Glasgow is the most populous city in Scotland, the third most populous city in the United Kingdom, as of the 2017 estimated city population of 621,020. Part of Lanarkshire, the city now forms the Glasgow City council area, one of the 32 council areas of Scotland. Glasgow is situated on the River Clyde in the country's West Central Lowlands. Inhabitants of the city are referred to as "Glaswegians" or "Weegies", it is the fourth most visited city in the UK. Glasgow is known for the Glasgow patter, a distinct dialect of the Scots language, noted for being difficult to understand by those from outside the city. Glasgow grew from a small rural settlement on the River Clyde to become the largest seaport in Scotland, tenth largest by tonnage in Britain. Expanding from the medieval bishopric and royal burgh, the establishment of the University of Glasgow in the fifteenth century, it became a major centre of the Scottish Enlightenment in the eighteenth century. From the eighteenth century onwards, the city grew as one of Great Britain's main hubs of transatlantic trade with North America and the West Indies.
With the onset of the Industrial Revolution, the population and economy of Glasgow and the surrounding region expanded to become one of the world's pre-eminent centres of chemicals and engineering. Glasgow was the "Second City of the British Empire" for much of the Victorian era and Edwardian period, although many cities argue the title was theirs. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Glasgow's population grew reaching a peak of 1,127,825 people in 1938. Comprehensive urban renewal projects in the 1960s, resulting in large-scale relocation of people to designated new towns; the wider metropolitan area is home to over 1,800,000 people, equating to around 33% of Scotland's population. The city has one of the highest densities of any locality in Scotland at 4,023/km2. Glasgow hosted the 2014 Commonwealth Games and the first European Championships in 2018; the origin of the name'Glasgow' is disputed. It is common to derive the toponym from the older Cumbric glas cau or a Middle Gaelic cognate, which would have meant green basin or green valley.
The settlement had an earlier Cumbric name, Cathures. It is recorded that the King of Strathclyde, Rhydderch Hael, welcomed Saint Kentigern, procured his consecration as bishop about 540. For some thirteen years Kentigern laboured in the region, building his church at the Molendinar Burn where Glasgow Cathedral now stands, making many converts. A large community became known as Glasgu; the area around Glasgow has hosted communities for millennia, with the River Clyde providing a natural location for fishing. The Romans built outposts in the area and, to keep Roman Britannia separate from the Celtic and Pictish Caledonia, constructed the Antonine Wall. Items from the wall like altars from Roman forts like Balmuildy can be found at the Hunterian Museum today. Glasgow itself was reputed to have been founded by the Christian missionary Saint Mungo in the 6th century, he established a church on the Molendinar Burn, where the present Glasgow Cathedral stands, in the following years Glasgow became a religious centre.
Glasgow grew over the following centuries. The Glasgow Fair began in the year 1190; the first bridge over the River Clyde at Glasgow was recorded from around 1285, giving its name to the Briggait area of the city, forming the main North-South route over the river via Glasgow Cross. The founding of the University of Glasgow in 1451 and elevation of the bishopric to become the Archdiocese of Glasgow in 1492 increased the town's religious and educational status and landed wealth, its early trade was in agriculture and fishing, with cured salmon and herring being exported to Europe and the Mediterranean. Following the European Protestant Reformation and with the encouragement of the Convention of Royal Burghs, the 14 incorporated trade crafts federated as the Trades House in 1605 to match the power and influence in the town council of the earlier Merchants' Guilds who established their Merchants House in the same year. Glasgow was subsequently raised to the status of Royal Burgh in 1611. Glasgow's substantial fortunes came from international trade and invention, starting in the 17th century with sugar, followed by tobacco, cotton and linen, products of the Atlantic triangular slave trade.
