San Francisco the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. San Francisco is the 13th-most populous city in the United States, the fourth-most populous in California, with 884,363 residents as of 2017, it covers an area of about 46.89 square miles at the north end of the San Francisco Peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area, making it the second-most densely populated large US city, the fifth-most densely populated U. S. county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. San Francisco is part of the fifth-most populous primary statistical area in the United States, the San Jose–San Francisco–Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area; as of 2017, it was the seventh-highest income county in the United States, with a per capita personal income of $119,868. As of 2015, San Francisco proper had a GDP of $154.2 billion, a GDP per capita of $177,968. The San Francisco CSA was the country's third-largest urban economy as of 2017, with a GDP of $907 billion.
Of the 500+ primary statistical areas in the US, the San Francisco CSA had among the highest GDP per capita in 2017, at $93,938. San Francisco was ranked 14th in the world and third in the United States on the Global Financial Centres Index as of September 2018. San Francisco was founded on June 29, 1776, when colonists from Spain established Presidio of San Francisco at the Golden Gate and Mission San Francisco de Asís a few miles away, all named for St. Francis of Assisi; the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856. San Francisco's status as the West Coast's largest city peaked between 1870 and 1900, when around 25% of California's population resided in the city proper. After three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a major port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater.
It became the birthplace of the United Nations in 1945. After the war, the confluence of returning servicemen, significant immigration, liberalizing attitudes, along with the rise of the "hippie" counterculture, the Sexual Revolution, the Peace Movement growing from opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War, other factors led to the Summer of Love and the gay rights movement, cementing San Francisco as a center of liberal activism in the United States. Politically, the city votes along liberal Democratic Party lines. A popular tourist destination, San Francisco is known for its cool summers, steep rolling hills, eclectic mix of architecture, landmarks, including the Golden Gate Bridge, cable cars, the former Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary, Fisherman's Wharf, its Chinatown district. San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Gap Inc. Fitbit, Salesforce.com, Reddit, Inc. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation and Weather Underground.
It is home to a number of educational and cultural institutions, such as the University of San Francisco, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco State University, the De Young Museum, the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the California Academy of Sciences. As of 2019, San Francisco is the highest rated American city on world liveability rankings; the earliest archaeological evidence of human habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. The Yelamu group of the Ohlone people resided in a few small villages when an overland Spanish exploration party, led by Don Gaspar de Portolà, arrived on November 2, 1769, the first documented European visit to San Francisco Bay. Seven years on March 28, 1776, the Spanish established the Presidio of San Francisco, followed by a mission, Mission San Francisco de Asís, established by the Spanish explorer Juan Bautista de Anza. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the area became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the mission system ended, its lands became privatized.
In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, near a boat anchorage around what is today Portsmouth Square. Together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7, 1846, during the Mexican–American War, Captain John B. Montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, Mexico ceded the territory to the United States at the end of the war. Despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography; the California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers. With their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849; the promise of great wealth was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor.
Some of these 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels.
United States Fleet Forces Command
The United States Fleet Forces Command is a service component command of the United States Navy that provides naval forces to a wide variety of U. S. forces. The naval resources may be allocated to Combatant Commanders such as United States Northern Command under the authority of the Secretary of Defense. Formed as United States Atlantic Fleet in 1906, it has been an integral part of the defense of the United States of America since the early 20th century. In 2002, the Fleet comprised over 118,000 Navy and Marine Corps personnel serving on 186 ships and in 1,300 aircraft, with an area of responsibility ranging over most of the Atlantic Ocean from the North Pole to the South Pole, the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, the waters of the Pacific Ocean along the coasts of Central and South America; the command is based at Naval Support Activity Hampton Roads in Norfolk, Virginia and is the navy's service component to U. S. Northern Command and is a supporting command under the U. S. Strategic Command.
The command's mission is to organize, man and equip Naval Forces for assignment to Unified Command Combatant commanders. The Atlantic Fleet was established by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1906, at the same time as the Pacific Fleet, as protection for new bases in the Caribbean acquired as a result of the Spanish–American War; the Fleet was a combination of the South Atlantic Squadron. The first commander of the fleet was Rear Admiral Robley D. Evans, who hoisted his flag in the battleship USS Maine on 1 January 1906; the following year, he took his 16 battleships, now dubbed the Great White Fleet, on a round-the-world cruise that lasted until 1909, a goodwill tour that served the purpose of advertising the United States' naval strength and reach to all other nations of the globe. In January 1913 the fleet consisted of six first-line divisions, a torpedo flotilla and fleet auxiliaries; the fleet was under the command of Rear Admiral Hugo Osterhaus. The First Division, under Rear Admiral Bradley A. Fiske, consisted of USS Florida, USS Delaware, USS North Dakota.
