive speed, created a wake that caused Jupiter to break free of its berth. A fire and explosion ensued, one man drowned. There was considerable legal action taken resulting in an adjudication, subsequently appealed by the owners of Buffalo.
The findings of the Court of Appeals upheld the original decision, which assigned 50% of the responsibility to Buffalo, 25% to the dock operator and 25% to Jupiter. In January 2009
Ceremonial ship launching
Ceremonial ship launching is the process of transferring a vessel to the water. It is a naval tradition in many cultures, it has been observed as a solemn blessing. Ship launching imposes stresses on the ship not met during normal operation, in addition to the size and weight of the vessel, it represents a considerable engineering challenge as well as a public spectacle; the process involves many traditions intended to invite good luck, such as christening by breaking a sacrificial bottle of champagne over the bow as the ship is named aloud and launched. There are three principal methods of conveying a new ship from building site to water, only two of which are called "launching"; the oldest, most familiar, most used is the end-on launch, in which the vessel slides down an inclined slipway stern first. With the side launch, the ship enters the water broadside; this method came into use in the 19th-century on inland waters and lakes, was more adopted during World War II. The third method is float-out, used for ships that are built in basins or dry docks and floated by admitting water into the dock.
If launched in a restrictive waterway drag chains are used to slow the ship speed to prevent it striking the opposite bank. Ways are arranged perpendicular to the shore line and the ship is built with its stern facing the water. Where the launch takes place into a narrow river, the building slips may be at a shallow angle rather than perpendicular though this requires a longer slipway when launching. Modern slipways take the form of a reinforced concrete mat of sufficient strength to support the vessel, with two "barricades" that extend well below the water level taking into account tidal variations; the barricades support the two launch ways. The vessel is built upon temporary cribbing, arranged to give access to the hull's outer bottom and to allow the launchways to be erected under the complete hull; when it is time to prepare for launching, a pair of standing ways is erected under the hull and out onto the barricades. The surface of the ways is greased. A pair of sliding ways is placed on top, under the hull, a launch cradle with bow and stern poppets is erected on these sliding ways.
The weight of the hull is transferred from the build cribbing onto the launch cradle. Provision is made to hold the vessel in place and release it at the appropriate moment in the launching ceremony. On launching, the vessel slides backwards down the slipway on the ways; some slipways is launched sideways. This is done where the limitations of the water channel would not allow lengthwise launching, but occupies a much greater length of shore; the Great Eastern designed by Brunel was built this way as were many landing craft during World War II. This method requires many more sets of ways to support the weight of the ship. Sometimes ships are launched using a series of inflated tubes underneath the hull, which deflate to cause a downward slope into the water; this procedure has the advantages of requiring less permanent infrastructure and cost. The airbags provide support to the hull of the ship and aid its launching motion into the water, thus this method is arguably safer than other options such as sideways launching.
These airbags are cylindrical in shape with hemispherical heads at both ends. The Xiao Qinghe shipyard launched a tank barge with marine airbags on January 20, 1981, the first known use of marine airbags. A Babylonian narrative dating from the 3rd millennium BC describes the completion of a ship: Openings to the water I stopped. Egyptians and Romans called on their gods to protect seamen. Favor was evoked from the monarch of the seas—Poseidon in Greek mythology, Neptune in Roman mythology. Ship launching participants in ancient Greece wreathed their heads with olive branches, drank wine to honor the gods, poured water on the new vessel as a symbol of blessing. Shrines were carried on board Greek and Roman ships, this practice extended into the Middle Ages; the shrine was placed at the quarterdeck, an area which continues to have special ceremonial significance. Different peoples and cultures shaped the religious ceremonies surrounding a ship launching. Jews and Christians customarily used wine and water as they called upon God to safeguard them at sea.
