Oerlikon 20 mm cannon
The Oerlikon 20 mm cannon is a series of autocannons, based on an original German 20 mm Becker design that appeared early in World War I. It was produced by Oerlikon Contraves and others, with various models employed by both Allied and Axis forces during World War II, many versions still in use today. During World War I, the German industrialist Reinhold Becker developed a 20 mm caliber cannon, known now as the 20 mm Becker using the Advanced Primer Ignition blowback method of operation; this had a cyclic rate of fire of 300 rpm. It was used on a limited scale as an aircraft gun on Luftstreitkräfte warplanes, an anti-aircraft gun towards the end of that war; because the Treaty of Versailles banned further production of such weapons in Germany, the patents and design works were transferred in 1919 to the Swiss firm SEMAG based near Zürich. SEMAG continued development of the weapon, in 1924 had produced the SEMAG L, a heavier weapon that fired more powerful 20x100RB ammunition at a higher rate of fire, 350 rpm.
In 1924 SEMAG failed. The Oerlikon firm, named after the Zürich suburb of Oerlikon where it was based acquired all rights to the weapon, plus the manufacturing equipment and the employees of SEMAG. In 1927 the Oerlikon S was added to the existing product line; this fired a still larger cartridge to achieve a muzzle velocity of 830 m/s, at the cost of increased weight and a reduced rate of fire. The purpose of this development was to improve the performance of the gun as an anti-tank and anti-aircraft weapon, which required a higher muzzle velocity. An improved version known as the 1S followed in 1930. Three sizes of gun with their different ammunition and barrel length, but similar mechanisms, continued to be developed in parallel. In 1930 Oerlikon reconsidered the application of its gun in aircraft and introduced the AF and AL, designed to be used in flexible mounts, i.e. manually aimed by a gunner. The 15-round box magazine used by earlier versions of the gun was replaced by drum magazine holding 15 or 30 rounds.
In 1935 it made an important step by introducing a series of guns designed to be mounted in or on the wings of fighter aircraft. Designated with FF for Flügelfest meaning "wing-mounted", these weapons were again available in the three sizes, with designations FF, FFL and FFS; the FF fired a larger cartridge than the AF, 20x72RB, but the major improvement in these weapons was a significant increase in rate of fire. The FF weighed 24 kg and achieved a muzzle velocity of 550 to 600 m/s with a rate of fire of 520 rpm; the FFL of 30 kg fired a projectile at a muzzle velocity of 675 m/s with a rate of fire of 500 rpm. And the FFS, which weighed 39 kg, delivered a high muzzle velocity of 830 m/s at a rate of fire of 470 rpm. Apart from changes to the design of the guns for wing-mounting and remote control, larger drums were introduced as it would not be possible to exchange magazines in flight. For the FF series drum sizes of 45, 60, 75 and 100 rounds were available, but most users chose the 60-round drum.
The 1930s were a period of global re-armament, a number of foreign firms took licenses for the Oerlikon family of aircraft cannon. In France, Hispano-Suiza manufactured development of the FFS as the Hispano-Suiza HS.7 and Hispano-Suiza HS.9, for installation between the cylinder banks of its V-12 engines. In Germany, Ikaria further developed the FF gun as firing 20x80RB ammunition, and the Imperial Japanese Navy, after evaluating all three guns, ordered developments of the FF and FFL as the Type 99-1 and Type 99-2. The incorporation of the improvements of the FFS in a new anti-aircraft gun produced, in 1938, the Oerlikon SS. Oerlikon realized further improvements in rate of fire on the 1SS of 1942, the 2SS of 1945 which achieved 650 rpm. However, it was the original SS gun, adopted as anti-aircraft gun, being widely used by Allied navies during World War II; this gun used a 400-grain charge of IMR 4831 smokeless powder to propel a 2,000-grain projectile at 2,800 feet per second. The Oerlikon FF was installed as armament on some fighters of the 1930s, such as the Polish PZL P.24G.
