The Philippines the Republic of the Philippines, is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon and Mindanao; the capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. Bounded by the South China Sea on the west, the Philippine Sea on the east and the Celebes Sea on the southwest, the Philippines shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Vietnam to the west, Palau to the east, Malaysia and Indonesia to the south; the Philippines' location on the Pacific Ring of Fire and close to the equator makes the Philippines prone to earthquakes and typhoons, but endows it with abundant natural resources and some of the world's greatest biodiversity. The Philippines has an area of 300,000 km2, according to the Philippines Statistical Authority and the WorldBank and, as of 2015, had a population of at least 100 million.
As of January 2018, it is the eighth-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. 10 million additional Filipinos lived overseas, comprising one of the world's largest diasporas. Multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, they were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Exchanges with Malay, Indian and Chinese nations occurred. Various competing maritime states were established under the rule of datus, rajahs and lakans; the arrival of Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese explorer leading a fleet for the Spanish, in Homonhon, Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization. In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. With the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi from Mexico City, in 1565, the first Hispanic settlement in the archipelago was established.
The Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. This resulted in Catholicism becoming the dominant religion. During this time, Manila became the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade connecting Asia with Acapulco in the Americas using Manila galleons; as the 19th century gave way to the 20th, the Philippine Revolution followed, which spawned the short-lived First Philippine Republic, followed by the bloody Philippine–American War. The war, as well as the ensuing cholera epidemic, resulted in the deaths of thousands of combatants as well as tens of thousands of civilians. Aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until after World War II, when the Philippines was recognized as an independent nation. Since the unitary sovereign state has had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by a non-violent revolution; the Philippines is a founding member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, the East Asia Summit.
It hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank. The Philippines is considered to be an emerging market and a newly industrialized country, which has an economy transitioning from being based on agriculture to one based more on services and manufacturing. Along with East Timor, the Philippines is one of Southeast Asia's predominantly Christian nations; the Philippines was named in honor of King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of Leyte and Samar Felipinas after the then-Prince of Asturias; the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, other names such as Islas del Poniente and Magellan's name for the islands San Lázaro were used by the Spanish to refer to the islands; the official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of its history. During the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic.
From the period of the Spanish–American War and the Philippine–American War until the Commonwealth period, American colonial authorities referred to the country as the Philippine Islands, a translation of the Spanish name. Since the end of World War II, the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines. Philippines has gained currency as the common name since being the name used in Article VI of the 1898 Treaty of Paris, with or without the definite article. Discovery in 2018 of stone tools and fossils of butchered animal remains in Rizal, Kalinga has pushed back evidence of early hominins in the archipelago to as early as 709,000 years. However, the metatarsal of the Callao Man, reliably dated by uranium-series dating to 67,000 years ago remains the oldest human remnant found in the archipelago to date; this distinction belonged to the Tabon Man of Palawan, carbon-dated to around 26,500 years ago. Negritos were among the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, but their first settlement in the Philippines has not been reliably dated.
There are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos. F. Landa Jocano theorizes. Wilhelm Solheim's Island Origin Theory postulates that the peopling of the archipelago transpired via trade networks originating in the Sundaland area around
The Lingayen Gulf is a large gulf on northwestern Luzon in the Philippines, stretching 56 km. It is framed by the provinces of Pangasinan and La Union and sits between the Zambales Mountains and the Cordillera Central; the Agno River drains into Lingayen Gulf. The gulf has numerous islands; this tourist attraction features 123 islands. The largest island is Cabarruyan Island, which constitutes the municipality of Anda, followed by Santiago Island at the mouth of the Gulf; the shore from Labrador to San Fabian is characterized by a long grey-sand beach. Other well-known beaches are at San Fernando City; the waters of Lingayen Gulf are murky due to its sandy bottom. Coral reefs were all but destroyed by dynamite fishing, although efforts are made to restore some inside the Hundred Islands National Park. A number of cities are found along the gulf's coast such as Dagupan City and Alaminos City in Pangasinan, San Fernando City in La Union. Lingayen, the capital of Pangasinan lies on the shores of the gulf.
