click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Connectionism

Connectionism is an approach in the fields of cognitive science that hopes to explain mental phenomena using artificial neural networks. Connectionism presents a cognitive theory based on occurring, distributed signal activity via connections that can be represented numerically, where learning occurs by modifying connection strengths based on experience; some advantages of the connectionist approach include its applicability to a broad array of functions, structural approximation to biological neurons, low requirements for innate structure, capacity for graceful degradation. Some disadvantages include the difficulty in deciphering how ANNs process information and a resultant difficulty explaining phenomena at a higher level; the success of deep learning networks in the past decade has increased the popularity of this approach, but the complexity and scale of such networks has brought with them increased interpretability problems. Connectionism is seen by many to offer an alternative to classical theories of mind based on symbolic computation, but the extent to which the two approaches are compatible has been the subject of much debate since their inception.

The central connectionist principle is that mental phenomena can be described by interconnected networks of simple and uniform units. The form of the connections and the units can vary from model to model. For example, units in the network could represent neurons and the connections could represent synapses, as in the human brain. In most connectionist models, networks change over time. A related and common aspect of connectionist models is activation. At any time, a unit in the network has an activation, a numerical value intended to represent some aspect of the unit. For example, if the units in the model are neurons, the activation could represent the probability that the neuron would generate an action potential spike. Activation spreads to all the other units connected to it. Spreading activation is always a feature of neural network models, it is common in connectionist models used by cognitive psychologists. Neural networks are by far the most used connectionist model today. Though there are a large variety of neural network models, they always follow two basic principles regarding the mind: Any mental state can be described as an -dimensional vector of numeric activation values over neural units in a network.

Memory is created by modifying the strength of the connections between neural units. The connection strengths, or "weights", are represented as an N×N matrix. Most of the variety among neural network models comes from: Interpretation of units: Units can be interpreted as neurons or groups of neurons. Definition of activation: Activation can be defined in a variety of ways. For example, in a Boltzmann machine, the activation is interpreted as the probability of generating an action potential spike, is determined via a logistic function on the sum of the inputs to a unit. Learning algorithm: Different networks modify their connections differently. In general, any mathematically defined change in connection weights over time is referred to as the "learning algorithm". Connectionists are in agreement that recurrent neural networks are a better model of the brain than feedforward neural networks. Many recurrent connectionist models incorporate dynamical systems theory. Many researchers, such as the connectionist Paul Smolensky, have argued that connectionist models will evolve toward continuous, high-dimensional, non-linear, dynamic systems approaches.

Connectionist work in general does not need to be biologically realistic and therefore suffers from a lack of neuroscientific plausibility. However, the structure of neural networks is derived from that of biological neurons, this parallel in low-level structure is argued to be an advantage of connectionism in modeling cognitive structures compared with other approaches. One area where connectionist models are thought to be biologically implausible is with respect to error-propagation networks that are needed to support learning, but error propagation can explain some of the biologically-generated electrical activity seen at the scalp in event-related potentials such as the N400 and P600, this provides some biological support for one of the key assumptions of connectionist learning procedures; the weights in a neural network are adjusted according to some learning rule or algorithm, such as Hebbian learning. Thus, connectionists have created many sophisticated learning procedures for neural networks.

Learning always involves modifying the connection weights. In general, these involve mathematical formulas to determine the change in weights when given sets of data consisting of activation vectors for some subset of the neural units. Several studies have been focused on designing teaching-learning methods based on connectionism. By formalizing learning in such a way, connectionists have many tools. A common strategy in connectionist learning methods is to incorporate gradient descent over an error surface in a space defined by the weight matrix. All gradient descent learning in connectionist models involves changing each weight by the partial derivative of the error surface with respect to the weight. Backpropagation, first made popular in the 1980s, is the most known connectionist gradient descent algorithm today. Connectionism can be traced to ideas more than a century old, which were little more than speculation until the mid-to-late 20th century; the prevailing connectionist approach today was known as parallel distributed processing.

It was an artificial neural network a

Phillips Mansion

The Phillips Mansion is a Second Empire style historic house in Pomona, Los Angeles County, California. It was built in 1875 by Louis Phillips, who by the 1890s had become the wealthiest man in Los Angeles County. Situated along the Butterfield Stage route, the Phillips Mansion became a center of community activity in the Pomona and Spadra area, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1974, making it among the first 25 sites in Los Angeles County to be so designated. The Phillips Mansion was built in 1875 by Louis Phillips. Phillips was born Louis Galefsky to a Jewish family in Prussia and moved to California in the early 1850s, changing his name to Phillips, he began engaging in sheep herding and cattle raising. In 1864, he purchased 12,000 acres of the old Rancho San Jose for $30,000. In 1867, he married Esther Blake, with whom he had two daughters, he acquired large land holdings in other parts of the county, including the Los Angeles business district where he owned the Phillips Block on Spring Street, a block on Los Angeles Street and another on Third Street.