The Second Division, under Rear Admiral Nathaniel R. Usher with his flag aboard the USS Vermont, consisted of USS Louisiana, USS Michigan, USS New Hampshire, USS South Carolina; the Third Division, under Rear Admiral Cameron McR. Winslow, comprised USS Virginia, USS Georgia, USS New Jersey, USS Rhode Island, USS Nebraska; the Fourth Division, under Rear Admiral Frank F. Fletcher, consisted of the USS Minnesota, USS Connecticut, USS Ohio, USS Idaho, USS Kansas.. Fifth and Sixth Divisions were made up of protected cruisers, USS St. Louis, USS Tennessee, USS Washington, USS Cleveland, USS Denver, USS Des Moines, USS Tacoma; the Cruiser and Transport Force, under Rear Admiral Albert Gleaves served in Atlantic waters during World War I moving the American Expeditionary Forces to Europe. United States Battleship Division Nine joined the Grand Fleet in the UK; the Atlantic Fleet was reorganized into the Scouting Force in 1923, under the United States Fleet along with the Pacific Fleet. In January 1939 the Atlantic Squadron, United States Fleet, was formed.
The aircraft carrier USS Ranger was transferred to the Atlantic Ocean. Vice Admiral Alfred Wilkinson Johnson commanded the squadron. On 1 November 1940 the Atlantic Squadron was renamed the Patrol Force; the Patrol Force was organized into type commands: Patrol Force. On 1 February 1941, the Atlantic Fleet was organized from the Patrol Force. Along with the Pacific Fleet and Asiatic Fleet, the fleet was to be under the command of a full admiral, which jumped the fleet's commander Ernest J. King from a two-star to a four-star. King's flagship was USS Texas. Subsequently, the headquarters was in a rather odd assortment of ships. In 1948, the HQ moved into the former naval hospital at Norfolk and has remained there since. On 7 December 1941 the Fleet comprised eight separate components: Battleships, Atlantic Fleet was made up of three Battleship Divisions Of these, Battleship Division 5 was a training unit consisting of the oldest remaining battleships in service, while Division 6 was responsible for working up the two most commissioned battleships, North Carolina and Washington.
The other components were Atlantic Fleet, which included Carrier Division Three. During World War II "Transports, Amphibious Force, Atlantic Fleet" was part of this command. Smaller units included the Antisubmarine Development Detachment, Atlantic Fleet located at Quonset Point, Rhode Island; the detachment was responsible for the study and development of antisubmarine gear during World War II. The Commander of the detachment was known as COMASDEVLANT. In addition, the aircraft carriers USS Yorktown and USS Long Island were directl
An aircraft catapult is a device used to launch aircraft from ships, most used on aircraft carriers, as a form of assisted take off. It consists of a track built into the flight deck, below, a large piston or shuttle, attached through the track to the nose gear of the aircraft, or in some cases a wire rope, called a catapult bridle, is attached to the aircraft and the catapult shuttle. Different means have been used to propel the catapult, such as weight and derrick, flywheel, air pressure and steam power; the U. S. Navy is developing the use of Electromagnetic Aircraft Launch Systems with the construction of the Gerald R. Ford-class aircraft carriers. Catapulted aircraft land like conventional aircraft, sometimes with the help of arresting gear. Aviation pioneer and Smithsonian Secretary Samuel Langley used a spring-operated catapult to launch his successful flying models and his failed aerodrome of 1903; the Wright Brothers beginning in 1904 used a weight and derrick styled catapult to assist their early aircraft with a takeoff in a limited distance.