The gulf has five major river sources. Flowing from the province of Pangasinan in the south are the Agno and Angalacan-Bued rivers. From the east in the province of La Union flow the Bauang rivers. During World War II, the Lingayen Gulf proved a strategically important theatre of war between American and Japanese forces. On 22 December 1941, the Japanese 14th Army under Lieutenant General Masaharu Homma landed on the Eastern part of the gulf at Agoo, Caba and Bauang, where they engaged in a number of minor skirmishes with the defenders, which consisted of a poorly equipped contingent of predominantly Filipino and American troops, managed to invade and occupy the gulf. Following the defeat, the next day General MacArthur issued the order to retreat from Luzon and withdraw to Bataan. For the next three years, the gulf remained under Japanese occupation prior to the Lingayen Gulf Landings. At 09:30 on 9 January 1945, the U. S. 6th Army conducted an amphibious landing on the gulf, following a devastating naval bombardment, with 68,000 troops landing on the first day alone, a total of 203,608 in following landings along a 20 mi beachhead, stretching from Sual and Dagupan in the west, San Fabian in to the east.
Despite the Americans' success in driving out the Japanese army encamped at the Gulf, the Americans suffered heavy losses on their convoys due to Japanese kamikaze suicide attacks. From 4 through 12 January, a total of 24 ships were sunk and 67 damaged by kamikaze planes, including the battleships USS Mississippi and Colorado, the heavy cruiser USS Louisville, the light cruiser USS Columbia, the minesweepers USS Long and Hovey. Following the amphibious landings, the Lingayen Gulf was turned into a vast supply depot for the rest of the war to support the American and Filipino assaults on Manila and the rest of Luzon, thence to Okinawa. On January 9, 2008, Gov. Amado Espino, Jr. and Vice Gov. Marlyn Primicias-Agabas established an annual commemoration to honor the war veterans; the resolution named January 9 as Pangasinan Veterans’ Day. In the 63rd anniversary of the Lingayen Gulf landings, President Fidel Ramos appealed to U. S. President George W. Bush for 24,000 surviving war veterans, to pass two legislative bills pending since 1968 at the U.
S. House of Representatives — the Filipino Veterans’ Equity Act of 2006 and the Filipino Veterans’ Equity of 2005 sponsored by former Senator Daniel Inouye. Fishing and salt-making are the primary industries on Lingayen Gulf. In fact, the name Pangasinan means “place where salt is made”. Salt is collected from seawater through evaporation; the Lingayen Gulf is home to the 1200 megawatt Sual Power Station, the Philippines largest coal power plant
The Hedgehog was a forward-throwing anti-submarine weapon, used during the Battle of the Atlantic in the Second World War. The device, developed by the Royal Navy, fired up to 24 spigot mortars ahead of a ship when attacking a U-boat, it was deployed on convoy escort warships such as destroyers and corvettes to supplement the depth charges. As the mortar projectiles employed contact fuzes rather than time or barometric fuzes, detonation occurred directly against a hard surface such as the hull of a submarine making it more deadly than depth charges, which relied on damage caused by hydrostatic shockwaves. Statistics show that during WWII out of 5,174 British depth charge attacks there were 85.5 kills: a ratio of 60.5 to 1. In comparison, the Hedgehog made 268 attacks for 47 kills: a ratio of 5.7 to 1. The "Hedgehog", so named because the empty rows of its launcher spigots resembled the spines of a hedgehog, was a replacement for the unsuccessful Fairlie Mortar, trialled aboard HMS Whitehall in 1941.
Although a failure, the Fairlie was designed to fire depth charges ahead of a ship when attacking a submarine. This principle of forward-firing projectiles was considered viable; this secret research by the Directorate of Miscellaneous Weapons Development led to the development of the Hedgehog. The weapon was a multiple'spigot mortar' or spigot discharger, a type of weapon developed between the wars by Lieutenant Colonel Stewart Blacker, RA; the spigot mortar was based on early infantry trench mortars. The spigot design allowed a single device to fire warheads of varying size; the propelling charge was part of the main weapon and worked against a rod set in the baseplate which fitted inside a tubular tail of the'bomb'. This principle was first used on the Blacker Bombard 29 mm Spigot Mortar and the PIAT anti-tank weapon; the adaptation of the bombard for naval use was made in partnership with MIR under Major Millis Jefferis who had taken Blacker's design and brought it into use with Army. The weapon fires a salvo of 24 bombs in an arc, aimed to land in a circular or elliptical area about 100 feet in diameter at a fixed point about 250 yards directly ahead of the attacking ship.
