Landing Ship, Tank
Landing Ship, Tank, or tank landing ship, is the naval designation for ships first developed during World War II to support amphibious operations by carrying tanks, vehicles and landing troops directly onto shore with no docks or piers. This enabled amphibious assaults on any beach; the bow of the LST had a large door. The LST had a special flat keel that allowed the ship to stay upright; the twin propellers and rudders had protection from grounding. The LSTs served across the globe during World War II including in the Pacific War and in the European theatre; the first tank-landing ships were built to British requirements by converting existing ships. Over 1,000 LSTs were laid down in the United States during World War II for use by the Allies; the British evacuation from Dunkirk in 1940 demonstrated to the Admiralty that the Allies needed large, ocean-going ships that could handle shore-to-shore delivery of tanks and other vehicles in amphibious assaults upon the continent of Europe. As an interim measure, three 4,000- to 4,800-GRT tankers, built to pass over the restrictive bars of Lake Maracaibo, were selected for conversion because of their shallow draft.
Bow doors and ramps were added to these ships, which became the first tank landing ships, LST: HMS Misoa and Bachaquero. They proved their worth during the invasion of Algeria in 1942, but their bluff bows made for inadequate speed and pointed out the need for an all-new design incorporating a sleeker hull; the first purpose-built LST design was HMS Boxer. It was a scaled-down design from ideas penned by Prime Minister Winston Churchill. In order that it could carry 13 Churchill infantry tanks, 27 other vehicles and nearly 200 men at a speed of 18 knots, it could not have a shallow draught sufficient for easy unloading; as a result, each of the three ordered in March 1941 had a long ramp stowed behind the bow doors. The three ships were converted to "Fighter Direction Ships" for the invasion of Normandy; the U. S. were to build seven LST but in light of the problems with the design and progress with the LST Mark II the plans were canceled. Construction of the LST s took until the first US LST was launched before them.
At their first meeting at the Atlantic conference in Argentia, Newfoundland, in August 1941, President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Prime Minister Winston Churchill confirmed the Admiralty's views. In November 1941, a small delegation from the Admiralty arrived in the United States to pool ideas with the United States Navy's Bureau of Ships with regard to development of ships and the possibility of building further Boxers in the US. During this meeting, it was decided; as with the standing agreement, these ships would be built by the US so British shipyards could concentrate on building vessels for the Royal Navy. The specifications called for vessels capable of crossing the Atlantic, the original title given to them was "Atlantic Tank Landing Craft". Calling a vessel 300 ft long a "craft" was considered a misnomer and the type was re-christened "Landing Ship, Tank", or "LST"; the LST design incorporated elements of the first British LCTs from their designer, Sir Rowland Baker, part of the British delegation.
One of the elements provided for sufficient buoyancy in the ships' sidewalls so that they would float the ship when the tank deck was flooded. The LST gave up the speed of HMS Boxer, at only 10 knots, but carried a similar load while drawing only three feet forward when beaching. Within a few days, John C. Niedermair of the Bureau of Ships sketched out an awkward looking ship that proved to be the basic design for the more than 1,000 LST that were built during World War II. To meet the conflicting requirements of deep draft for ocean travel and shallow draft for beaching, the ship was designed with a large ballast system that could be filled for ocean passage and pumped out for beaching operations. An anchor and mechanical winch system aided in the ship's ability to pull itself off the beach; the rough sketch was accepted immediately. The Admiralty requested that the United States build 200 "LST" for the Royal Navy under the terms of lend-lease; the preliminary plans called for an LST 280 feet in length.