Locally produced derivatives of the Oerlikon cannon were used much more extensively, on aircraft, on ships and on land. In the air, the Ikaria MG FF was used as armament on a number of German aircraft, of which the most famous is the Messerschmitt Bf 109; the Japanese Navy used their copy of the FF, designated the Type 99 Mark One cannon on a number of types including the Mitsubishi A6M Zero. In the war, they equipped fighters including the Zero with the Type 99 Mark Two, a version of the more powerful and faster-firing Oerlikon FFL; the French firm of Hispano-Suiza was a manufacturer of aircraft engines, it marketed the moteur-canon combination of its 12X and 12Y engines with a H. S.7 or H. S.9 cannon installed between the cylinder banks. The gun fired through the hollow propeller hub, this being elevated above the crankcase by the design of the gearing; such armament was installed on the Morane-Saulnier M. S.406 and some other types. Similar German installations of the MG FF were not successful.
The Oerlikon became best known in its naval applications. The Oerlikon was not looked upon favorably by the Royal Navy as a short-range anti-aircraft gun. All through 1937-1938 Lord Louis Mountbatten a Captain in the Royal Navy, waged a lone campaign within the Royal Navy to set up an unprejudiced trial for the Oerlikon 20 mm gun, but it was all in vain, it was not until the Commander-in-Chief of the Home Fleet, Admiral Sir Roger Backhouse, was appointed First Sea Lord tha
Fantails are small insectivorous birds of Australasia, Southeast Asia and the Indian subcontinent belonging to the genus Rhipidura in the family Rhipiduridae. Most of the species are about 15 to 18 cm long, specialist aerial feeders, named as "fantails", but the Australian willie wagtail is a little larger, though still an expert hunter of insects on the wing, concentrates on terrestrial prey; the true wagtails are part of the genus Motacilla in the family Motacillidae and are not close relatives of the fantails. The fantails are small bodied birds with long tails; when the tail is folded it is rounded at the end, but when spread in display or aerial foraging it has a characteristic fan shape that gives the family its name. Fantails adopt a hunched horizontal posture most of the time, with the wings drooped and held away from the body and the tail half cocked. There are some exceptions to this the northern fantail of New Guinea and the Cockerell's fantail of the Solomon Islands, which have a more upright posture reminiscent of the monarch flycatchers.
The wings of fantails are tapered and have sacrificed speed for agility, making fantails efficient at catching insect prey. Overall the fantails are strong fliers, some species can undertake long migrations, but the thicket fantails are weak fliers, need to alight regularly; the bills of fantails are typical for aerial insect eating birds, being triangular. The gape is surrounded by two rows of rictal bristles which are long as long as the bill; the bills of most species are weak, limiting fantails to softer insects, although the more terrestrial willie wagtail has a stronger bill. The plumage of most fantails shows some variation, most species are uniform with some markings. A few species, such as the Rennell fantail, have uniform plumage, while others have striking if sombre patterns; the colours of most species are greys, blacks and browns, although a few species have yellow or striking blue feathers. In most species there is no sexual dimorphism in plumage. In a few species, such as the New Zealand fantail, there exist two colour morphs, the common pied morph and the rarer black morph.
Fantails are an Australasian family. In the south the grey fantail ranges as far as The Snares off New Zealand, in the eastern extent of the family has several endemic forms in western Polynesia. There are numerous species in Indonesia, the Philippines and in South East Asia, the family ranges into southern China and the Himalayas; some species have a widespread distribution the willie wagtail, grey fantail, white-throated fantail and northern fantail. The Mussau fantail is restricted to a single island in the Bismarck Archipelago, the Kadavu fantail has a restricted distribution in the Kadavu Group of Fiji. Most fantails the tropical or insular forms, are sedentary and undertake no migration; some northern and southern species undertake a variety of movements. Some Australian fantails undertake seasonal migrations, although these show considerable variation within individual species. Most populations of the rufous fantail exhibit little migratory behaviour, but the south-eastern population moves en masse to northern Queensland and New Guinea.