On 31 July 1912, Theodore Gordon Ellyson became the first person to be launched from a U. S. Navy catapult system; the Navy had been perfecting a compressed-air catapult system and mounted it on the Santee Dock in Annapolis, Maryland. The first attempt nearly killed Lieutenant Ellyson when the plane left the ramp with its nose pointing upward and it caught a crosswind, pushing the plane into the water. Ellyson was able to escape from the wreckage unhurt. On 12 November 1912, Lt. Ellyson made history as the Navy's first successful catapult launch, from a stationary coal barge. On 5 November 1915, Lieutenant Commander Henry C. Mustin made the first catapult launch from a ship underway; the US Navy experimented with other power sources and models, including catapults that utilized gunpowder and flywheel variations. On 14 December 1924, a Martin MO-1 observation plane flown by Lt. L. C. Hayden was launched from USS Langley using a catapult powered by gunpowder. Following this launch, this method was used aboard both battleships.
Up to and during World War II, most catapults on aircraft carriers were hydraulic. United States Navy catapults on surface warships, were operated with explosive charges similar to those used for 5" guns; some carriers were completed before and during World War II with catapults on the hangar deck that fired athwartships, but they were unpopular because of their short run, low clearance of the hangar decks, inability to add the ship's forward speed to the aircraft's airspeed for takeoff, lower clearance from the water. They were used for experimental purposes, their use was discontinued during the latter half of the war. Many naval vessels apart from aircraft carriers carried float planes, seaplanes or amphibians for reconnaissance and spotting, they landed on the sea alongside for recovery by crane. Additionally, the concept of submarine aircraft carriers was developed by multiple nations during the interwar period, through until WW2 and beyond, wherein a submarine would launch a small number of floatplanes for offensive operations or artillery spotting, to be recovered by the submarine once the aircraft has landed.
The first launch off a Royal Navy battlecruiser was from HMAS Australia on 8 March 1918. Subsequently, many Royal Navy ships carried a catapult and from one to four aircraft; the aircraft carried were the Fairey Supermarine Walrus. Some like HMS Nelson did not use a catapult, the aircraft was lowered onto the sea for takeoff; some catapult removed during World War II e.g. HMS Duke of York, or before. During World War II a number of ships were fitted with rocket-driven catapults, first the fighter catapult ships of the Royal Navy armed merchantmen known as CAM ships from "catapult armed merchantmen." These were used for convoy escort duties to drive off enemy reconnaissance bombers. CAM ships carried a Hawker Sea Hurricane, dubbed a "Hurricat" or "Catafighter", the pilot bailed out unless he could fly to land. While imprisoned in Colditz Castle during the war, British prisoners of war planned an escape attempt using a falling bathtub full of heavy rocks and stones as the motive power for a catapult to be used for launching the Colditz Cock glider from the roof of the castle.
Ground-launched V-1s were propelled up an inclined launch ramp by an apparatus known as a Dampferzeuger. Following World War II, the Royal Navy was developing a new catapult system for their fleet of carriers. Commander Colin C. Mitchell, RNV, recommended a steam-based system as an effective and efficient means to launch the next generation of naval aircraft. Trials on HMS Perseus, flown by pilots such as Eric "Winkle" Brown, from 1950 showed its effectiveness. Navies introduced capable of launching the heavier jet fighters, in the mid-1950s. Powder-driven catapults were contemplated, would have been powerful enough, but would have introduced far greater stresses on the airframes and might have been unsuitable for long use. At launch, a release bar holds the aircraft in place as steam pressure builds up breaks, freeing the piston to pull the aircraft along the deck at high speed. Within about two to four seconds, aircraft velocity by the action of the catapult plus apparent wind speed is sufficient to allow an aircraft to fly aw
Samuel Pierpont Langley
Samuel Pierpont Langley was an American astronomer, inventor of the bolometer and aviation pioneer. He was born in Roxbury, Boston on 22 August 1834, he attended Boston Latin School, graduated from English High School of Boston, was an assistant in the Harvard College Observatory moved to a job ostensibly as a professor of mathematics at the United States Naval Academy, but was sent there to restore the Academy's small observatory. In 1867, he became the director of the Allegheny Observatory and a professor of astronomy at the Western University of Pennsylvania, now known as the University of Pittsburgh, a post he kept until 1891 while he became the third Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution in 1887. Langley was the founder of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. In 1888 Langley was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society. In 1898, he received the Prix Jules Janssen, the highest award of the Société astronomique de France, the French astronomical society. Langley arrived in Pittsburgh in 1867 to become the first director of the Allegheny Observatory, after the institution had fallen into hard times and been given to the Western University of Pennsylvania.