Within a month, final working plans were developed that further stretched the overall length to 328 feet and called for a 50-foot beam and a minimum draft of 3.8 feet. This scheme distributed the ship's weight over a greater area, enabling her to ride higher in the water when in landing trim; the LST could carry a 2,100 short tons load of vehicles. The larger dimensions permitted the designers to increase the width of the bow door opening and ramp from 12 to 14 feet in order for it to be able to accommodate most Allied vehicles; as the dimensions and weight of the LST increased, steel plating thickness increased from 1⁄4-inch to 3⁄8-inch on the deck and sides, with 1-inch-thick plating under the bow. By January 1942, the first scale model of the LST had been built and was undergoing tests at the David Taylor Model Basin in Washington, D. C. Provisions were made for the satisfactory ventilation of the tank space while the tank motors were running, an elevator was provided to lower vehicles
USS LST-4 was an LST-1-class tank landing ship of the United States Navy built during World War II. She was transferred to the Royal Navy in December 1944. Like many of her class, she is properly referred to by her hull designation. LST-4 was laid down on 4 July 1942, at Pennsylvania by the Dravo Corporation. LST-4 was assigned to the Mediterranean Theatre and participated in the following operations: the Allied invasion of Sicily in July 1943. LST-4 was decommissioned from the USN on 23 December 1944, in Bizerte and commissioned into the Royal Navy the next day. On 14 January 1945, while on sailing between Taranto and Piraeus, she struck a mine, but was still able to make Piraeus, she transferred to Alexandria, Egypt, in June, before making way for Malta, for repairs from 10–24 October 1945. She was returned to the United States by a Royal Navy crew. En-route she had to be towed by another LST to Norfolk, Virginia, she was turned back over to USN custody. LST-4 was struck from the Navy list on 19 June 1946.
On 10 September 1947, she was sold to the Boston Metals Company, of Baltimore, for scrap. LST-4 earned four battle stars for World War II service. Photo gallery of USS LST-4 at NavSource Naval History
The Diesel engine, named after Rudolf Diesel, is an internal combustion engine in which ignition of the fuel, injected into the combustion chamber, is caused by the elevated temperature of the air in the cylinder due to the mechanical compression. Diesel engines work by compressing only the air; this increases the air temperature inside the cylinder to such a high degree that atomised Diesel fuel injected into the combustion chamber ignites spontaneously. With the fuel being injected into the air just before combustion, the dispersion of the fuel is uneven; the process of mixing air and fuel happens entirely during combustion, the oxygen diffuses into the flame, which means that the Diesel engine operates with a diffusion flame. The torque a Diesel engine produces is controlled by manipulating the air ratio; the Diesel engine has the highest thermal efficiency of any practical internal or external combustion engine due to its high expansion ratio and inherent lean burn which enables heat dissipation by the excess air.
A small efficiency loss is avoided compared with two-stroke non-direct-injection gasoline engines since unburned fuel is not present at valve overlap and therefore no fuel goes directly from the intake/injection to the exhaust. Low-speed Diesel engines can reach effective efficiencies of up to 55%. Diesel engines may be designed as either four-stroke cycles, they were used as a more efficient replacement for stationary steam engines. Since the 1910s they have been used in ships. Use in locomotives, heavy equipment and electricity generation plants followed later. In the 1930s, they began to be used in a few automobiles. Since the 1970s, the use of Diesel engines in larger on-road and off-road vehicles in the US has increased. According to Konrad Reif, the EU average for Diesel cars accounts for 50% of the total newly registered; the world's largest Diesel engines put in service are 14-cylinder, two-stroke watercraft Diesel engines. In 1878, Rudolf Diesel, a student at the "Polytechnikum" in Munich, attended the lectures of Carl von Linde.
Linde explained that steam engines are capable of converting just 6-10 % of the heat energy into work, but that the Carnot cycle allows conversion of all the heat energy into work by means of isothermal change in condition. According to Diesel, this ignited the idea of creating a machine that could work on the Carnot cycle. After several years of working on his ideas, Diesel published them in 1893 in the essay Theory and Construction of a Rational Heat Motor. Diesel was criticised for his essay, but only few found the mistake that he made. Diesel's idea was to compress the air so that the temperature of the air would exceed that of combustion. However, such an engine could never perform any usable work. In his 1892 US patent #542846 Diesel describes the compression required for his cycle: "pure atmospheric air is compressed, according to curve 1 2, to such a degree that, before ignition or combustion takes place, the highest pressure of the diagram and the highest temperature are obtained-that is to say, the temperature at which the subsequent combustion has to take place, not the burning or igniting point.
To make this more clear, let it be assumed that the subsequent combustion shall take place at a temperature of 700°. In that case the initial pressure must be sixty-four atmospheres, or for 800° centigrade the pressure must be ninety atmospheres, so on. Into the air thus compressed is gradually introduced from the exterior finely divided fuel, which ignites on introduction, since the air is at a temperature far above the igniting-point of the fuel; the characteristic features of the cycle according to my present invention are therefore, increase of pressure and temperature up to the maximum, not by combustion, but prior to combustion by mechanical compression of air, there upon the subsequent performance of work without increase of pressure and temperature by gradual combustion during a prescribed part of the stroke determined by the cut-oil". By June 1893, Diesel had realised his original cycle would not work and he adopted the constant pressure cycle. Diesel describes the cycle in his 1895 patent application.