Fantails exhibit wide tastes in habitat. Most species are able to survive in a variety of habitats. Of all the species the mangrove fantail has the most restricted habitat requirements, being restricted to mangrove forests over some of its range, although it can exist 3 km away in the absence of other fantails; some of the more primitive species are more restricted to primary rainforest, but most other species can survive in more disturbed forest. The most adaptable species is the willie wagtail, abundant in every habitat type in Australia except for dense rainforest; the behaviour of many species of fantail has not been studied, but overall the family is uniform in its habits. Anecdotal observations of less studied species suggest a high degree of similarity with the better studied species. Fantails are active birds, with several of the smaller species continuously on the move. In flight they are agile and undertake aerobatic and intricate looping flights while using their fanned tail to catch insects in flight.
The majority of the diet of fantails composes of small invertebrates. The larger willie wagtail is capable of tackling small skinks. Insect prey is small and handled, but larger items sometimes need to be subdued by being banged on branches, an action that removes the wings of larger prey items like moths. There are two general techniques used by the family in order to obtain prey; the first is known as "static searching"
Bougainville Island is the main island of the Autonomous Region of Bougainville of Papua New Guinea. This region is known as Bougainville Province or the North Solomons, its land area is 9,300 km2. The population of the province is 234,280, which includes the adjacent island of Buka and assorted outlying islands including the Carterets. Mount Balbi at 2,700 m is the highest point. Bougainville Island is the largest of the Solomon Islands archipelago, forming part of the Northern Solomon Islands, politically separate from the sovereign country called Solomon Islands. Bougainville was first settled some 28,000 years ago. Three to four thousand years ago, Austronesian people arrived, bringing with them domesticated pigs, chickens and obsidian tools; the first European contact with Bougainville was in 1768, when the French explorer Louis de Bougainville arrived and named the main island for himself. Germany laid claim to Bougainville in 1899. Christian missionaries arrived on the island in 1902. During World War I, Australia occupied German New Guinea, including Bougainville.
It became part of the Australian Territory of New Guinea under a League of Nations mandate in 1920. In 1942, during World War II, Japan invaded the island, but allied forces launched the Bougainville campaign to regain control of the island in 1943. Despite heavy bombardments, the Japanese garrisons remained on the island until 1945. Following the war, the Territory of New Guinea, including Bougainville, returned to Australian control. In 1949, the Territory of New Guinea, including Bougainville, merged with the Australian Territory of Papua, forming the Territory of Papua and New Guinea, a United Nations Trust Territory under Australian administration. On 9 September 1975, the Parliament of Australia passed the Papua New Guinea Independence Act 1975; the Act set 16 September 1975 as date of independence and terminated all remaining sovereign and legislative powers of Australia over the territory. Bougainville was to become part of an independent Papua New Guinea. However, on 11 September 1975, in a failed bid for self-determination, Bougainville declared itself the Republic of the North Solomons.
The republic failed to achieve any international recognition, a settlement was reached in August 1976. Bougainville was absorbed politically into Papua New Guinea with increased self-governance powers. Between 1988 and 1998, the Bougainville Civil War claimed over 15,000 lives. Peace talks brokered by New Zealand led to autonomy. A multinational Peace Monitoring Group under Australian leadership was deployed. In 2001, a peace agreement was signed including promise of a referendum on independence from Papua New Guinea, which will be held in 2019. Bougainville is the largest island in the Solomon Islands archipelago, it is part of the Solomon Islands rain forests ecoregion. Bougainville and the nearby island of Buka are a single landmass separated by a deep 300-metre-wide strait; the island has an area of 9000 square kilometres, there are several active, dormant or inactive volcanoes which rise to 2400 m. Mount Bagana in the north central part of Bougainville is conspicuously active, spewing out smoke, visible many kilometres distant.