Daniel Defoe visited the city in the early 18th century and famously opined in his book A tour thro' the whole island of Great Britain, that Glasgow was "the cleanest and beautifullest, best built city in Britain, London excepted". At that time the city's population was about 12,000, the city was yet to undergo the massive expansionary changes to its economy and urban fabric, brought about by the Scottish Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution. After the Acts of Union in 1707, Scotland gained further access to the vast markets of the new British Empire, Glasgow became p
Commander, Navy Installations Command
Navy Installations Command is an Echelon II shore command responsible for all shore installations under the control of the United States Navy. As an Echelon II command, it reports directly to the Chief of Naval Operations, it is responsible for the operation and management of all Naval installations worldwide through eleven Navy Regions. Prior to the creation of CNIC, all of the Navy's major shore echelon II commanders operated their own installations independent of each other; this led to a hodgepodge of installation operating procedures, when installations operated in close proximity to one another, resulted in sometimes incompatible and large policy differences. Thus, it was the intent of CNIC is to establish a single shore installation management organization that will focus on installation effectiveness and improve the shore installation management community's ability to support the fleet; when it was established October 1, 2003, the stand up of CNIC was an effort in the continuation of fleet and regional shore installation management organizational alignment that began in 1997 with the reduction of installation management claimants from 18 to 8.
CNIC has overall responsibility and authority as the for all installation support programs and is the lead within Navy for installation policy and program execution oversight. CNIC works to coordinate services and across the Naval Enterprises, best provide the installations and programs in their support; these services include installation management and operations, such as port operations, security, land use planning, environmental aspects and real estate, emergency management, as well as fleet support services such as base housing, weapons storage, MWR recreational programs, child care and youth programs. Its mission is summed up as supporting the three'F's: "Fleet and Family." "Fleet" means the operating forces of the Navy. CNIC ensures all installation requirements necessary to train and operate the Fleets are maintained and ready. "Fighter" means the women in the operating forces. CNIC ensures naval installations are able to facilitate the manning and equipping of the Navy's fighting force.
"Family" means the women of the armed forces and their families. To ensure the fighting force is supported on all fronts, CNIC's Family and Community Services and Safety efforts provide the quality of life and services that allow the fighting force to focus on mission accomplishment; each region was a part of one or other United States naval districts from their inception in the early 1900s until their disestablishment in the late 1970s and 1980s. At that point, individual installations were operated independent of any true centralized command structure. In 1998, the Navy embarked on a new era with San Diego leading the way; as the Navy reduced its operational forces, it became essential for the shore establishment supporting those forces to be realigned. As part of the new command structure, each naval installation or supported command now reports to one of eleven regional commanders who are responsible for the operation and management of the installations within their regional jurisdiction.
Each regional commander is a one-star Rear Admiral with the exception of the Commanders of Navy Region Mid-Atlantic, Navy Region Japan and Navy Region EURAFSWA, a two-star Rear Admiral. Navy Region Midwest was disestablished on September 30, 2014 as part of a reorganization of Navy flag billets assets in the wake of the United States budget sequestration in 2013. Headquartered in Great Lakes, Illinois, it included installations in 16 states; these are now split between the Northwest, Mid-Atlantic, Southeast regions. Official website
Fleming and Ferguson
Fleming and Ferguson was a Scottish marine engineering and shipbuilding company that traded between 1877 and 1969. William Y. Fleming and Peter Ferguson founded the company in Paisley, Scotland in 1877, making marine steam engines. In 1885 they expanded into shipbuilding by taking over the business and Phoenix Shipyard of H. McIntyre & Co. Fleming and Ferguson became a private company in 1895 and a public limited company in 1898. In 1903 the Ferguson family withdrew from the business and set up their own shipyard, Ferguson Shipbuilders, at Port Glasgow; however and Ferguson survived their departure and developed a World-class reputation for reciprocating engines and small ships. In 1889 Fleming and Ferguson built. By 1894 Fleming and Ferguson were making water-tube boilers, which were featured in an article in The Engineer; the firm built reciprocating engines for non-marine use. In 1904 it supplied two inverted triple-expansion engines for a water company in Brighton. In the 1890s the company entered the specialist market for "knock down" vessels.