Notice that there is no longer a mention of compression temperatures exceeding the temperature of combustion. Now it is stated that the compression must be sufficient to trigger ignition. "1. In an internal-combustion engine, the combination of a cylinder and piston constructed and arranged to compress air to a degree producing a temperature above the igniting-point of the fuel, a supply for compressed air or gas. See US patent # 608845 filed 1895 / granted 1898In 1892, Diesel received patents in Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States for "Method of and Apparatus for Converting Heat into Work". In 1894 and 1895, he filed patents and addenda in various
USS LST-18 was a United States Navy LST-1-class tank landing ship used in the Asiatic-Pacific Theater during World War II and manned by a United States Coast Guard crew. Like many of her class, she is properly referred to by her hull designation. LST-18 was laid down on 1 October 1942, at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania by the Dravo Corporation. During the war LST-18 served and extensively in the Asiatic-Pacific Theater from September 1943 until November 1945. LST-18 was floated down the Ohio and Mississippi rivers from 19–25 April 1943, arriving at New Orleans on the latter date; when she entered commissioned service there were only 7 officers and 67 enlisted men in the original crew. After tests and maneuvers at St. Andrews, she returned to New Orleans on 14 May 1943, for post-shakedown availability, she was assigned to LST Flotilla 7, Group 21, Division 41. LST-18 left Galveston, Texas, on 25 May 1943, with Convoy HK 186 headed for Key West, where she arrived on 29 May 1943. On 1 June 1943, she got underway for the Canal Zone.
Arriving at Coca Sola, Canal Zone, on 14 June 1943, Commander Clarence H. Peterson, USCG, with two officers and 13 enlisted men reported aboard for duty to the staff of Group 21, LST Flotilla 7 and LST-18 was designated flagship for the group, she travelled to Australia, where she left Caloundra, Queensland, on 23 August 1943, en route to Townsville, with Convoy QL 8, arriving on 26 August. From there she left two days with Convoy TN 147 en route to Milne Bay, Territory of Papua, where she arrived on 31 August 1943, she proceeded to Milne Bay, New Guinea, arriving on 2 September 1943, for ten days of beaching operations and loading for the first trip in the forward areas. LST-18 participated in the landing at Scarlet Beach during the Battle of Finschhafen from 22–24 September 1943. LST-18 participated in the Cape Gloucester landings, New Britain at the end of December 1943 and January 1944, she assisted in the Admiralty Islands landings at the end of March until 1 April 1944. LST-18 remained busy participating in the Hollandia operation at the end of April and the beginning of May 1944, the Toem-Wakde-Sarmi area in the middle of May 1944, the Biak Island invasion in the middle of June 1944, the Noemfoor Island invasion at the beginning to the middle of July 1944, the Cape Sansapor landings at the end of July and the beginning of August 1944, the Morotai landings in the middle of September 1944.
From the Western New Guinea area LST-18 moved to the Philippines to participate in General Douglas MacArthur's promised liberation of the islands from the Japanese occupation starting with the Leyte landings from the middle of October until the end of November 1944. LST-18 finished out her combat career participating in the Battle of Luzon Lingayen Gulf landings from the beginning to the middle of January 1945, the Palawan Island landings at the beginning of March 1945, the Visayan Islands landings at the end of March and the beginning of April 1945. In carrying out these invasions, LST-18 was under attack on eight different occasions by enemy planes, shore installations and torpedo. No casualties were suffered by the ship's crew, but one Army passenger was killed aboard, the result of an enemy strafing run; the ship carried 19,000 st of equipment in all these trips and about 16,000 Army and Navy personnel. She evacuated 617 ambulatory cases and 179 stretcher cases from the various beachheads.