Earthquakes cause little damage. The daily volume of wild rivers appears to be decreasing; this has been affected by deforestation caused by the increased demand for gardens to feed the growing population. Mining with its use of chemicals and its aftereffects poses other environmental issues, e.g. alluvial gold mining and the now decommissioned Rio Tinto-owned Panguna mine. Bougainville has one of the world's largest copper deposits; these have been under development since 1972. The majority of people on Bougainville are Christian, an estimated 70% being Roman Catholic and a substantial minority United Church of Papua New Guinea since 1968. Few non-natives remain. There are many indigenous languages in Bougainville Province, belonging to three language families; the languages of the northern end of the island, some scattered around the coast, belong to the Austronesian family. The languages of the north-central and southern lobes of Bougainville Island belong to the North and South Bougainville families.
The most spoken Austronesian language is Halia and its dialects, spoken in the island of Buka and the Selau peninsula of Northern Bougainville. Other Austronesian languages include Nehan, Solos, Saposa and Tinputz, all spoken in the northern quarter of Bougainville and surrounding islands; these languages are related. Bannoni and Torau are Austronesian languages not related to the former, which are spoken in the coastal areas of central and south Bougainville. On the nearby Takuu Atoll a Polynesian language is spoken, Takuu; the Papuan languages are confined to the main island of Bougainville. These include Rotokas, a language with a small inventory of phonemes, Terei, Nasioi, Siwai, Baitsi and several others; these constitute North Bougainville and South Bougainville. None of the languages are spoken by more than 20% of the population, the larger languages such as Nasioi, Korokoro Motuna and Halia are split into dialects that are not always mutually understandable. For general communication most Bougainvilleans use Tok Pisin as a lingua franca, at least in the coastal areas Tok Pisin is learned by children in a bilingual environment.
English and Tok Pisin are the languages of official government. A 2013 U
Boeing B-29 Superfortress
The Boeing B-29 Superfortress is a four-engine propeller-driven heavy bomber designed by Boeing, flown by the United States during World War II and the Korean War. It was one of the largest aircraft operational during World War II and featured state-of-the-art technology. Including design and production, at over $3 billion it was the most expensive weapons project in the war, exceeding the $1.9 billion cost of the Manhattan Project—using the value of dollars in 1945. Innovations introduced included a pressurized cabin, dual-wheeled, tricycle landing gear, an analog computer-controlled fire-control system directing four remote machine gun turrets that could be operated by one gunner and a fire-control officer. A manned tail gun installation was semi-remote; the name "Superfortress" continued the pattern Boeing started with its well-known predecessor, the B-17 Flying Fortress. Designed for the high-altitude strategic bombing, the B-29 excelled in low-altitude night incendiary bombing. One of the B-29's final roles during World War II was carrying out the atomic bomb attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
Because of the B-29's advanced design, unlike other wartime bombers, the Superfortress remained in service long after the war ended, with a few being employed as flying television transmitters for the Stratovision company. The B-29 served in various roles throughout the 1950s; the Royal Air Force flew the B-29 as the Washington until 1954. The Soviet Union produced an unlicensed reverse-engineered copy as the Tupolev Tu-4; the B-29 was the progenitor of a series of Boeing-built bombers, tankers, reconnaissance aircraft and trainers including the B-50 Superfortress, a re-engined B-29. The type was retired in the early 1960s. Dozens of B-29s remain as static displays but only two examples and Doc, have been restored to flying status, with Doc flying again for the first time from McConnell AFB on 17 July 2016. A transport developed from the B-29 was the Boeing C-97 Stratofreighter, first flown in 1944, followed by its commercial airliner variant, the Boeing Model 377 Stratocruiser in 1947; this bomber-to-airliner derivation was similar to the B-17/Model 307 evolution.