By 1892, the Los Angeles Times reported that Phillips, "who lives so out at Spadra, near Pomona," was "the richest man in Los Angeles County." The Times noted that Phillips was worth "not a dollar less than $3,000,000" and stated that, in addition to his land holdings in Los Angeles, he had a ranch that produced wool and wheat. The Phillips Mansion was built in 1875 at a cost of over $20,000, it has been described as having been built in the "Second Empire" or "Classic Haunted Mansion architectural style." It was built with six fireplaces. The bricks were made at the site by Joseph Mulally of Los Angeles. With its use of a mansard roof, some have described it as being "in the style of the New Orleans French homes." Another writer noted that it "looks as if it had been lifted bodily from the tree-lined street of a midwestern county seat," the "kind of house the banker of such a town would build for himself." The interior of the mansion is finished in cherry and maple wood, hauled by horse and wagon from San Pedro.

The mansion represented a number of firsts in the Pomona Valley, including the following: The first home built with fired bricks. Other than two Mexican-era adobe structures, the Phillips Mansion is the oldest surviving house in the Pomona Valley, it has been named "one of the ten most stately mansions in Southern California." The property on which the Phillips Mansion was built is part of the 22,000 acre Rancho San Jose land grant awarded in 1837 by Gov. Juan B. Alvarado to Ricardo Vejar and Ygnacio Palomares; the Phillips Mansion was preceded by an adobe built in the 1860s, when the property was still part of the Rancho San Jose. Before the construction of the Phillips Mansion, it was said that "the cluster of buildings by San Jose Creek at the foot of the Spadra Hills" was the center of life on the rancho. In 1864, Schlesinger and Tischler acquired the ranch in a foreclosure, Phillips, a manager on the ranch, bought 12,000 acres out of the foreclosure for $30,000. In January 1874, the Southern Pacific Railroad completed a rail line from Los Angeles to Spadra, spurring interest in land development in the area.

In 1875, Phillips built the mansion and sold most of his 12,000 acres for subdivision into the Pomona Tract, thus beginning the formation of Pomona. Phillips was one of the local land promoters who laid out the town of Pomona in the summer of 1875; the new community was named after the goddess of fruit trees. However, Phillips preferred Spadra to Pomona, retained 2,241 acres surrounding his mansion, which he operated as a cattle and sheep ranch, it has been said. The mansion was a stage stop located where the Butterfield Stage Route intersected with the San Bernardino-Los Angeles Stage Road. Phillips became postmaster for the Spadra area, the mansion became both the post office and a center of social activities for the scattered settlers of the Pomona Valley in the late 19th century. Phillips died from pneumonia at the mansion in 1900, his widow Esther lived at the mansion until 1916, it remained in the Phillips family until 1931, when their grandson, Cecil George, sold it to Paul T. Boyle of Los Angeles.

At that time, the property consisted of the house and 40 acres with 4,000 feet of frontage on Pomona Boulevard. George, who lived in Hollywood, retained 200 acres of walnut groves. In 1942 the house was sold to C. H. Brandmyer, of Glendale, California. At that time, the property consisted of the house and 21 acres of citrus, the Los Angeles Times reported that the home had never been remodeled. During World War II, the house was converted into an apartment house. At one time, the house was cut up like a rooming house into four apartments, the dark interior woodwork was painted over. By 1959, ownership of the property had passed to Earl Isbil. During the 1960s, the area surrounding the Phillips Mansion had become industrial. In 1966, the mansion was vandalized, plans were announced to sell the property to a buyer who intended to build a paint factory on the site. At that time, the Historical Society of Pomona Valley, led by Fred W. Sharp, began a cam

Efrat Dor

Efrat Dor is an Israeli actress known for portraying Magdalena Gross in the film The Zookeeper’s Wife and Lizzie DeLaurentis in the hit Amazon show Sneaky Pete. Efrat Dor was born in Beersheba and grew up in Omer in southern Israel with her parents – a writer and an engineer – and three brothers, she is of Polish and German descent. Her Polish grandmother's mother and his brothers were all murdered by the Nazis under the Third Reich. Dor began acting in high school and trained as a ballet dancer at the Bat-Dor Beer-Sheva professional dance school in Beersheba, she went on to study acting at the Beit Zvi School for the Performing Arts in Israel. Dor began her professional acting career in 2007 with small roles in Israeli television, she made her feature film debut in 2009 in Phobidilia which featured in the Berlin International Film Festival that same year. She first gained recognition in Israel in 2010 for her role as Shir Ambar in the TV drama Asfur. In 2012, she was nominated for Best Actress in a Drama Series at the Awards of the Israeli Television Academy for the role of police recruit Alex Yudayov in Achat Efes Efes.