There were three deaths aboard. Up to the time of the ship's return to San Francisco on 16 December 1945, 291 enlisted men and 33 officers had served aboard at various intervals. After the cessation of hostilities on 14 August 1945, the LST made one support landing at Brunei Bay, Borneo, on 25 August 1945, completed her tour of duty by taking a load of occupation troops to Taku, China. LST-18 performed occupation duty in the Far East until early November 1945, she returned to the United States and was decommissioned on 3 April 1946. She was struck from the Navy list on 17 April 1946 and was sold to the Suwannee Fruit & Steamship Co. of Jacksonville, Florida, on 31 October 1946 for conversion to merchant service. American Campaign Medal Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal with seven battle stars World War II Victory Medal Navy Occupation Medal with "ASIA" clasp China Service Medal Philippine Presidential Unit Citation Philippine Liberation Medal Photo gallery of USS LST-18 at NavSource Naval History
USS LST-17 was a United States Navy LST-1-class tank landing ship used in the European Theater of Operations and Asiatic-Pacific Theater during World War II and manned by a United States Coast Guard crew. Like many of her class, she is properly referred to by her hull designation. LST-17 was laid down on 21 September 1942, at Pennsylvania, by the Dravo Corporation. Gallagher, USCGR, in command, she was first assigned to the Europe-Africa-Middle East Theater. Departing Little Creek, Virginia, on 27 July 1943, LST-17 headed for Oran, arriving there on 14 August 1943, she sailed with Convoy KMS 23 during part of its journey from Gibraltar, to Port Said, sailing from Oran, to Bizerta, Tunisia. LST-17 sailed from Algiers, Algeria, to Port Said, Egypt, in October 1943, this time joining with Convoy UGS 19. On 3 November, she set out with nine other LSTs from Aden, for Bombay, arriving on 10 November, she left the next day for Colombo, British Ceylon. At the end of December she left Calcutta, with 11 LSTs headed for Colombo, British Ceylon, arriving 27 December 1943.
LST-17 joined Convoy MKS 38 at Bizerta, in January 1944, as it was en route to Gibraltar, arriving 1 February. Forming Convoy MKS 38G she rendezvoued with Convoy SL 147 and sailed for Liverpool on 2 February, arriving on 13 February 1944. LST-17 arrived at Milford Haven, Wales, on 3 March 1944. Leaving Milford Haven on 3 March l944, she proceeded to Portland and returned to Milford Haven on 15 March 1944. On 31 March, she left for Lough Foyle and visited in turn Derry, Plymouth, Senny Cliff Bay, Weymouth and Southampton, returning to Solent, on 28 May 1944, to prepare for the Normandy invasion, towing Rhino barges on which were railway equipment for use in France, she sailed to the sea off Normandy, detaching the Rhino barges to the beach at 16:15 on 6 June 1944. At 20:10 she returned to Solent, on 7 June, she left Solent, for her second trip to France, on 9 June, anchoring two miles off the Normandy beach at 03:35 on 10 June, moving pontoons ashore and returned to Solent, 11 June, proceeding to Southampton, the next day.
On 15 June, she anchored off France. The following day she beached at "JIG GREEN" on the "Gold" assault areas at 11:08 with British and Canadian troops, she left the beach on 17 June, returned to Tilbury, proceeding to Solent, on 20 June. She left Solent on 23 June 1944, beached at Normandy, France, at 16:39 that day, returning to Solent, on 24 June. Again on 27 June, she left Solent and beached in Normandy, France, at 18:48, leaving Normandy, on 28 June, arriving at Tilbury, on 29 June, she departed Southend on 30 June, arriving at Seine Bay, France, on 1 July 1944, with Convoy ETM 22. LST-17 sailed on 4 July, her next trip was on 14 July 1944, when she left Thames Dry Dock and arrived at Normandy, on the same day, returning to Southampton on 16 July. Again on 18 July, she left Southampton, this time for Utah Beach, France, leaving there on 19 July, arriving at Weymouth, England on 20 July, she left Weymouth on 21 July, arrived at Omaha Beach that same day and returned to Portland. From this time until September 1944, she made continuous trips between Utah England.
Arriving at Cornwall, on 17 September 1944, she departed for Norfolk, Virginia, on 5 October 1944, taking on fuel and provisions at Norfolk, on 24 October, she arrived at Boston, on 26 October 1944, for overhaul. On 10 November 1944, her Coast Guard crew was "relieved of manning" LST-17. LST-17 left from New York City, on 26 January 1945, as part of Convoy NG 486 bound for Guantánamo, where she arrived on 2 February, she left the next day as part of Convoy GZ 119 en route to the Panama Canal Zone and Cristóbal, Colón, where she arrived on 6 February. Following the war, LST-17 performed occupation duty in the Far East intermittently from September through December 1945, she was decommissioned on 15 January 1946 and turned over to Commander Naval Forces Far East being redesignated Q015. She was laid up as part of the Pacific Reserve Fleet before being transferred to the 13th Naval District for use as a mobile target where she was sunk by a torpedo on 15 August 1956. LST-17 earned one battle stars for her World War II service.