Intercession of the saints and the blessing of the church were asked by Christians. Ship launchings in the Ottoman Empire were accompanied by prayers to Allah, the sacrifice of sheep, appropriate feasting. Chaplain Henry Teonge of Britain's Royal Navy left an interesting account of a warship launch, a "briganteen of 23 oars," by the Knights of Malta in 1675: Two friars and an attendant went into the vessel, kneeling down prayed halfe an houre, layd their hands on every mast, other places of the vessel, sprinkled her all over with holy water, they came out and hoysted a pendent to signify she was a man of war. The liturgical aspects of ship christenings, or baptisms, continued in Catholic countries, while the Reformation seems to have put a stop to them for a time in Protestant Europe. By the 17th century, for example, English launchings were secular affairs; the christening party for the launch of the
The Lingayen Gulf is a large gulf on northwestern Luzon in the Philippines, stretching 56 km. It is framed by the provinces of Pangasinan and La Union and sits between the Zambales Mountains and the Cordillera Central; the Agno River drains into Lingayen Gulf. The gulf has numerous islands; this tourist attraction features 123 islands. The largest island is Cabarruyan Island, which constitutes the municipality of Anda, followed by Santiago Island at the mouth of the Gulf; the shore from Labrador to San Fabian is characterized by a long grey-sand beach. Other well-known beaches are at San Fernando City; the waters of Lingayen Gulf are murky due to its sandy bottom. Coral reefs were all but destroyed by dynamite fishing, although efforts are made to restore some inside the Hundred Islands National Park. A number of cities are found along the gulf's coast such as Dagupan City and Alaminos City in Pangasinan, San Fernando City in La Union. Lingayen, the capital of Pangasinan lies on the shores of the gulf.
The gulf has five major river sources. Flowing from the province of Pangasinan in the south are the Agno and Angalacan-Bued rivers. From the east in the province of La Union flow the Bauang rivers. During World War II, the Lingayen Gulf proved a strategically important theatre of war between American and Japanese forces. On 22 December 1941, the Japanese 14th Army under Lieutenant General Masaharu Homma landed on the Eastern part of the gulf at Agoo, Caba and Bauang, where they engaged in a number of minor skirmishes with the defenders, which consisted of a poorly equipped contingent of predominantly Filipino and American troops, managed to invade and occupy the gulf. Following the defeat, the next day General MacArthur issued the order to retreat from Luzon and withdraw to Bataan. For the next three years, the gulf remained under Japanese occupation prior to the Lingayen Gulf Landings. At 09:30 on 9 January 1945, the U. S. 6th Army conducted an amphibious landing on the gulf, following a devastating naval bombardment, with 68,000 troops landing on the first day alone, a total of 203,608 in following landings along a 20 mi beachhead, stretching from Sual and Dagupan in the west, San Fabian in to the east.
Despite the Americans' success in driving out the Japanese army encamped at the Gulf, the Americans suffered heavy losses on their convoys due to Japanese kamikaze suicide attacks. From 4 through 12 January, a total of 24 ships were sunk and 67 damaged by kamikaze planes, including the battleships USS Mississippi and Colorado, the heavy cruiser USS Louisville, the light cruiser USS Columbia, the minesweepers USS Long and Hovey. Following the amphibious landings, the Lingayen Gulf was turned into a vast supply depot for the rest of the war to support the American and Filipino assaults on Manila and the rest of Luzon, thence to Okinawa. On January 9, 2008, Gov. Amado Espino, Jr. and Vice Gov. Marlyn Primicias-Agabas established an annual commemoration to honor the war veterans; the resolution named January 9 as Pangasinan Veterans’ Day. In the 63rd anniversary of the Lingayen Gulf landings, President Fidel Ramos appealed to U. S. President George W. Bush for 24,000 surviving war veterans, to pass two legislative bills pending since 1968 at the U.
S. House of Representatives — the Filipino Veterans’ Equity Act of 2006 and the Filipino Veterans’ Equity of 2005 sponsored by former Senator Daniel Inouye. Fishing and salt-making are the primary industries on Lingayen Gulf. In fact, the name Pangasinan means “place where salt is made”. Salt is collected from seawater through evaporation; the Lingayen Gulf is home to the 1200 megawatt Sual Power Station, the Philippines largest coal power plant
Green Cove Springs, Florida
Green Cove Springs is a hydrological spring and a city in Clay County, United States. The population was 5,378 at the 2000 census; as of 2010, the population recorded by the U. S. Census Bureau was 6,908, it is the county seat of Clay County. The city is named after the portion of the St. Johns River upon; the river bends here, the area is sheltered by trees that are perennially green. The area was first inhabited over 7,000 years ago by natives drawn by the warm mineral spring; the spring, locally known as the "Original Fountain of Youth", attracted guests in the 19th century. Today the sulfur-scented spring water feeds an adjacent public swimming pool before flowing the short distance to the St. Johns River; the Green Cove Springs area was first developed by George J. F. Clarke in 1816 when he was provided land, under a Spanish land grant, to build a sawmill. Green Cove Springs was established in 1854 as White Sulfur Springs. Renamed in 1866, it became the Clay County seat in 1871. Agriculture and tourism were two of the primary economic ventures until the end of the 19th century, when Henry Flagler's railroad began taking tourists further south into Florida.