In 1948 Boeing introduced a tanker variant of the B-29 as the KB-29, followed by the Model 377-derivative KC-97 introduced in 1950. A modified line of outsized-cargo variants of the Stratocruiser is the Guppy / Mini Guppy / Super Guppy, which remain in service with operators including NASA; the Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress served as the United States' primary strategic bomber during World War II. However, this aircraft was deemed inadequate for use in the Pacific Theater; the United States Army Air Corps concluded that a long range bomber that could carry a larger payload over 3000 miles was necessary. In response, Boeing began work on pressurized long-range bombers in 1938. Boeing's design study for the Model 334 was a pressurized derivative of the Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress with nosewheel undercarriage. Although the Air Corps did not have money to pursue the design, Boeing continued development with its own funds as a private venture. In April 1939, Charles Lindbergh convinced general Henry H.
Arnold to produce a new bomber in large numbers to counter the Nazi production. The Air Corps issued a formal specification for a so-called "superbomber", capable of delivering 20,000 lb of bombs to a target 2,667 mi away and capable of flying at a speed of 400 mph in December 1939. Boeing's previous private venture studies formed the starting point for its response to this specification. Boeing submitted its Model 345 on 11 May 1940, in competition with designs from Consolidated Aircraft and Douglas. Douglas and Lockheed soon abandoned work on their projects, but Boeing received an order for two flying prototypes, given the designation XB-29, an airframe for static testing on 24 August 1940, with the order being revised to add a third flying aircraft on 14 December. Consolidated continued to work on its Model 33 as it was seen by the Air Corps as a backup in case of problems with Boeing's design. Boeing received an initial production order for 14 service test aircraft and 250 production bombers in May 1941, this being increased to 500 aircraft in January 1942.
The B-29 featured a fuselage design with circular cross-section for strength. The need for pressurization in the cockpit area led to the B-29 being one of few American combat aircraft of World War II to have a stepless cockpit design, without a separate windscreen for the pilots. Manufacturing the B-29 was a complex task, it involved four main-assembly factories: a pair of Boeing operated plants at Renton and Wichita, Kansas, a Bell plant at Marietta, Georgia near Atlanta, a Martin plant at Omaha, Nebraska. Thousands of subcontractors were involved in the project; the first prototype made its maiden flight from Boeing Field, Seattle on 21 September 1942. The combined effects of the aircraft's advanced design, challenging requirements, immense pressure for production, hurried development caused setbacks; the second prototype, unlike the unarmed first, was fitted with a Sperry defensive armament system using remote-controlled gun turrets sighted by periscopes, first flew on 30 December 1942, this flight being terminated due to a serious engine fire.
On 18 February 1943, the second prototype, flying out of Boeing Field in Seattle, experienced an engine fire and crashed. The crash killed Boeing test pilot Edmund T. Allen and his 10-man crew, 20 worker
The Marshall Islands the Republic of the Marshall Islands, is an island country and a United States associated state near the equator in the Pacific Ocean west of the International Date Line. Geographically, the country is part of the larger island group of Micronesia; the country's population of 53,158 people is spread out over 29 coral atolls, comprising 1,156 individual islands and islets. The islands share maritime boundaries with the Federated States of Micronesia to the west, Wake Island to the north, Kiribati to the southeast, Nauru to the south. About 27,797 of the islanders live on Majuro. Data from the United Nations indicates an estimated population in 2016 of 53,066. In 2016, 73.3% of the population were defined as being "urban". The UN indicates a population density of 295 per km2 and its projected 2020 population is 53,263. Micronesian colonists reached the Marshall Islands using canoes circa 2nd millennium BC, with interisland navigation made possible using traditional stick charts.