These were bolted together at the shipyard, all the parts marked with numbers, disassembled into many hundreds of parts and transported in kit form for final reassembly with rivets. This elaborate method of construction was used to provide inland vessels for export. In 1898 it built the stern wheel paddle steamer PS Premier and exported it in sections for reassembly at Maryborough, Queensland in Australia; the firms main specialisms were vessels such as dredgers, tugboats, floating cranes, lighthouse tenders and, in 1904, the icebreaker SS Champlain. It built steam yachts. In peacetime it took one Admiralty order, the minelayer SS Lady Roberts built in 1901 for service in New Zealand. In 1914 it had a workforce of 1,000. In the First World War it built the Racecourse-class minesweepers HMS Lingfield and HMS Lanark and HMS Lewes. In the Second World War it built the River-class frigates HMS Itchen, HMS Exe and HMS Aire, HMS Awe and HMS Dovey. In 1946 Fleming and Ferguson built the East African Railways and Harbours Corporation stern wheel paddle steamer PS Lugard II, which plied the Albert Nile in Uganda.
In 1964 the American Marine and Machinery Co. Inc. bought Fleming and Ferguson. The company's final ship was a dredger. Fleming and Ferguson ceased trading before completing the vessel so Hugh Maclean of Renfrew completed her; the dredger, yard number 804, was named Bled and exported to Yugoslavia. Surviving Fleming and Ferguson products include the floating steam cranes Hikitia and Rapaki and dredger SS Otakou, all in New Zealand.
QF 1-pounder pom-pom
The QF 1 pounder, universally known as the pom-pom due to the sound of its discharge, was a 37 mm British autocannon, the first of its type in the world. It was used by several countries as an infantry gun and as a light anti-aircraft gun. Hiram Maxim designed the Pom-Pom in the late 1880s as an enlarged version of the Maxim machine gun, its longer range necessitated exploding projectiles to judge range, which in turn dictated a shell weight of at least 400 grams, as, the lightest exploding shell allowed under the St. Petersburg Declaration of 1868 and reaffirmed in the Hague Convention of 1899. Early versions were sold under the Maxim-Nordenfelt label, whereas versions in British service were labelled Vickers and Maxim as Vickers had bought out Maxim-Nordenfelt in 1897, they are all the same gun. The Belgian Army used the gun on a high-angle field carriage mounting. A version was produced in Germany for both Army. In World War I, it was used in Europe as an anti-aircraft gun as the Maxim Flak M14.
Four guns were used mounted on field carriages in the German campaign in South West Africa in 1915, against South African forces. The British government rejected the gun but other countries bought it, including the South African Republic government. In the Second Boer War, the British found themselves being fired on with success by the Boers with their 37 mm Maxim-Nordenfelt versions using ammunition made in Germany. In response, Vickers-Maxim of Britain shipped either 57 or 50 guns out to the British Army in South Africa, with the first three arriving in time for the Battle of Paardeberg of February 1900; these early Mk I versions were mounted on typical field gun type carriages. In World War I, it was used as an early anti-aircraft gun in the home defence of Britain, it was adapted as the Mk I*** and Mk II on high-angle pedestal mountings and deployed along London docks and on rooftops on key buildings in London, others on mobile motor lorries at key towns in the East and Southeast of England.
25 were employed in August 1914, 50 in February 1916. A Mk II gun on a Naval pedestal mounting was the first to open fire in defence of London during the war. However, the shell was too small to damage the German Zeppelin airships sufficiently to bring them down; the Ministry of Munitions noted in 1922: "The pom-poms were of little value. There was no shrapnel available for them, the shell provided for them would not burst on aeroplane fabric but fell back to earth as solid projectiles... were of no use except at a much lower elevation than a Zeppelin attacking London was to keep". Lieutenant O. F. J. Hogg of No. 2 AA Section in III Corps was the first anti-aircraft gunner to shoot down an aircraft, with 75 rounds on 23 September 1914 in France. The British Army did not employ it as an infantry weapon in World War I, as its shell was considered too small for use against any objects or fortifications and British doctrine relied on shrapnel fired by QF 13 pounder and 18-pounder field guns as its primary medium range anti-personnel weapon.