Photo gallery of USS LST-17 at NavSource Naval History
USS LST-31 was a United States Navy LST-1-class tank landing ship used in the Asiatic-Pacific Theater during World War II. Like many of her class, she was not named and is properly referred to by her hull designation, she was named for Addison County, she was the only US Naval vessel to bear the name. LST-31 was laid down on 2 February 1943, at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, by the Dravo Corporation; the new tank landing ship got underway on 29 July, for Panama City, where she conducted a series of beaching exercises. LST-31 returned on 7 August, to take on cargo for transportation to the Pacific. After a brief port call at Guantánamo Bay, she transited the Panama Canal, on 24 August, joined the US Pacific Fleet, she continued on to San Diego, where she arrived on 13 September. After participating in beaching exercises in the San Diego area, the ship stopped at Port Hueneme, at San Francisco, California, to take on cargo, she left the west coast on 15 October, bound for Hawaii, reached Pearl Harbor on 25 October, began unloading.
When this task was completed, LST-31 again weighed anchor on 5 November, shaped a course for the Gilbert Islands. As a member of 5th Amphibious Force, the ship was slated to take part in the assault on Makin Island. LST-31 arrived off Makin, on 20 November, began discharging troops and cargo ashore, she remained off that atoll until 3 December. Shortly after her arrival, the vessel entered the Pearl Harbor Navy Yard for repairs and alterations. While her engines were being overhauled, additional 40 mm Bofors guns and 20 mm Oerlikon cannons were installed; the yard period ended in early January 1944, the refurbished vessel took part in training exercises off Maui, in preparation for the forthcoming invasion of the Marshall Islands. The tank landing ship set a course for Kwajalein, she anchored off that atoll on 1 February, began discharging her cargo in support of operations in the Marshalls. On 12 February, the ship began embarking troops for the invasion of Eniwetok and, five days sortied with LST Group 8.
She beached at Eniwetok, on 20 February, began landing her soldiers and discharging cargo ashore. LST-31 remained there until 20 March, she stopped en route at Kwajalein and Tarawa, to take on cargo and passengers and reached Pearl Harbor on 15 April. Following repairs in dry dock there, she resumed operations on 10 May, with a series of training exercises in Hapuna Bay, Hawaii. On 25 May, LST-31 left Hawaiian waters, bound for Eniwetok. Upon her arrival at that atoll on 7 June, she refueled and took on cargo in preparation for operations against Saipan; the vessel arrived off Saipan, on 14 June, began discharging troops and supplies ashore. She cleared the area on 23 June, returned to Eniwetok to replenish her cargo. LST-31 arrived back at Saipan on 17 July. At night, she anchored off Saipan to receive casualties and was underway off Tinian, during daylight hours; this assignment occupied the ship through 21 August. After returning to Saipan, the vessel underwent three days of voyage repairs and got underway on 23 September, for the west coast of the United States.
En route, she touched at Eniwetok. She left the latter port on 6 November, reached San Francisco on 17 November 1944. After one day in port there, LST-31 sailed to San Pedro, to enter the West Coast Shipbuilding Company yards for extensive alterations and repairs; the ship left the yard in early February 1945, conducted sea trials, arrived at the Mare Island Navy Yard, California, on 18 February, to take on an amphibious craft. She visited Seattle, for additional repair work. On 10 March, the vessel reached Pearl Harbor on 23 March. LST-31 left Hawaii on 4 April, for Okinawa, she embarked passengers and loaded supplies at Eniwetok and Guam, before proceeding on to the Ryūkyūs, anchoring in waters off southwestern Okinawa on 3 May. She remained in the area for three weeks providing logistic support to troops fighting on Okinawa; the ship arrived at Ulithi on 28 May. During the months of June and August, LST-31 operated between the Philippines and Okinawa, transporting supplies and troops between the two points to build up Okinawa as a base for the conquest of the Japanese home islands.