They settled here. Islands in the archipelago were first explored by Europeans in the 1520s, starting with Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese at the service of Spain, Juan Sebastián Elcano and Miguel de Saavedra. Spanish explorer Alonso de Salazar reported sighting an atoll in August 1526. Other expeditions by Spanish and English ships followed; the islands derive their name from British explorer John Marshall, who visited in 1788. The islands were known by the inhabitants as "jolet jen Anij". Spain claimed the islands in 1592, the European powers recognized its sovereignty over the islands in 1874, they had been part of the Spanish East Indies formally since 1528. Spain sold some of the islands to the German Empire in 1885, they became part of German New Guinea that year, run by the trading companies doing business in the islands the Jaluit Company. In World War I the Empire of Japan occupied the Marshall Islands, which in 1920, the League of Nations combined with other former German territories to form the South Pacific Mandate.
During World War II, the United States took control of the islands in the Gilbert and Marshall Islands campaign in 1944. Nuclear testing began in 1946 and concluded in 1958; the US government formed the Congress of Micronesia in 1965, a plan for increased self-governance of Pacific islands. The Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands in 1979 provided independence to the Marshall Islands, whose constitution and president were formally recognized by the US. Full sovereignty or Self-government was achieved in a Compact of Free Association with the United States. Marshall Islands has been a member of the Pacific Community since 1983 and a United Nations member state since 1991. Politically, the Marshall Islands is a presidential republic in free association with the United States, with the US providing defense and access to U. S.-based agencies such as the Federal Communications Commission and the United States Postal Service. With few natural resources, the islands' wealth is based on a service economy, as well as some fishing and agriculture.
The country uses the United States dollar as its currency. In 2018, it announced plans for a new cryptocurrency to be used as legal tender; the majority of the citizens of the Republic of Marshall Islands, formed in 1982, are of Marshallese descent, though there are small numbers of immigrants from the United States, China and other Pacific islands. The two official languages are Marshallese, one of the Malayo-Polynesian languages, English; the entire population of the islands practices some religion, with three-quarters of the country either following the United Church of Christ – Congregational in the Marshall Islands or the Assemblies of God. Evidence suggests that around 3,000 years ago successive waves of human migrants from Southeast Asia spread across the Western Pacific populating its many small islands; the Marshall Islands were settled by Micronesians in the 2nd millennium BC. Little is known of the islands' early history. Early settlers traveled between the islands by canoe using traditional stick charts.
The Spanish explorer Alonso de Salazar landed there in 1526, the archipelago came to be known as "Los Pintados", "Las Hermanas" and "Los Jardines" within the Spanish Empire, first falling within the jurisdiction of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, to be administered directly by Madrid upon the independence of Latin America and the dissolution of New Spain starting in 1821. They were only formally possessed by Spain for much of their colonial history, were considered part of the "Carolines", or alternatively the "Nuevas Filipinas"; the islands were left to their own affairs except for short-lived religious missions during the 16th and 17th centuries. They were ignored by European powers except for cartographic demarcation treaties between the Iberian Empires in 1529, 1750 and 1777; the archipelago corresponding to the present-day country was independently named by Krusenstern, after British explorer John Marshall, who visited them together with Thomas Gilbert in 1788, en route from Botany Bay to Canton (two s
Bremerton is a city in Kitsap County, United States. The population was 41,500 according to the 2018 State Estimate, making it the largest city on the Kitsap Peninsula. Bremerton is home to the Bremerton Annex of Naval Base Kitsap. Bremerton is connected to Downtown Seattle by two ferries: a 60-minute ferry that carries both vehicles and walk-on passengers, a 28-minute fast ferry that carries passengers and a limited number of bicycles. Bremerton, the largest city in Kitsap County, is located directly west of Seattle across the Puget Sound on the Kitsap Peninsula, it is bounded on the southeast and east by Sinclair Inlet and the strait of Port Orchard respectively. The city is divided by the Port Washington Narrows, a strait spanned by two bridges which connect the eastern and western sides of the city; the part of the city northeast of the narrows is referred to as East Bremerton. The city's southern border includes Bremerton National Airport. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 32.29 square miles, of which, 28.41 square miles is land and 3.88 square miles is water.