The mounting was fixed but was replaced by a gyro-stabilised one to allow for the rolling and pitching of the attacking ship. The system was developed to solve the problem of the target submarine disappearing from the attacking ship's ASDIC when the ship came within the sonar's minimum range. Due to the speed of sound in water, the time taken for the'ping' echo to return to the attacking ship from the target submarine became too short to allow the human operator to distinguish the returning audible echo from that of the initial sound pulse emitted by the sonar – the so-called "instantaneous echo", where the output sound pulse and returning echo merge; this "blind spot" allowed the submarine to make evasive manoeuvres undetected while the ship was out of range for depth charge attack. Hence, the submarine was invisible to the sonar as the ship came within the sonar's minimum range; the solution was a weapon mounted on the foredeck that discharged the projectiles up and over that carrying ship's bow, to land in the water some distance in front of the ship while the submarine was still outside the sonar's minimum range.
The Hedgehog entered service in 1942. Carrying a Torpex charge weighing 16 kg, each mortar had a diameter of 18 cm and weighed about 29.5 kg. The projectiles were angled so they would land in a circular shape with a diameter of 40 m about 180 m ahead of a stationary ship; the projectiles would sink at about 7 m/s. They would reach a submerged U-boat, for example at 200 ft in under 9 seconds. Sympathetic detonation of projectiles near those contacting hard surfaces was a possibility, but the number of explosions counted was fewer than the number of projectiles launched; the prototype launcher was tested aboard HMS Westcott in 1941, but there were no submarine kills until November 1942, after it had been installed aboard one hundred ships. Initial success rates – of about 5% – were only better than depth charges. Swells and spray covered the launcher during heavy North Atlantic weather, subsequent attempts to launch revealed firing circuit problems launching an incomplete pattern; the disappointment of a quiet miss discouraged crews who might otherwise assume depth charge explosions had damaged their target or at least frightened the enemy.
The Royal Navy launched Hedgehog so in early 1943 that a directive was issued ordering captains of ships equipped with Hedgehog to report why they had not used Hedgehog on an underwater contact. The results were blamed on low confidence in the weapon. However, after an officer from the DMWD was sent to Londonderry Port, where the convoy crews were based, with better training and shipwide talks on examples of successful Hedgehog attacks, the kill rate improved considerably. By the end of the war, statistics showed that on average, one in every five attacks made by Hedgehog resulted in a kill. In response to this new deadly threat to its U-boats, the Kriegsmarine brought forward its programme of acoustic torpedoes in 1943, beginning with the Falke; these new "homing" torpedoes could be employed without the use of a periscope, providing submarines a better chance to remain undetected and evade counterattack. In the Pacific Theater, USS England sank six Japanese submarines in a matter of days with Hedgehog in May 1944.
In 1946, USS Solar was destroyed after a crewman accidentally dropped a Hedgehog charge near one of her main turret am
A torpedo tube is a cylinder shaped device for launching torpedoes. There are two main types of torpedo tube: underwater tubes fitted to submarines and some surface ships, deck-mounted units installed aboard surface vessels. Deck-mounted torpedo launchers are designed for a specific type of torpedo, while submarine torpedo tubes are general-purpose launchers, are also capable of deploying mines and cruise missiles. Most modern launchers are standardised on a 12.75-inch diameter for light torpedoes or a 21-inch diameter for heavy torpedoes, although other sizes of torpedo tube have been used: see Torpedo classes and diameters. A submarine torpedo tube is a more complex mechanism than a torpedo tube on a surface ship, because the tube has to accomplish the function of moving the torpedo from the normal atmospheric pressure within the submarine into the sea at the ambient pressure of the water around the submarine, thus a submarine torpedo tube operates on the principle of an airlock. The diagram on the right illustrates the operation of a submarine torpedo tube.