In 2017, she attracted attention for her depiction of the Polish sculptor Magdalena Gross in the Niki Caro film The Zookeeper’s Wife alongside Jessica Chastain. In 2018, Dor starred in the English-language French film Holy Lands. In 2019, she won acclaim for her portrayal of con artist Lizzie DeLaurentis in the third season of Amazon's hit show Sneaky Pete; that year, she was cast in the regular role of Eva McCulloch in the latter half of season six of The Flash. Efrat Dor on IMDb

Philip Arditti

Philip Arditti is a British-Swiss theatre and television actor of Jewish Sephardic descent, famous for his role as Uday Hussein in the four episode House of Saddam television docudrama. He appeared in the film Red 2, a sequel to 2010's Red. Arditti was born in Geneva and grew up in Istanbul and moved to London in 1999, he graduated from the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art in 2004. He began his TV and film career in some of British television's most popular series including Casualty and Silent Witness, he appeared in the British comedy drama film Happy-Go-Lucky. His radio plays include Snow and In 2013, he appeared in Turkish television series Son and in the film Singing Women directed by Turkish film director Reha Erdem. In 2014 he appeared in the BBC/Sundance TV drama The Honourable Woman directed by Hugo Blick opposite Maggie Gyllenhaal where he played Saleh Al-Zahid. In 2014, he played The Laws of Gods and Men. On the stage Arditti played Yossarian, the New York bomb aimer, in Joseph Heller's stage adaptation of his novel Catch-22 on a UK national tour directed by Rachel Chavkin.

He is a regular performer at London's National Theatre, including roles in England People Very Nice and Gifts, Holy Rosenbergs. In September 2017 he played Uri Savir in J. T. Rogers's stage play Oslo at the venue's Lyttelton auditorium, accompanying the production when it transferred to the West End in the following month. Kiss Me First Da Vinci's Demons Red 2 Father & Son Vidiotic Silent Witness Spooks: Code 9 House of Saddam 10 Days to War Blowback Happy-Go-Lucky The Whistleblowers Fit for Purpose Really Chicken Soup Caerdydd Chopratown Spooks aka MI-5 The Sting Casualty Philip Arditti on IMDb http://www.hbo.com/films/houseofsaddam/cast/philip_arditti.html http://www.gazillionmovies.com/Actor/P/Ph/PhilipArditti.htm

Chorro, California

Chorro is an unincorporated community in San Luis Obispo County, United States. Chorro is located along a railroad line, California State Route 1, just north of San Luis Obispo, it is the location of El Chorro Regional Park. Chorro is a populated place located at latitude 35.327 and longitude -120.678. The elevation of Chorro is 666 feet. Chorro is known for the popular El Chorro Regional Park, an SLO county regional park. Chorro is derived from a Spanish phrase meaning "the gushing water". In what was once an area extensively used by local ranchers for dairy production and cattle grazing, the land was acquired by the Federal Government in the 1940s to establish Camp San Luis Obispo and is still owned by them to this day; the camp was used for training purposes by the U. S. Army during World War II and the Korean War. In 1972 the land was deeded to the county, during President Nixon’s “Legacy of Parks” program, to be managed as a natural park and recreational area for the citizens and visitors of San Luis Obispo County.

El Chorro Regional Park Campground features 63 campsites. Each site at the campground can accommodate 6–8 people and either a couple of tents or a full-sized R. V; the maximum trailer length at some of the sites is 40 feet, there are a couple of pull-through sites. The Regional Park has many different activities available such as rock climbing, golf courses, biking, picnic sites, softball and bird watching The San Luis Obispo Botanical Garden is located in El Chorro Regional Park on Highway 1 between San Luis Obispo and Morro Bay. There is a long-range master plan for a 150-acre botanical garden, representing the flora of the five Mediterranean Climate ecoregions around the world; the current three-acre garden has several areas displaying California native plants, with many suitable for growing in local water-conserving and wildlife gardens. Near Chorro, there is a well-known horseshoe curve included on Amtrak's Coast Starlight route between Los Angeles and Seattle, Washington, on the grade from San Luis Obispo to Cuesta Pass.

Chorro and El Chorro Regional Park is known for its contributions to San Luis Obispo County for Earth Day, where many residents stay and spend the night in the park and throughout the town