The gun was experimentally mounted on aircraft as the lighter 1-pounder Mk III, the cancelled Vickers E. F. B.7 having been designed to carry it in its nose. As a light anti-aircraft gun, it was replaced by the larger QF 1½ pounder and QF 2 pounder naval guns; the British are reported to have used some Common pointed shells in the Boer War, in addition to the standard Common shell. However, the common pointed shell proved unsatisfactory, with the base fuse working loose and falling out during flight. In 1914, the cast-iron common shell and tracer were the only available rounds; the U. S. Navy adopted the Maxim-Nordenfelt 37 mm 1 pounder as the 1-pounder Mark 6 before the 1898 Spanish–American War; the Mark 7, 9, 14, 15 weapons were similar. It was the first dedicated anti-aircraft gun adopted by the US Navy, specified as such on the Sampson-class destroyers launched in 1916-17, it was deployed on various types of ships during the US participation in World War I, although it was replaced as the standard AA gun on new destroyers by the 3 inch /23 caliber gun.
With the advent of the steel-hulled "New Navy" in 1884, some ships were equipped with the 1-pounder Hotchkiss revolving cannon. In the aftermath of the Battle of Blair Mountain, the United States Army deployed artillery, including pompoms: "Their armament was strengthened with a howitzer and two pompoms."Rapid-firing 1-pounders were used, including the Sponsell gun and eight other marks. Designs included Driggs-Schroeder. A semi-automatic weapon and a line throwing version were adopted. Semi-automatic in this case meant a weapon in which the breech was opened and cartridge ejected automatically after firing, ready for manual loading of the next round, it is difficult to determine from references whether "1-pounder RF" refers to single-shot, revolving cannon, or Maxim-Nordenfelt weapons. A gun from 1903 at the Imperial War Museum London. Two German-manufactured 1903 guns used during World War I are on display at the South African National Museum of Military History, Johannesburg. Nr. 542 and 543 from the Deutsche Waffen und Munitions Fabriken.
A German-manufactured gun in the Wehrtechnische Studiensammlung Koblenz, Germany. A gun in Bridgton, Maine. An early Maxim-Nordenfelt gun, no. 2024, is on display the American Heritage Museum in Stow, Massachusetts. A gun in the Canadian War Museum. A gun in the Museo Naval y Chile. A gun at the War Museum in Newport News, Va still o
John S. Johnston
John S. Johnston was a late 19th-century maritime and landscape photographer, he is known for his photographs of racing yachts and New York City landmarks and cityscapes. Little is known about his life, he was evidently born in Britain in the late 1830s, was active in the New York City area in the late 1880s and 1890s. He died in 1899. Johnston's photographs were published in Outing magazine and Stream, other 1890s periodicals featuring yacht racing. Collections of Johnston's work exist today at the Mystic Seaport Museum, the Museum of the City of New York, the National Museum of American History, the Hallmark Photographic Collection, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the New York Public Library, the Seattle Art Museum, many other museums and archives across the United States. Johnston was an active canoeist. According to Forest and Stream magazine, he was "one of the old-time disciples of MacGregor, he worked in partnership with C. Miller at one time, his office was located at various times at 508 W. 158th Street as well as 494 W. 166th St. and 783 Broadway in New York City.
The Yacht Photography of J. S. Johnston
The Spanish–American War was an armed conflict between Spain and the United States in 1898. Hostilities began in the aftermath of the internal explosion of USS Maine in Havana harbor in Cuba, leading to U. S. intervention in the Cuban War of Independence. The war led to emergence of U. S. predominance in the Caribbean region, resulted in U. S. acquisition of Spain's Pacific possessions. That led to U. S. involvement in the Philippine Revolution and in the Philippine–American War. The main issue was Cuban independence. Revolts had been occurring for some years in Cuba against Spanish rule; the U. S. backed these revolts upon entering the Spanish–American War. There had been war scares before, as in the Virginius Affair in 1873, but in the late 1890s, American public opinion was agitated by reports of gruesome Spanish atrocities; the business community had just recovered from a deep depression and feared that a war would reverse the gains. It lobbied vigorously against going to war. President William McKinley sought a peaceful settlement.