The diagram does show the working of a submarine torpedo launch. A torpedo tube has a considerable number of interlocks for safety reasons. For example, an interlock prevents the breech muzzle door from opening at the same time; the submarine torpedo launch sequence is, in simplified form: Open the breech door in the torpedo room. Load the torpedo into the tube. Hook up the wire-guide connection and the torpedo power cable. Shut and lock the breech door. Turn on power to the torpedo. A minimum amount of time is required for torpedo warmup. Fire control programs are uploaded to the torpedo. Flood the torpedo tube; this may be done manually or automatically, from sea or from tanks, depending on the class of submarine. The tube must be vented during this process to allow for complete filling and eliminate air pockets which could escape to the surface or cause damage when firing. Open the equalizing valve to equalize pressure in the tube with ambient sea pressure. Open the muzzle door. If the tube is set up for Impulse Mode the slide valve will open with the muzzle door.
If Swim Out Mode is selected, the slide valve remains closed. The slide valve allows water from the ejection pump to enter the tube; when the launch command is given and all interlocks are satisfied, the water ram operates, thrusting a large volume of water into the tube at high pressure, which ejects the torpedo from the tube with considerable force. Modern torpedoes have a safety mechanism that prevents activation of the torpedo unless the torpedo senses the required amount of G-force; the power cable is severed at launch. However, if a guidance wire is used, it remains connected through a drum of wire in the tube. Torpedo propulsion systems vary but electric torpedoes swim out of the tube on their own and are of a smaller diameter. 21" weapons with fuel-burning engines start outside the tube. Once outside the tube the torpedo begins its run toward the target as programmed by the fire control system. Attack functions are programmed but with wire guided weapons, certain functions can be controlled from the ship.
For wire-guided torpedoes, the muzzle door must remain open because the guidance wire is still connected to the inside of the breech door to receive commands from the submarine's fire-control system. A wire cutter on the inside of the breech door is activated to release the wire and its protective cable; these are drawn clear of the ship prior to shutting the muzzle door. The drain cycle is a reverse of the flood cycle. Water can be moved as necessary; the tube must be vented to drain the tube since it is by gravity. Open the breech door and remove the remnants of the torpedo power cable and the guidance wire basket; the tube must be wiped dry to prevent a buildup of slime. This process is called "diving the tube" and tradition dictates that "ye who shoots, dives". Shut and lock the breech door. Spare torpedoes are stored behind the tube in racks. Speed is a desirable feature of a torpedo loading system. There are various manual and hydraulic handling systems for loading torpedoes into the tubes. Prior to the Ohio class, US SSBNs utilized manual block and tackle which took about 15 minutes to load a tube.
SSNs prior to the Seawolf class used a hydraulic system, much faster and safer in conditions where the ship needed to maneuver. The German Type 212 submarine uses a new development of the water ram expulsion system, which ejects the torpedo with water pressure to avoid acoustic detection. List of torpedoes by diameter The Fleet Type Submarine Online 21-Inch Submerged Torpedo Tubes United States Navy Restricted Ordnance Pamphlet 1085, June 1944 Torpedo tubes of German U-Boats
Military or belligerent occupation is effective provisional control by a certain ruling power over a territory, not under the formal sovereignty of that entity, without the violation of the actual sovereign. The territory is known as the occupied territory and the ruling power the occupant. Occupation is distinguished from annexation by its intended temporary nature, by its military nature, by citizenship rights of the controlling power not being conferred upon the subjugated population. While an occupant may setup a formal military government in the occupied territory to facilitate its administration, it is not a necessary precondition for occupation; the rules of occupation are delineated in various international agreements the Hague Convention of 1907, the Geneva Conventions of 1949, as well as established state practice. The relevant international conventions, the International Committee of the Red Cross Commentaries, other treaties by military scholars provide guidelines on such topics as rights and duties of the occupying power, protection of civilians, treatment of prisoners of war, coordination of relief efforts, issuance of travel documents, property rights of the populace, handling of cultural and art objects, management of refugees, other concerns which are important both before and after the cessation of hostilities.