By the department was in disarray – equipment was broken, there was no library and the building needed repairs. Through the friendship and aid of William Thaw, a Pittsburgh industrial leader, Langley was able to improve the observatory equipment and build additional apparatuses. One of the new instruments was a small transit telescope used to observe the position of the stars as they cross the celestial meridian, he raised money for the department in large part by distributing standard time to cities and railroads. Up until correct time had only been sent from American observatories for public use. Clocks were manually wound in those days and time tended to be imprecise. Exact time had not been necessary, it was enough to know. That changed with the arrival of railroads. Trains ran by a published schedule. If the timepieces of an engineer and a switch operator differed by a minute or two, trains could be on the same track at the same time and collide. Using astronomical observations obtained from the new telescope, Langley devised a precise time standard, including time zones, that became known as the Allegheny Time System.
He distributed time signals to Allegheny city business and the Pennsylvania Railroad. Twice a day, the Allegheny time signals gave the correct time via 4,713 miles of telegraph lines to all railroads in the US and Canada. Langley used the money from the railroads to finance the observatory. From about 1868 revenues from Allegheny Time continued to fund the observatory, until the US Naval Observatory provided the signals for free in 1883. Once funding was secure, Langley devoted his time at the Observatory in researching the sun, he used his draftsman skills—from his first job out of high school—to produce hundreds of drawings of solar phenomena, many of which were the first the world had seen. His 1873 remarkably detailed illustration of a sun spot, observed while using the observatory's 13-inch Fitz-Clark refractor became a classic, it is featured on page 21 of his book, The New Astronomy, was widely reprinted in the Americas and Europe. In 1886, Langley received the inaugural Henry Draper Medal from the National Academy of Sciences for his contributions to solar physics.
His publication in 1890 of infrared observations at the Allegheny Observatory in Pittsburgh together with Frank Washington Very along with the data he collected from his invention, the bolometer, was used by Svante Arrhenius to make the first calculations on the greenhouse effect. In 1898, Langley received the Prix Jules Janssen, the highest award of the Société astronomique de France. Langley attempted to make a working piloted heavier-than-air aircraft, his models flew. Langley began experimenting with rubber-band powered models and gliders in 1887, he made larger flying models powered by miniature steam engines. Langley realised that sustained powered flight was possible when he found that a 1 lb. brass plate suspended from the rotating arm by a spring, could be kept aloft by a spring tension of less than 1 oz. Langley understood that aircraft need thrust to overcome drag from forward speed, observed higher aspect ratio flat plates had higher lift and lower drag, stated in 1902 "A plane of fixed size and weight would need less propulsive power the faster it flew", the counter-intuitive effect of induced drag.
He met the writer Rudyard Kipling around this time, who described one of Langley's experiments in his autobiography: Through Roosevelt I met Professor Langley of the Smithsonian, an old man who had designed a model aeroplane driven—for petrol had not yet arrived—by a miniature flash-boiler engine, a marvel of delicate craftsmanship. It flew on trial over two hundred yards, drowned itself in the waters of the Potomac, cause of great mirth and humour to the Press of his country. Langley took it coolly enough and said to me that, though he would never live till I should see the aeroplane established, his first success came on May 6, 1896 when his Number 5 unpiloted model weighing 25 pounds made two flights of 2,300 ft and 3,300 ft after a catapult launch from a boat on the Potomac River. The distance was ten times longer than an
Mazatlán is a city in the Mexican state of Sinaloa. The city serves as the municipal seat for the surrounding municipio, known as the Mazatlán Municipality, it is located at 23°13′N 106°25′W on the Pacific coast, across from the southernmost tip of the Baja California Peninsula. Mazatlán is a Nahuatl word meaning "place of deer." The city was founded in 1531 by an army of Spaniards and indigenous settlers. By the mid-19th century, a large group of immigrants arrived from Germany. Together, with the hard work of the Natives, they were able to develop Mazatlán into a thriving commercial seaport, importing equipment for the nearby gold and silver mines, it served as the capital of Sinaloa from 1859 to 1873. The German settlers influenced the local music, with some genres being an alteration of Bavarian folk music; the settlers established the Pacifico Brewery on March 14, 1900. With a population of 438,434 and 489,987 as of the 2010 census, Mazatlán is the second-largest city in the state, it is a popular tourist destination, with its beaches lined with resort hotels.