The United States Navy armored cruiser USS Maine mysteriously sank in Havana Harbor. McKinley signed a joint Congressional resolution demanding Spanish withdrawal and authorizing the President to use military force to help Cuba gain independence on April 20, 1898. In response, Spain severed diplomatic relations with the United States on April 21. On the same day, the U. S. Navy began a blockade of Cuba. Both sides declared war; the ten-week war was fought in both the Pacific. As U. S. agitators for war well knew, U. S. naval power would prove decisive, allowing expeditionary forces to disembark in Cuba against a Spanish garrison facing nationwide Cuban insurgent attacks and further wasted by yellow fever. The invaders obtained the surrender of Santiago de Cuba and Manila despite the good performance of some Spanish infantry units and fierce fighting for positions such as San Juan Hill. Madrid sued for peace after two Spanish squadrons were sunk in Santiago de Cuba and Manila Bay and a third, more modern, fleet was recalled home to protect the Spanish coasts.
The result was the 1898 Treaty of Paris, negotiated on terms favorable to the U. S. which allowed it temporary control of Cuba and ceded ownership of Puerto Rico and the Philippine islands. The cession of the Philippines involved payment of $20 million to Spain by the U. S. to cover infrastructure owned by Spain. The defeat and loss of the last remnants of the Spanish Empire was a profound shock to Spain's national psyche and provoked a thorough philosophical and artistic reevaluation of Spanish society known as the Generation of'98; the United States gained several island possessions spanning the globe and a rancorous new debate over the wisdom of expansionism. The combined problems arising from the Peninsular War, the loss of most of its colonies in the Americas in the early 19th-century Spanish American wars of independence, three Carlist Wars marked the low point of Spanish colonialism. Liberal Spanish elites like Antonio Cánovas del Castillo and Emilio Castelar offered new interpretations of the concept of "empire" to dovetail with Spain's emerging nationalism.
Cánovas made clear in an address to the University of Madrid in 1882 his view of the Spanish nation as based on shared cultural and linguistic elements – on both sides of the Atlantic – that tied Spain's territories together. Cánovas saw Spanish imperialism as markedly different in its methods and purposes of colonization from those of rival empires like the British or French. Spaniards regarded the spreading of civilization and Christianity as Spain's major objective and contribution to the New World; the concept of cultural unity bestowed special significance on Cuba, Spanish for four hundred years, was viewed as an integral part of the Spanish nation. The focus on preserving the empire would have negative consequences for Spain's national pride in the aftermath of the Spanish–American War. In 1823, the fifth American President James Monroe enunciated the Monroe Doctrine, which stated that the United States would not tolerate further efforts by European governments to retake or expand their colonial holdings in the Americas or to interfere with the newly independent states in the hemisphere.
S. would respect the status of the existing European colonies. Before the American Civil War, Southern interests attempted to have the United States purchase Cuba and convert it into a new slave territory; the pro-slavery element proposed the Ostend Manifesto proposal of 1854. It was rejected by anti-slavery forces. After the American Civil War and Cuba's Ten Years' War, U. S. businessmen began monopolizing the devalued sugar markets in Cuba. In 1894, 90% of Cuba's total exports went to the United States, which provided 40% of Cuba's imports. Cuba's total exports to the U. S. were twelve times larger than the export to her mother country, Spain. U. S. business interests indicated that while Spain still held political authority over Cuba, economic authority in Cuba, acting-authority, was shifting to the US. The U. S. became interested in a trans-isthmus canal either in Nicaragua, or in Panama, where the Panama Canal would be built, realized the need for naval protection. Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan was an influential theorist.