In 1895, the Great Freeze destroyed the area's citrus crops, tourism all but ended. The 1920s saw renewed development, with automobile traffic bringing in tourists again; the Great Depression of the 1930s saw the end of growth again for the city. The first women's club in the state of Florida was established in Green Cove Springs in 1883; the Village Improvement Association led local efforts to beautify the town, established its first public library. The period before and during World War II again brought new growth to Green Cove Springs. On September 11, 1940, the U. S. Navy opened Naval Air Station Lee Field in honor of Ensign Bejamin Lee who had lost his life in a crash at Killinghome, during World War I. In August 1943, the facility was renamed Naval Air Station Green Cove Springs and consisted of four 5,000-foot asphalt runways. One of the Marine Corps aviators training in the F4U Corsair Operational Training Unit at Lee Field in early 1945 was eventual television personality Ed McMahon. After the war, NAS Green Cove Springs was downgraded in status to a Naval Auxiliary Air Station as part of the greater NAS Jacksonville complex.
A total of 13 piers were constructed along the west bank of the St. Johns River adjacent to NAAS Green Cove Springs to house a U. S. Navy "Mothball Fleet" of some 500 vessels destroyers, destroyer escorts and fleet auxiliaries. In 1960, the Navy decommissioned the pier facility; some of the mothballed vessels were transferred to foreign navies, while others were relocated to other Reserve Fleet locations. In 1984, the city annexed the former naval base into the city to utilize it for further growth and development as the Clay County Port and Reynolds Industrial Park; the air station is now a private airfield known as Reynolds Airpark with a single 5,000-foot asphalt runway operational, although in poor condition. Although the original air traffic control tower is still standing, attached to one of the former Navy aircraft hangars, the airfield remains an uncontrolled facility. Green Cove Springs is the birthplace of Charles E. Merrill, one of the founders of Merrill, Lynch & Company; the town's spring is described by his son James Merrill in the poem "Two From Florida", published in The Inner Room.
Green Cove Springs is the birthplace of Augusta Savage. Savage was an African American sculptor associated with the Harlem Renaissance. Locally, the community is known as the home of Gustafson's Farm, a brand name of milk and dairy products sold throughout Florida; the main Gustafson Dairy Farm is located in Green Cove Springs and is one of the largest owned dairy farms in the southeastern United States. Started in 1908, the main farm occupies nearly 10,000 acres adjacent to the city limits. Gustafson's has many bottling plants across the state, stretching from Tallahassee in the west to Tampa and Cocoa in the south. All Gustafson products have the picture of the husband-and-wife founders and Agnes Gustafson, who along with their first cow on their farm are prominently featured on the packaging of the dairy's products. Scenes for the 1971 "B" monster movie Blood Waters of Dr. Z were filmed here; the movie was satirized on the television program Mystery Science Theater 3000. The following sites are listed on the National Register of Historic Places: Clay County Courthouse Green Cove Springs Historic District St. Mary's Church The city of Green Cove Springs is structured in a city council/city manager form of government, with the council functioning as the governing body.