A car ferry crosses the Gulf of California, from Mazatlán to Baja California Sur. The municipality has a land area of 3,068.48 km² and includes smaller outlying communities such as Villa Unión, La Noria, El Quelite, El Habal. Mazatlán is served by General Rafael Buelna International Airport. Mazatlán is known for being the hometown and center of Banda sinaloense, a musical genre which began to develop in the XIX century and is now one of the most popular music genres in Mexico. According to historians, Indigenous groups were in the region of Mazatlán prior to the arrival of the Spanish; these groups included the Totorames, who lived from the south bank of the River Piaxtla, to the Río de las Cañas, as well as the Xiximes, who lived in the mountains in the bordering state of Durango. Until the early 19th century, Mazatlán was a collection of huts inhabited by indigenous people whose major occupation was fishing, according to Abel Aubert du Petit-Thouars, a French explorer. In 1829, a Filipino banker named Juan Nepomuceno Machado arrived and established commercial relations with vessels coming to Mazatlán from far off places such as Chile, the United States and Asia Pacific.
By 1836, the city had a population of between 4,000 and 5,000. During the early years of the Spanish conquest in Sinaloa, the region occupied by the municipality of Mazatlán remained uninhabited; the nearest town was Chametla, occupied by the Spanish in 1531, lent its name to the province, despite being abandoned shortly afterward. In 1534, the Valley of Mazatlán was divided into 25 Castellanos by an unknown person who did not stay for long. In 1576, Don Hernando de Bazán, Governor and Captain General of Nueva Vizcaya, sent Captain Martin Hernandez with his father and soldiers to occupy the site of Mazatlán, granting them land and titles in return; the Captain's claims were ratified in the City of Durango in 1639, endorsed in the same city in 1650. Nuño de Guzman's entry to Sinaloa in 1531, the appointment of the conquered lands as provinces, prompted the internal territorial division of the State. Chametla was occupied by the Spanish, listed the province extending from the Rio Cañas Elota to the boundary with the province of Culiacan.
Both provinces belonged to the kingdom of New Galicia. In 1565, the town of Chametla was diminished by ongoing Indian raids; that year, Captain Francisco de Ibarra recovered the territory south of the state, rebuilt Chametla, founded the Villa de San Sebastián, awarded the region to New Vizcaya. The provinces under his jurisdiction included the villages of San Sebastián, Mazatlán and its port, Charcas Copala Royals, Finance Panuco. During the last years of the seventeenth century and early eighteenth century, the territory within Sinaloa remained unchanged, until 1732, when the provinces of Sonora and Ostimuri were united, as were the provinces of Sinaloa and Rosario, with San Felipe and Santiago being the principal cities. In 1749, Sinaloa was divided into five provinces with their mayors and lieutenancy: Maloya, with jurisdiction over Chametla and San Jose. In 1786, the intendant system was implemented due to the need to establish a provincial government. Arizpe Municipality was formed out of the territories of Sinaloa.
That year, the first mayor, Garrido Durán, established eleven subdelegations, eight of them in Sinaloa, with Mazatlán being within the subdelegation of Copala, called San Sebastián. Among the first decrees that the legislature enacted was that the addition of each of the eleven districts, this union, corresponding to the Union Villa Mariano Balleza, be given the name of one of the leading insurgents, parish priest Dolores Hidalgo, on the night of September 15, 1810. In 1813, the Cadiz constitution came into effect. Article 310 of that constitution provided for the installation of local councils in towns that had more than 1,000 inhabitants. In 1814, Fernando VII repealed that constitution but it was reinstated in 1820, the first municipalities in Sinaloa were founded. In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century, Mazatlán was a native fishing village located north of Cerro de la Aduana. In 1821, it was declared the first port of Mazatlán on Mexico's Pacific coast. Jurisdictionally, Mazatlán remained dependent on the sub-delegation of San Sebastian, unaffected by the divisions between the states of Sonora and Sinaloa.
In 1824, they got together to form the
Mare Island Naval Shipyard
The Mare Island Naval Shipyard was the first United States Navy base established on the Pacific Ocean. It is located 25 miles northeast of San Francisco in California; the Napa River goes through the Mare Island Strait and separates the peninsula shipyard from the main portion of the city of Vallejo. MINSY made a name for itself as the premier US West Coast submarine port as well as serving as the controlling force in San Francisco Bay Area shipbuilding efforts during World War II; the base has gone through several redevelopment phases. It was registered as a California Historical Landmark in 1960, parts of it were declared a National Historic Landmark District in 1975. In September 1849, Lieutenant Commander William Pope McArthur was placed in command of the US survey schooner Ewing, brought around Cape Horn to the West Coast by Lieutenant Washington Allon Bartlett. Upon reaching San Francisco and the other ship assigned to the survey, USS Massachusetts, were hampered from progress due to desertions of their crews to the gold fields, including a mutiny when crew members rowing into the city from Ewing threw an officer overboard in an attempt to desert.