S. built a p
Norfolk Naval Shipyard
The Norfolk Naval Shipyard called the Norfolk Navy Yard and abbreviated as NNSY, is a U. S. Navy facility in Portsmouth, for building and repairing the Navy's ships, it is the oldest and largest industrial facility that belongs to the U. S. Navy as well as the most multifaceted. Located on the Elizabeth River, the yard is just a short distance upriver from its mouth at Hampton Roads, it was established as Gosport Shipyard in 1767. Destroyed during the American Revolutionary War, it was rebuilt and became home to the first operational drydock in the United States in the 1820s. Changing hands during the American Civil War, it served the Confederate States Navy until it was again destroyed in 1862, when it was given its current name; the shipyard was again rebuilt, has continued operation through the present day. The Gosport Shipyard was founded on November 1, 1767 by Andrew Sprowle on the western shore of the Elizabeth River in Norfolk County in the Virginia Colony; this shipyard became a prosperous merchant facility for the British Crown.
In 1775, at the beginning of the American Revolution, Sprowle stayed loyal to the Crown and fled Virginia, which confiscated all of his properties, including the shipyard. In 1779, while the newly formed Commonwealth of Virginia was operating the shipyard, it was burned by British troops. In 1794, United States Congress passed "An Act to Provide a Naval Armament," allowing the Federal Government to lease the Gosport Shipyard from Virginia. In 1799 the keel of USS Chesapeake, one of the first six frigates authorized by Congress, was laid, making her the first ship built in Gosport for the U. S. Navy; the federal government purchased the shipyard from Virginia in 1801 for $12,000. This tract of land measured 16 acres and now makes up the northeastern corner of the current shipyard. In 1827, construction began on the first of what would be the first two dry docks in the United States; the first one was completed three weeks ahead of similar projects in both Boston and South America, making it the first functional dry dock in the Americas.
Dry Dock One, as it is referred to today, is still operational and is listed as historical landmark in Portsmouth, Virginia. Officer's Quarters A, B, C were built about 1837. Additional land on the eastern side of the Elizabeth River was purchased in 1845; the shipyard and neighboring towns suffered from a severe yellow fever epidemic in 1855, which killed about a quarter of the population, including James Chisholm, whose account was published shortly after his death in the epidemic. Slave labor was extensively utilized in the Norfolk Navy Yard from its foundation until the Civil War; some idea of the human scale can be found in this exert from a letter of Commodore Lewis Warrington dated 12 October 1831 to the Board of Navy Commissioners. Warrington's letter to the BNC, was in response to various petitions by white workers, his letter attempts both to reassure the BNC in light of the recent Nat Turner Rebellion which occurred on 22 August 1831 and to serve as a reply to the Dry Dock's stonemasons who had quit their positions and accused the project chief engineer, Loammi Baldwin, of the unfair hiring of enslaved labor in their stead.
"There are about two hundred and forty six blacks employed in the Dock altogether. On 21 June 1839 Commodore Warrington endorsed a petition signed by 34 slaveholders pleading with the Secretary of the Navy continue it. Warrington noted, he added. George Teamoh]] as a young enslaved laborer and ship caulker worked at Norfolk Navy Yard in the 1830s and 1840s wrote of this unrequited labor"; the government had patronized, given encouragement to slavery to a greater extent than the great majority of the country has been aware. It had in its service hundreds if not thousands of slaves employed on government works." As late "as 1848 one third of the 300 workers at the Gosport navy yard were hired slaves." In 1861, Virginia joined the Confederate States of America. Fearing that the Confederacy would take control of the facility, the shipyard commander Charles Stewart McCauley ordered the burning of the shipyard; the Confederate forces did in fact take over the shipyard, did so without armed conflict through an elaborate ruse orchestrated by civilian railroad builder William Mahone.
He bluffed the Federal troops into abandoning the shipyard in Portsmouth by running a single passenger train into Norfolk with great noise and whistle-blowing much more sending it back west, returning the same train again, creating the illusion of large numbers of arriving troops to the Federals listening in Portsmouth across the Elizabeth River