The city has had this form of government since the 1980 charter revision. The city council is composed of five members; the five-member council consists of the vice mayor and three council members. The mayor and vice mayor serve in these positions for one year; as the official representative of the city, the mayor is responsible for all intergovernmental relations and for presiding over all meetings of the council. The vice mayor serves as the presiding officer for all council meetings in the mayor's absence; the Green Cove Springs Police Department provides full law enforcement services within the incorporated city limits of Green Cove Springs. The agency is headed by a chief of police with a lieutenant acting as deputy chief; the department current
The Philippines the Republic of the Philippines, is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon and Mindanao; the capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. Bounded by the South China Sea on the west, the Philippine Sea on the east and the Celebes Sea on the southwest, the Philippines shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Vietnam to the west, Palau to the east, Malaysia and Indonesia to the south; the Philippines' location on the Pacific Ring of Fire and close to the equator makes the Philippines prone to earthquakes and typhoons, but endows it with abundant natural resources and some of the world's greatest biodiversity. The Philippines has an area of 300,000 km2, according to the Philippines Statistical Authority and the WorldBank and, as of 2015, had a population of at least 100 million.
As of January 2018, it is the eighth-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. 10 million additional Filipinos lived overseas, comprising one of the world's largest diasporas. Multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, they were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Exchanges with Malay, Indian and Chinese nations occurred. Various competing maritime states were established under the rule of datus, rajahs and lakans; the arrival of Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese explorer leading a fleet for the Spanish, in Homonhon, Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization. In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. With the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi from Mexico City, in 1565, the first Hispanic settlement in the archipelago was established.
The Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. This resulted in Catholicism becoming the dominant religion. During this time, Manila became the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade connecting Asia with Acapulco in the Americas using Manila galleons; as the 19th century gave way to the 20th, the Philippine Revolution followed, which spawned the short-lived First Philippine Republic, followed by the bloody Philippine–American War. The war, as well as the ensuing cholera epidemic, resulted in the deaths of thousands of combatants as well as tens of thousands of civilians. Aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until after World War II, when the Philippines was recognized as an independent nation. Since the unitary sovereign state has had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by a non-violent revolution; the Philippines is a founding member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, the East Asia Summit.
It hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank. The Philippines is considered to be an emerging market and a newly industrialized country, which has an economy transitioning from being based on agriculture to one based more on services and manufacturing. Along with East Timor, the Philippines is one of Southeast Asia's predominantly Christian nations; the Philippines was named in honor of King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of Leyte and Samar Felipinas after the then-Prince of Asturias; the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, other names such as Islas del Poniente and Magellan's name for the islands San Lázaro were used by the Spanish to refer to the islands; the official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of its history. During the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic.
From the period of the Spanish–American War and the Philippine–American War until the Commonwealth period, American colonial authorities referred to the country as the Philippine Islands, a translation of the Spanish name. Since the end of World War II, the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines. Philippines has gained currency as the common name since being the name used in Article VI of the 1898 Treaty of Paris, with or without the definite article. Discovery in 2018 of stone tools and fossils of butchered animal remains in Rizal, Kalinga has pushed back evidence of early hominins in the archipelago to as early as 709,000 years. However, the metatarsal of the Callao Man, reliably dated by uranium-series dating to 67,000 years ago remains the oldest human remnant found in the archipelago to date; this distinction belonged to the Tabon Man of Palawan, carbon-dated to around 26,500 years ago. Negritos were among the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, but their first settlement in the Philippines has not been reliably dated.
There are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos. F. Landa Jocano theorizes. Wilhelm Solheim's Island Origin Theory postulates that the peopling of the archipelago transpired via trade networks originating in the Sundaland area around
The Caribbean is a region of The Americas that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands and the surrounding coasts. The region is southeast of the Gulf of Mexico and the North American mainland, east of Central America, north of South America. Situated on the Caribbean Plate, the region comprises more than 700 islands, islets and cays; these islands form island arcs that delineate the eastern and northern edges of the Caribbean Sea. The Caribbean islands, consisting of the Greater Antilles on the north and the Lesser Antilles on the south and east, are part of the somewhat larger West Indies grouping, which includes the Lucayan Archipelago; the Lucayans and, less Bermuda, are sometimes considered Caribbean despite the fact that none of these islands border the Caribbean Sea. In a wider sense, the mainland countries and territories of Belize, the Caribbean region of Colombia, the Yucatán Peninsula, Margarita Island, the Guyanas, are included due to their political and cultural ties with the region.