They managed to survey the Mare Island Strait before steaming to Hawaii to obtain crewmen from Hawaiian monarch King Kamehameha III. They returned to San Francisco in the spring of 1850 with the coastal survey of northern California beginning on 4 April 1850 and continued up to the mouth of the Columbia River. On 1 August 1850, while still in Oregon, McArthur purchased a 1⁄16 interest in Mare Island for $468.50 returned to San Francisco that month to prepare charts and write reports. On 15 January 1852, Secretary of the Navy Will A. Graham ordered a Naval Commission to select a site for a naval yard on the Pacific Coast. Commodore D. Sloat along with Commodore C. Ringgold, Simon F. Blunt and William P. S. Sanger were appointed to the commission. On 13 July 1852, Sloat recommended the island across the Napa River from the settlement of Vallejo; the Navy purchased the original 956 acres of MINSY on 4 January 1853. McArthur's family share was $5,218.20. The Navy commenced shipbuilding operations on 16 September 1854 under the command of then-Commander David Farragut, who gained fame during the U.
S. Civil War Battle of Mobile Bay, when he gave the order, "Damn the torpedoes, full speed ahead!" MINSY served as a major Pacific Ocean repair station during the late 19th century, handling American as well as Japanese and Russian vessels in the course of duty. In 1861, the longest lived of the clipper ships, was brought to Mare Island Navy Yard for $15,000 of repairs. Syren had struck Mile Rock two times while trying to sail out of the Golden Gate. Marines first arrived for duty in 1862 under the command of Maj Addison Garland, the first officer to command the Marine barracks on the island. Mare Island Naval Shipyard took a commanding role in civil defense and emergency response on the West Coast, dispatching warships to the Pacific Northwest to subdue Native American violence. MINSY sent ships such as Wyoming south to Central America and the Panama Canal to protect US political and commercial interests; some of the support and munition requirements for the Spanish–American War were filled by Mare Island.
MINSY sent men and ships to San Francisco in response to the fires following the 1906 earthquake. Arctic rescue missions were mounted as necessary. Ordnance manufacturing and storage were two further key missions at MINSY for nearly all of its active service, including ordnance used prior to the American Civil War. In 1911, the Marine Corps established two West Coast recruit training depots first at Mare Island, the second at Puget Sound, Washington. Mare Island became the West Coast's only recruit training facility when the Puget Sound operation consolidated to the San Francisco Bay Area in 1912. Instructors trained recruits there until 10 August 1923, when they relocated to the Marine Corps Recruit Depot San Diego. In March 1917 MINSY was the site of a major explosion of barges loaded with munitions; the blast killed 6 people, wounded another 31, destroyed some port facilities. Agents of U. S. Military Intelligence tied the blast to roving German saboteur Lothar Witzke, caught and imprisoned in 1918.
MINSY saw major shipbuilding efforts during World War I. MINSY holds a shipbuilding speed record for a destroyer that still stands, launching USS Ward in just 17 1⁄2 days in May–June 1918. Mare Island was selected by the Navy for construction of the only US West Coast-built dreadnought battleship, USS California, launched in 1919. In 1904, the pre-dreadnought battleship USS Nebraska had been launched at Washington. Noting the power of underwater warfare shown by German U-boats in World War I, the Navy doubled their Pacific-based submarine construction program at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard by founding a submarine program at MINSY in the early 1920s. Base facilities included a hospital, ammunition depot and rubber testing laboratories, schools for firefighters and anti-submarine attack during World War II. MINSY reached peak capacity for shipbuilding, repair and maintenance of many different kinds of seagoing vessels including both surface combatants and submarines. Up to 50,000 workers were employed.