However, this invasion was obviated. The ship began moving occupation troops and equipment to Japan from various points in the Philippines, she first arrived in Japanese waters on 15 September. On 30 November, LST-31 was assigned to duty in Japan with the 5th Fleet, Amphibious Group 11, LST Flotilla 35. However, these orders were superseded late in December, she was scheduled to be turned over to the Japanese merchant marine to be manned by a Japanese crew under American control for use in repatriating Japanese citizens and shuttling supplies between Japanese ports. After the ship was stripped of all armament and other wartime equipment, LST-31 was decommissioned on 8 January 1946, t
Quincy is the largest city in Norfolk County, United States. It is one of Boston's immediate southern suburbs, its population in 2014 was 93,397. Known as the "City of Presidents," Quincy is the birthplace of two U. S. presidents—John Adams and his son John Quincy Adams—as well as John Hancock, a President of the Continental Congress and the first signer of the Declaration of Independence. First settled in 1625, Quincy was part of Dorchester and Boston before becoming the north precinct of Braintree in 1640. In 1792, Quincy was split off from Braintree. Quincy became a city in 1888. For more than a century, Quincy was home to a thriving granite industry. Shipbuilding at the Fore River Shipyard was another key part of the city's economy. In the 20th century, both Howard Johnson's and Dunkin' Donuts were founded in the city. Massachusett sachem Chickatawbut had his seat on a hill called Moswetuset Hummock prior to the settlement of the area by English colonists, situated east of the mouth of the Neponset River near what is now called Squantum.
It was visited in 1621 by a native guide. Four years a party led by Captain Wollaston established a post on a low hill near the south shore of Quincy Bay east of present-day Black's Creek; the settlers found the area suitable for farming, as Chickatawbut and his group had cleared much of the land of trees. This settlement was named Mount Wollaston in honor of the leader, who left the area soon after 1625, bound for Virginia; the Wollaston neighborhood in Quincy still retains Captain Wollaston's name. Upon the departure of Wollaston, Thomas Morton took over leadership of the post, the settlement proceeded to gain a reputation for debauchery with Indian women and drunkenness. Morton renamed the settlement Ma-re-Mount and wrote that the conservative separatists of Plymouth Colony to the south were "threatening to make it a woefull mount and not a merry mount", in reference to the fact that they disapproved of his libertine practices. In 1627, Morton was arrested by Standish for violating the code of conduct in a way harmful to the colony.
He was sent back to England, only to be arrested by Puritans the next year. The area of Quincy now called Merrymount is located on the site of the original English settlement of 1625 and takes its name from the punning name given by Morton; the area was first incorporated as part of Dorchester in 1630 and was annexed by Boston in 1634. The area became Braintree in 1640, bordered along the coast of Massachusetts Bay by Dorchester to the north and Weymouth to the east. Beginning in 1708, the modern border of Quincy first took shape as the North Precinct of Braintree. Following the American Revolution, Quincy was incorporated as a separate town named for Col. John Quincy in 1792, was made a city in 1888. In 1845 the Old Colony Railroad opened. Quincy became as accessible to Boston; the first suburban land company, Bellevue Land Co. had been organized in northern Quincy in 1870. Quincy's population grew by over 50 percent during the 1920s. Among the city's several firsts was the Granite Railway, the first commercial railroad in the United States.
It was constructed in 1826 to carry granite from a Quincy quarry to the Neponset River in Milton so that the stone could be taken by boat to erect the Bunker Hill Monument in Charlestown. Quincy granite became famous throughout the nation, stonecutting became the city's principal economic activity. Quincy was home to the first iron furnace in the United States, the John Winthrop Jr. Iron Furnace Site, from 1644 to 1653. In the 1870s, the city gave its name to the Quincy Method, an influential approach to education developed by Francis W. Parker while he served as Quincy's superintendent of schools. Parker, an early proponent of progressive education, put his ideas into practice in the city's underperforming schools. Quincy was additionally important as a shipbuilding center. Sailing ships were built in Quincy for many years, including the only seven-masted schooner built, Thomas W. Lawson; the Fore River area became a shipbuilding center in the 1880s. Amongst these were the aircraft carrier USS Lexington.
John J. Kilroy, reputed originator of the famous Kilroy was here graffiti, was a rivet inspector at Fore River. Quincy was an aviation pioneer thanks to Dennison Field. Located in the Squantum section of town it was one of the world's first airports and was developed by Amelia Earhart. In 1910, it was the site of the Harvard Aero Meet, the second air show in America, it was leased to the Navy for an airfield, served as a reserve Squantum Naval Air Station into the 1950s. T