A country that establishes an occupation and violates internationally agreed upon norms runs the risk of censure, criticism, or condemnation. In the current era, the practices of occupations have become a part of customary international law, form a part of the laws of war. From the second half of the 18th century onwards, international law has come to distinguish between the occupation of a country and territorial acquisition by invasion and annexation, the difference between the two being expounded upon by Emerich de Vattel in The Law of Nations; the clear distinction has been recognized among the principles of international law since the end of the Napoleonic wars in the 19th century. These customary laws of occupation which evolved as part of the laws of war gave some protection to the population under the occupation of a belligerent power; the Hague Convention of 1907 codified these customary laws within "Laws and Customs of War on Land". The first two articles of that section state: Art.
42. Territory is considered occupied when it is placed under the authority of the hostile army; the occupation extends only to the territory where such authority has been established and can be exercised. Art. 43. The authority of the legitimate power having in fact passed into the hands of the occupant, the latter shall take all the measures in his power to restore, ensure, as far as possible, public order and safety, while respecting, unless prevented, the laws in force in the country. In 1949 these laws governing occupation of an enemy state's territory were further extended by the adoption of the Fourth Geneva Convention. Much of GCIV is relevant to protected persons in occupied territories and Section III: Occupied territories is a specific section covering the issue. Article 6 restricts the length of time that most of GCIV applies: The present Convention shall apply from the outset of any conflict or occupation mentioned in Article 2. In the territory of Parties to the conflict, the application of the present Convention shall cease on the general close of military operations.
In the case of occupied territory, the application of the present Convention shall cease one year after the general close of military operations. GCIV emphasised an important change in international law; the United Nations Charter had prohibited war of aggression and GCIV Article 47, the first paragraph in Section III: Occupied territories, restricted the territorial gains which could be made through war by stating: Protected persons who are in occupied territory shall not be deprived, in any case or in any manner whatsoever, of the benefits of the present Convention by any change introduced, as the result of the occupation of a territory, into the institutions or government of the said territory, nor by any agreement concluded between the authorities of the occupied territories and the Occupying Power, nor by any annexation by the latter of the whole or part of the occupied territory. Article 49 prohibits the forced mass movement of people out of or into occupied state's territory: Individual or mass forcible transfers, as well as deportations of protected persons from occupied territory to the territory of the Occupying Power or to that of any other country, occupied or not, are prohibited, regardless of their motive....
The Occupying Power shall not deport or transfer parts of its own civilian population into the territory it occupies. Protocol I: "Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts" has additional articles which cover occupation but many countries including the U. S. are not signatory to this additional protocol. In the situation of a territorial cession as the result of war, the specification of a "receiving country" in the peace treaty means that the country in question is authorized by the international community to establish civil
5"/38 caliber gun
The Mark 12 5"/38 caliber gun was a United States naval gun. The gun was installed into Single Purpose and Dual Purpose mounts used by the US Navy. On these 5" mounts, Single Purpose means that the mount is limited to 35° elevation with no provision for AA shell fuze setters, is designed to fire at surface targets only. Dual Purpose means that it is designed to be effective against both surface and aircraft targets because it can elevate to 85° and has on mount AA shell fuze setters; the 38 caliber barrel was a mid-length compromise between the previous United States standard 5"/51 low-angle gun and 5"/25 anti-aircraft gun. United States naval gun terminology indicates the gun fired a projectile 5 inches in diameter, the barrel was 38 calibers long, making the 5"/38 dual purpose midway in barrel length between the 5"/51 surface-to-surface and the 5"/25 anti-aircraft guns; the increased barrel length provided improved performance in both anti-aircraft and anti-surface roles compared to the 5"/25 gun.