Geopolitically, the Caribbean islands are regarded as a subregion of North America and are organized into 30 territories including sovereign states, overseas departments, dependencies. From December 15, 1954, to October 10, 2010, there was a country known as the Netherlands Antilles composed of five states, all of which were Dutch dependencies. From January 3, 1958, to May 31, 1962, there was a short-lived political union called the West Indies Federation composed of ten English-speaking Caribbean territories, all of which were British dependencies; the West Indies cricket team continues to represent many of those nations. The region takes its name from that of the Caribs, an ethnic group present in the Lesser Antilles and parts of adjacent South America at the time of the Spanish conquest of the Americas; the two most prevalent pronunciations of "Caribbean" outside the Caribbean are, with the primary stress on the third syllable, with the stress on the second. Most authorities of the last century preferred the stress on the third syllable.
This is the older of the two pronunciations, but the stressed-second-syllable variant has been established for over 75 years. It has been suggested that speakers of British English prefer while North American speakers more use, but major American dictionaries and other sources list the stress on the third syllable as more common in American English too. According to the American version of Oxford Online Dictionaries, the stress on the second syllable is becoming more common in UK English and is considered "by some" to be more up to date and more "correct"; the Oxford Online Dictionaries claim that the stress on the second syllable is the most common pronunciation in the Caribbean itself, but according to the Dictionary of Caribbean English Usage, the most common pronunciation in Caribbean English stresses the first syllable instead. The word "Caribbean" has multiple uses, its principal ones are political. The Caribbean can be expanded to include territories with strong cultural and historical connections to slavery, European colonisation and the plantation system.
The United Nations geoscheme for the Americas presents the Caribbean as a distinct region within the Americas. Physiographically, the Caribbean region is a chain of islands surrounding the Caribbean Sea. To the north, the region is bordered by the Gulf of Mexico, the Straits of Florida and the Northern Atlantic Ocean, which lies to the east and northeast. To the south lies the coastline of the continent of South America. Politically, the "Caribbean" may be centred on socio-economic groupings found in the region. For example, the bloc known as the Caribbean Community contains the Co-operative Republic of Guyana, the Republic of Suriname in South America and Belize in Central America as full members. Bermuda and the Turks and Caicos Islands, which are in the Atlantic Ocean, are associate members of the Caribbean Community; the Commonwealth of the Bahamas is in the Atlantic and is a full member of the Caribbean Community. Alternatively, the organisation called the Association of Caribbean States consists of every nation in the surrounding regions that lie on the Caribbean, plus El Salvador, which lies on the Pacific Ocean.
According to the ACS, the total population of its member states is 227 million people. The geography and climate in the Caribbean region varies: Some islands in the region have flat terrain of non-volcanic origin; these islands include Aruba, Curaçao, Bonaire, the Cayman Islands, Saint Croix, the Bahamas, Antigua. Others possess rugged towering mountain-ranges like the islands of Saint Martin, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Dominica, Saba, Sint Eustatius, Saint Kitts, Saint Lucia, Saint Thomas, Saint John, Grenada, Saint Vincent, Guadeloupe and Trinidad and Tobago. Definitions of the terms Greater Antilles and Lesser Antilles vary; the Virgin Islands as part of the Puerto Rican bank are sometimes included with the Greater Antilles. The term Lesser Antilles is used to define an island arc that includes Grenada but excludes Trinidad and Tobago and the Leeward Antilles; the waters of the Caribbean Sea host large, migratory schools of fish and coral reef
Battle of Edson's Ridge
The Battle of Edson's Ridge known as the Battle of the Bloody Ridge, Battle of Raiders Ridge, Battle of the Ridge, was a land battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II between Imperial Japanese Army and Allied ground forces. It took place from 12–14 September 1942, on Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands, was the second of three separate major Japanese ground offensives during the Guadalcanal Campaign. In the battle, U. S. Marines, under the overall command of U. S. Major General Alexander Vandegrift, repulsed an attack by the Japanese 35th Infantry Brigade, under the command of Japanese Major General Kiyotake Kawaguchi; the Marines were defending the Lunga perimeter that guarded Henderson Field on Guadalcanal, captured from the Japanese by the Allies in landings on Guadalcanal on 7 August 1942. Kawaguchi's unit was sent to Guadalcanal in response to the Allied landings with the mission of recapturing the airfield and driving the Allied forces from the island. Underestimating the strength of Allied forces on Guadalcanal—about 12,000—Kawaguchi's 6,000 soldiers conducted several nighttime frontal assaults on the U.