The ferry terminal and waterfront are the heart of downtown. As Bremerton's historic center, downtown has seen the most dramatic change over the last decade, with blighted blocks being replaced by new apartments and older buildings being restored. Attractions include Harborside Fountain Park, a boardwalk, multiple naval history museums; the Admiral Theatre, a restored 1942 art deco theater, is Bremerton's most prominent venue for live music and entertainment. The district is known for breweries, art galleries, restaurants showcasing diverse cuisines; the city is in the beginning stages of creating a public square on Fourth Street to honor local music icon, Quincy Jones. Across the water from Downtown is Manette, a neighborhood on a separate peninsula that functioned as its own town from 1891-1930. Today, Manette is an upscale neighborhood connected to Bremerton via the new Manette Bridge with trendy bars and restaurants and beautiful mountain and water views. Charleston was an independent town built to house and entertain sailors.
The neighborhood's center is Callow Avenue, a retail corridor anchored by The Charleston music venue. Charleston is a designated center in Bremerton's comprehensive plan, has seen recent improvements to its streetscape. Charleston is casually defined by 11st Street to the north, Naval Avenue to the east, 1st Street to the south, Cambrian Avenue to the west. Between Charleston and Downtown is the Union Hill neighborhood, its borders are Naval to the west, 11th to the north, Warren to the east, PSNS to the south. Union Hill is a predominantly residential neighborhood, showcasing Bremerton's most historic churches and a synagogue along Veneta Avenue. Near Veneta and 6th is a popular local diner, Noah's Ark, Bremerton's most architecturally notable place of worship, Our Lady Star of the Sea Catholic Church, non-native towering Sequioas, a large park. North of downtown's 11th Street boundary is the Evergreen neighborhood, anchored by Evergreen Park and bordered to the west by Warren Avenue. Evergreen Park offers beach access, a boat ramp, hosts a weekly farmer's market in the summer.
Evergreen is characterized by residential neighborhoods and water views. West of Evergreen and north of Union Hill and Charleston is Haddon. Haddon's center is the Lulu Haddon park, but Bremerton High School and Olympic College's campus are main focal points as well. Though an older, sleepier neighborhood traditionally more connected with the shipyard and local business, the Haddon neighborhood has gained notoriety for quirky local breakfast diner Hi-Lo's and an English style barrelhouse, Hale's Ales. Bremerton is divided among three state legislative districts in Kitsap County; the 23rd legislative district to the north, 35th legislative district in the center and 26th legislative district to the south. Before redistricting in 2012, the line separating the first and sixth Congressional districts ran through East Bremerton; as a result of the 2012 redistricting, all of Bremerton now lies within the sixth Congressional district. The district is represented by Derek Kilmer, first elected to that position in 2012.
Prior to Kilmer, Norm Dicks served as sixth district Representative from 1977 to 2013. The mayor is Greg Wheeler, Incorporated as a first-class city, Bremerton has been governed by a nonpartisan strong mayor and seven-member city council since 1985; each member is elected from one of seven districts. The current form of government was established by a 1983 charter that eliminated a decades-old city commission composed of a mayor, public works commissioner and finance commissioner; each member of the Kitsap County Board of Commissioners represents a portion of the city of Bremerton. This arrangement was an attempt to balance Bremerton's commercial influence with the remainder of the county, though most of its sales tax base has since relocated to unincorporated areas. Bremerton politics can vary in intensity, with some city council positions unopposed and others having as many as four candidates in the 2005 primary election. Redevelopment projects have been a major source of debate, including the 2007 construction of a federally funded tunnel that would route ferry traffic under the downtown core as well as a planned waterfront boardwalk extension.
As with most cities in the region, Bremerton precincts have been more favorable for Democratic candidates in state and federal elections, contrasting with more conservat