However, except for the barrel length and the use of semi-fixed ammunition, the 5"/38 gun was derived from the 5"/25 gun. Both weapons had power ramming; the 5"/38 entered service on USS Farragut, commissioned in 1934. The base ring mount, which improved the effective rate of fire, entered service on USS Gridley, commissioned in 1937. Among naval historians, the 5"/38 gun is considered the best intermediate-caliber, dual purpose naval gun of World War II as it was under the control of the advanced Mark 37 Gun Fire Control System which provided accurate and timely firing against surface and air targets; this advanced system required nearly 1000 rounds of ammunition expenditure per aircraft kill. However, the planes were killed by shell fragments and not direct hits; this would result in large walls of shell fragments being put up to take out one or several planes or in anticipation of an unseen plane, this being justifiable as one plane was capable of significant destruction. The comparatively high rate of fire for a gun of its caliber earned it an enviable reputation as an anti-aircraft weapon, in which role it was employed by United States Navy vessels.
Base ring mounts. On pedestal and other mounts lacking integral hoists, 12 to 15 rounds per minute was the rate of fire. Useful life expectancy was 4600 effective full charges per barrel; the 5"/38 cal gun was mounted on a large number of US Navy ships in the World War II era. It was backfitted to many of the World War I-era battleships during their wartime refits replacing 5"/25 guns that were fitted in the 1930s, it has left active US Navy service, but it is still on mothballed ships of the United States Navy reserve fleets. It is used by a number of nations who bought or were given US Navy surplus ships. Millions of rounds of ammunition were produced for these guns, with over 720,000 rounds still remaining in Navy storage depots in the mid-1980s because of the large number of Reserve Fleet ships with 5"/38 cal guns on board; each mount carries one or two Mk 12 5"/38cal Gun Assemblies. The gun assembly shown is used in single mounts, it is the right gun in twin mounts, it is loaded from the left side.
The left gun in twin mounts is the mirror image of the right gun, it is loaded from the right side. The Mk12 gun assembly weighs 3,990 lb; the Mark 12 Gun Assembly was introduced in 1934, where it was first used in single pedestal mounts on the Farragut-class destroyers, but by the time of World War II they had been installed in single and twin mounts on nearly every major warship and auxiliary in the US fleet. The major Mk12 Gun Assembly characteristics are::158 Semi-automatic During recoil, some of the recoil energy is stored in the counter-recoil system; that stored. The firing pin is cocked, the breech is opened, the spent propellant case is ejected, the bore is cleared of debris with an air blast. Hand loaded a powder-man are stationed at each gun assembly, their job is to move the round, consisting of a projectile and a propellant case, from the hoists to the rammer tray projecting from the gun's breech, start the ram cycle. Power rammed This gun used a 7.5 hp electric-hydraulic power rammer, designed to ram a 93 lb, 47.5 in long round into the chamber at any gun elevation in less than one second.:172 The rammer's control box, hydraulic fluid tank and AC motor are bolted to the top of the slide.
The hydraulically driven rammer spade, called the power spade in that picture, is at the back of the rammer tray. If the multiple names of the "spade" are confusing, look at this footnote. Vertical sliding-wedge breech block, it contains the firing pin assembly. Hydraulic recoil Two hydraulic pistons in the housing absorb the major shock of recoil as the housing moves back inside the slide, they buffer the end of counter-recoil for a soft return to battery. Pneumatic counter-recoil At the end of recoil, the counter-recoil system moves the housing forward again until it is back "in battery," and holds it there at any gun elevation. A chamber in the housing is filled with compressed air. At the rear of this chamber is a 3.5 in cylindrical hole with a c
Defoe Shipbuilding Company
The Defoe Shipbuilding Company was a small ship builder established in 1905 in Bay City, United States. It ceased to operate in 1976 after failing to renew its contracts with the United States Navy; the site of the former company is now being developed for business and housing on the bank of the Saginaw River. Harry J. Defoe organized the Defoe Boat and Motor Works in 1905 on the Saginaw River in Bay City, Michigan. At that time, the firm built "knock-down" boats and gasoline powered boats for business and pleasure. In 1917, the company got its first Navy contract for five Spent Torpedo Chasers; this order was followed in 1918 by an order for eight steel Tumor Mine Planters. From 1920 to 1939, the company built various types of government and commercial vessels and private yachts, including three Coast Guard Cutters. In 1931, Defoe built the Lenore, a 92-foot yacht for Montgomery Ward Chairman Sewell Avery, who named it after his second daughter who died at the age of four. S. Government in World War II for coastal picket duty by the Coast Guard, in 1956 it was assigned as a Presidential Yacht.