S. defenses. The main Japanese assault occurred around Lunga ridge south of Henderson Field, manned by troops from several U. S. Marine Corps units troops from the 1st Raider and 1st Parachute Battalions under U. S. Marine Corps Lieutenant Colonel Merritt A. Edson. Although the Marine defenses were overrun, Kawaguchi's attack was defeated, with heavy losses for the Japanese; because of the key participation by Edson's unit in defending the ridge, the ridge was referred to as "Edson's" ridge in historical accounts of the battle in Western sources. After Edson's Ridge, the Japanese continued to send troops to Guadalcanal for further attempts to retake Henderson Field, affecting Japanese offensive operations in other areas of the South Pacific. On 7 August 1942, Allied forces landed on Guadalcanal and Florida Islands in the Solomon Islands; the landings on the islands were meant to deny their use by the Japanese as bases for threatening the supply routes between the U. S. and Australia. They were intended to secure the islands as starting points for a campaign to neutralize the major Japanese base at Rabaul and support the Allied New Guinea campaign.
The landings initiated the six-month-long Guadalcanal campaign. Taking the Japanese by surprise, by nightfall on 8 August the Allied landing forces had secured Tulagi and nearby small islands, as well as an airfield under construction at Lunga Point on the north shore of the island of Guadalcanal east of the present day capital of Honiara. Vandegrift placed his 11,000 troops of the 1st Marine Division on Guadalcanal in a loose perimeter around the Lunga Point area. On 12 August, the airfield was named Henderson Field after Major Lofton Henderson, a Marine aviator, killed at the Battle of Midway; the Allied aircraft and pilots that subsequently operated out of Henderson Field were called the "Cactus Air Force" after the Allied code name for Guadalcanal. In response to the Allied landings on Guadalcanal, the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters assigned the Imperial Japanese Army's 17th Army—a corps-sized command based at Rabaul and under the command of Lieutenant-General Harukichi Hyakutake—with the task of retaking Guadalcanal from Allied forces.
The 17th Army—heavily involved with the Japanese campaign in New Guinea—had only a few units available to send to the southern Solomons area. Of these units, the 35th Infantry Brigade—under Major General Kiyotake Kawaguchi—was at Palau, the 4th Infantry Regiment was in the Philippines and the 28th Infantry Regiment—under the command of Colonel Kiyonao Ichiki—was embarked on transport ships near Guam; the different units began to move toward Guadalcanal immediately. The "First Element" of Ichiki's unit—consisting of about 917 soldiers—landed from destroyers at Taivu Point, about 18 mi east of the Lunga perimeter, on August 19. Underestimating the strength of Allied forces on Guadalcanal, Ichiki's First Element conducted a nighttime frontal assault on Marine positions at Alligator Creek on the east side of the Lunga perimeter in the early morning hours of August 21. Ichiki's assault was repulsed with devastating losses for the attackers in what became known as the Battle of the Tenaru: all but 128 of the 917 men of the First Element were killed in the battle.
The survivors returned to Taivu Point, notified 17th Army headquarters of their defeat in the battle and awaited further reinforcements and orders from Rabaul. By 23 August, Kawaguchi's unit had reached Truk and was loaded onto slow transport ships for the rest of the trip to Guadalcanal; because of the damage caused by Allied air attack to a separate troop convoy during the Battle of the Eastern Solomons, the Japanese decided not to deliver Kawaguchi's troops to Guadalcanal by slow transport ship. From there, the Japanese planned to deliver Kawaguchi's men to Guadalcanal by destroyers, staging through a Japanese naval base in the Shortland Islands; the Japanese destroyers were able to make the round trip down "The Slot" to Guadalcanal and back in a single night, minimizing their exposure to Allied air attack. However, most of the soldiers' heavy equipment and supplies, such as heavy artillery and much food and ammunition, could not be taken to Guadalcanal with them; these high-speed destroyer runs to Guadalcanal, which occurred throughout the campaign, were called the "Tokyo Express" by Allied forces and "Rat Transportation" by the Japanese.