Mare Island received Royal Navy cruisers and destroyers and four Soviet Navy subs for service. Following the War, MINSY was considered to be one of the primary stations for construction and maintenance of the Navy's Pacific fleet of submarines, having built seventeen submarines and fo
Jupiter known as Jove, was the god of the sky and thunder and king of the gods in Ancient Roman religion and mythology. Jupiter was the chief deity of Roman state religion throughout the Republican and Imperial eras, until Christianity became the dominant religion of the Empire. In Roman mythology, he negotiates with Numa Pompilius, the second king of Rome, to establish principles of Roman religion such as offering, or sacrifice. Jupiter is thought to have originated as an aerial god, his identifying implement is the thunderbolt and his primary sacred animal is the eagle, which held precedence over other birds in the taking of auspices and became one of the most common symbols of the Roman army. The two emblems were combined to represent the god in the form of an eagle holding in its claws a thunderbolt seen on Greek and Roman coins; as the sky-god, he was a divine witness to oaths, the sacred trust on which justice and good government depend. Many of his functions were focused on the Capitoline Hill.
In the Capitoline Triad, he was the central guardian of the state with Minerva. His sacred tree was the oak; the Romans regarded Jupiter as the equivalent of the Greek Zeus, in Latin literature and Roman art, the myths and iconography of Zeus are adapted under the name Iuppiter. In the Greek-influenced tradition, Jupiter was the brother of Neptune and Pluto, the Roman equivalents of Poseidon and Hades respectively; each presided over one of the three realms of the universe: sky, the waters, the underworld. The Italic Diespiter was a sky god who manifested himself in the daylight identified with Jupiter. Tinia is regarded as his Etruscan counterpart; the Romans believed that Jupiter granted them supremacy because they had honoured him more than any other people had. Jupiter was "the fount of the auspices upon which the relationship of the city with the gods rested." He personified the divine authority of Rome's highest offices, internal organization, external relations. His image in the Republican and Imperial Capitol bore regalia associated with Rome's ancient kings and the highest consular and Imperial honours.
The consuls swore their oath of office in Jupiter's name, honoured him on the annual feriae of the Capitol in September. To thank him for his help, they offered him a white ox with gilded horns. A similar offering was made by triumphal generals, who surrendered the tokens of their victory at the feet of Jupiter's statue in the Capitol; some scholars have viewed the triumphator as embodying Jupiter in the triumphal procession. Jupiter's association with kingship and sovereignty was reinterpreted as Rome's form of government changed. Rome was ruled by kings. Nostalgia for the kingship was considered treasonous; those suspected of harbouring monarchical ambitions were punished, regardless of their service to the state. In the 5th century BC, the triumphator Camillus was sent into exile after he drove a chariot with a team of four white horses —an honour reserved for Jupiter himself; when Marcus Manlius, whose defense of the Capitol against the invading Gauls had earned him the name Capitolinus, was accused of regal pretensions, he was executed as a traitor by being cast from the Tarpeian Rock.
His house on the Capitoline Hill was razed, it was decreed that no patrician should be allowed to live there. Capitoline Jupiter found himself in a delicate position: he represented a continuity of royal power from the Regal period, conferred power on the magistrates who paid their respects to him. During the Conflict of the Orders, Rome's plebeians demanded the right to hold political and religious office. During their first secessio, they threatened to found their own; when they agreed to come back to Rome they vowed the hill where they had retreated to Jupiter as symbol and guarantor of the unity of the Roman res publica. Plebeians became eligible for all the magistracies and most priesthoods, but the high priest of Jupiter remained the preserve of patricians. Jupiter was served by the patrician Flamen Dialis, the highest-ranking member of the flamines, a college of fifteen priests in the official public cult of Rome, each of whom was devoted to a particular deity, his wife, the Flaminica Dialis, had her own duties, presided over the sacrifice of a ram to Jupiter on each of the nundinae, the "market" days of a calendar cycle, comparable to a week.
The couple were required to marry by the exclusive patrician ritual confarreatio, which included a sacrifice of spelt bread to Jupiter Farreus. The office of Flamen Dialis was circumscribed by several unique ritual prohibitions, some of which shed light on the sovereign nature of the god himself. For instance, the flamen may remove his clothes or apex only when under a roof, in order to avoid showing himself naked to the sky—that is, "as if under the eyes of Jupiter" as god of the heavens; every time the Flaminica saw a lightning bolt or heard a clap of thunder, she was prohibited from carrying on with her normal routine until she placated the god. Some privileges of the flamen of Jupiter may reflect the regal nature of Jupiter: he had the use of the curule chair, was the