It was called the Barbara Anne by President Eisenhower after his granddaughter, the Honey Fitz by President Kennedy in honor of his maternal grandfather John Francis Fitzgerald, the Tricia by President Nixon after his daughter. In 1941, the name of the company was changed to Defoe Shipbuilding Company. During World War II, all production went to the war effort. From 1939 to 1945, the company built 154 ships, including four Auk-class minesweepers, 13 destroyer escorts, 11 destroyer transports, patrol craft, numerous landing craft of various types; the brand-new Defoe family yacht served with the US Navy as a patrol vessel. Defoe developed a construction technique called the "roll-over" method; this allowed most of the welding of the hull to be done "hand down", much easier. After the hull was welded, it was rolled over by a set of large wheels fastened to each end of the hull. Work continued on the ship right-side up. Faster welding allowed the company to build one 173-foot patrol craft every week.
Of all of the major ships built there, the three that were lost in action during World War II were the destroyer escort Rich, the U. S. Coast Guard Cutter Escanaba, the patrol craft PC-1129. Submarine chaser PC 482 was sunk by a U-boat in 1945. Defoe Shipbuilding Company built three Refrigerated Freight Barges: YFR-888, YFR-889 and YFR-890 in 1945 called a reefer barge. After World War II, this company built two large Great Lakes bulk carriers, it did repair work on Great Lakes ships including several repowerings, self-unloading conversions. In years, several ships were built for the U. S. Navy, including two Dealey-class destroyer escorts, four Charles F. Adams-class guided missile destroyers, three Garcia-class destroyer escorts for the U. S. Navy, three guided-missile destroyers for the Royal Australian Navy. Built there were the research vessels RV Melville and RV Knorr; this last was the ship. In the early 1950s Defoe Shipbuilding constructed two large Great Lakes freighters, they were both based on U.
S. Steel's Pittsburgh Steamship Company AA Class ship design and shared similar dimensions; as of April 2009, one of the two vessels is still in service on the Great Lakes. The only remaining large Great Lakes bulk freight vessel built by Defoe Shipbuilding still in service is the 642' 03" long, M/V Ojibway operated by the Canadian firm Lower Lakes Towing, of Port Dover, Canada; the Ojibway was built as the steamer Charles L. Hutchinson for the Pioneer Steamship Company of Cleveland and entered service on September 24, 1952. In 1961, the Hutchinson was sold to Ford Motor Company of Dearborn and was renamed Ernest M. Breech. In 1988, Ford was in the process of eliminating its Great Lakes shipping fleet and sold the Breech to George Steinbrenner's Kinsman Marine of Cleveland, Ohio; the Kinsman fleet in turn renamed the vessel Kinsman Independent. She sailed with Kinsman until 2002 when her main unloading dock in Buffalo, New York, updated its unloading equipment, allowing it to be serviced by newer more common self-unloading vessels.
The vessel laid up in Buffalo for the last time under US flag on December 16, 2002. In the spring of 2004, McKeil Marine of Hamilton, Canada purchased the Kinsman Independent; the ship was refurbished and repowered with a diesel engine sold to Voyageur Marine Transport LTD. of Ridgeville, who returned her to service in late 2005 under the name Voyageur Independent. Her current owner has operated the vessel since August 28, 2007, renamed her Ojibway on February 29, 2008; the second Great Lakes freighter built by Defoe was the 644' long S/S Richard M. Marshall, constructed in 1953 for the Great Lakes Steamship Company, of Cleveland, Ohio, she was a near twin to her predecessor in size and capacity both having approximate dimensions of 640' long, 67' wide, 35' deep, a cargo capacity of 18,500 tons. In December, 1956, Great Lakes Steamship started the process of selling off their fleet, the Marshall was sold to The Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance Company. Starting with the 1957 season, Northwestern Mutual chartered the ship to the Wilson Marine Transit Company of Cleveland, who in turn renamed the vessel Joseph S. Wood.
In 1966, the charter agreement between Wilson and Northwestern Mutual was canceled, the vessel was sold to the Ford Motor Company of Dearborn, for $4.3 million. Ford r