California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
United States Fleet Activities Yokosuka
United States Fleet Activities Yokosuka or Commander Fleet Activities Yokosuka is a United States Navy base in Yokosuka, Japan. Its mission is to maintain and operate base facilities for the logistic, administrative support and service of the U. S. Naval Forces Japan, Seventh Fleet and other operating forces assigned in the Western Pacific. CFAY is the largest strategically important U. S. naval installation in the western Pacific. As of August 2013, it was commanded by Captain David Glenister. Fleet Activities Yokosuka comprises 2.3 km² and is located at the entrance of Tokyo Bay, 65 km south of Tokyo and 30 km south of Yokohama on the Miura Peninsula in the Kantō region of the Pacific Coast in Central Honshū, Japan. The 55 tenant commands which make up this installation support U. S. Navy Pacific operating forces, including principal afloat elements of the United States Seventh Fleet, including the only permanently forward-deployed aircraft carrier, USS Ronald Reagan, the group she heads, Carrier Strike Group Five, Destroyer Squadron 15.
When Commodore Matthew Perry arrived in Japan in 1853, using naval pressure to open up Japan to foreign trade, Yokosuka was a quaint, native fishing village. In 1860, Lord Oguri Kozuke-no-Suke, Minister of Finance to the Tokugawa Shogunate Government, decided that "If Japan is to assume an active role in world trade, she must have proper facilities to build and maintain large seagoing vessels." He called upon the French Consul General, Léon Roches, asked for the assistance of the French government to build a shipyard and various basing facilities capable of handling large ships. French engineer Léonce Verny was sent to Japan to accomplish the task. After the inspection of several sites, it was discovered that Yokosuka topographically, if on a smaller scale, resembled the port of Toulon, France, it was decided to establish the shipyard here. It would be called the "Yokosuka Iron Works". In 1871, the name was changed to the "Yokosuka Navy Yard", it was French engineer Louis-Émile Bertin who reorganized "Yokosuka Navy Yard" from 1886.
Yokosuka was to become one of the main arsenals of the Imperial Japanese Navy into the 20th century. Battleships such as Yamashiro, aircraft carriers such as Hiryu and Shokaku were built there. Major naval aircraft were designed at the Yokosuka Naval Air Technical Arsenal. In addition, numerous other facilities, including the headquarters of various naval units, administration buildings, military training schools, communication facilities, armories and a military hospital were established nearby in the course of its history, turning the area around the arsenal into a major fleet base. During World War II, activities at the Yokosuka Navy Yard reached their peak. By 1944, it employed over 40,000 workers. In addition to the shipbuilding plant, the yard had a gun factory and supply depots, a fuel storage facility, a seaplane base and a naval air station. On 30 August 1945, Vice Admiral Michitaro Totsuka, last Japanese commander of the Yokosuka Naval District, surrendered his command to Rear Admiral Robert Carney, the base was peacefully occupied by U.
S. Marines of the 6th Marine Division, British Royal Marines and U. S. Naval personnel. Commander Fleet Activities Yokosuka was created shortly after the occupation in 1945; as the Base became organized, the shipyard was deactivated and much of the equipment was sent to other countries as part of reparations. The repair ship Piedmont took charge of ship repair and maintenance, the hospital became a Naval Dispensary and the Supply Department was organized to provide support to the fleet and shore-based activities; the Public Works Department was established. The best known Commander of Fleet Activities was the one who served there the longest, Captain Benton W. "Benny" Decker, in charge from April 1946 until June 1950. When he assumed command, the base was well-organized, Captain Decker and his staff were able to devote their time to helping the townspeople economically and socially. Buildings which had once housed war equipment were converted into schools and hospitals for the people of Japan. In May 1946, the Marines at Yokosuka were redesignated Marine Barracks, U.
S. Fleet Activities, Yokosuka. In April, 1947, the Ship Repair Department was organized, the shops and dry docks were reactivated to maintain the ships of the U. S. Fleet in the Pacific. With the onset of the Korean War on 25 June 1950, Yokosuka Navy Base became important and busy; the U. S. still an occupying power in Japan, turned its full efforts to the support of South Korea. The Navy Dispensary was enlarged and expanded and was commissioned a U. S. Naval Hospital in 1950; the Naval Communications Facility, was commissioned in January 1951. In April 1951, the Ship Repair Department became a component command, it was redesignated the Ship Repair Facility. As the major naval ship repair facility in the Far East, the Yokosuka Facility assumed a vital role in maintenance and repair of the U. S. Seventh Fleet during both the Korean War and Vietnam War. In March 1952, the geographical boundaries of Naval Forces Far East were changed to exclude the Philippines, Marianas and Volcano Islands. In December 1952, the headquarters were shifted from Tokyo to Yokosuka.
The expanded Supply Department of Fleet Activities became Naval Supply Depot, Yokosuka in August 1952. In 1960, the Naval Communications Facility was redesignated U. S. Naval Communications Station, Japan. In 1952, Japan was allowed to start rearmament, with its naval forces formally orga
Acapulco de Juárez called Acapulco, is a city and major seaport in the state of Guerrero on the Pacific coast of Mexico, 380 kilometres south of Mexico City. Acapulco is located on a deep, semicircular bay and has been a port since the early colonial period of Mexico's history, it is a port of call for shipping and cruise lines running between Panama and San Francisco, United States. The city of Acapulco is the largest in the state, far larger than the state capital Chilpancingo. Acapulco is Mexico's largest beach and balneario resort city; the city is one of Mexico's oldest beach resorts, which came into prominence in the 1940s through to the 1960s as a getaway for Hollywood stars and millionaires. Acapulco was once a popular tourist resort, but due to a massive upsurge in gang violence and murder since 2014 it no longer attracts many foreign tourists, most now only come from Mexico itself, it is the deadliest city in Mexico and the third-deadliest city in the world, the US government has warned its citizens not to travel there.
In 2016 there were 918 murders, the homicide rate was one of the highest in the world: 103 in every 100,000. In September 2018 the city's entire police force was disarmed by the military, due to suspicions that it has been infiltrated by drugs gangs. A health crisis has developed due to large quantities of uncollected refuse building up in the streets; the resort area is divided into three parts: The north end of the bay and beyond is the "traditional" area, which encompasses the area from Parque Papagayo through the Zócalo and onto the beaches of Caleta and Caletilla, the main part of the bay known as "Zona Dorada", where the famous in the mid-20th century vacationed, the south end, "Diamante", dominated by newer luxury high-rise hotels and condominiums. The name "Acapulco" comes from Nahuatl language Aca-pōl-co, means "where the reeds were destroyed or washed away"; the "de Juárez" was added to the official name in 1885 to honor Benito Juárez, former President of Mexico. The seal for the city shows broken reeds or cane.
The island and municipality of Capul, in the Philippines, derives its name from Acapulco. Acapulco was the eastern end of the trans-Pacific sailing route from Acapulco to Manila, in what was a Spanish colony. By the 8th century around the Acapulco Bay area, there was a small culture which would first be dominated by the Olmecs by a number of others during the pre-Hispanic period and before it ended in the 1520s. At Acapulco Bay itself, there were two Olmec sites, one by Playa Larga and the other on a hill known as El Guitarrón. Olmec influence caused the small spread-out villages here to coalesce into larger entities and build ceremonial centers. Teotihuacan influence made its way here via Cuernavaca and Chilpancingo. Mayan influence arrived from the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and through what is now Oaxaca; this history is known through the archaeological artifacts that have been found here at Playa Hornos, Pie de la Cuesta,and Tambuco. In the 11th century, new waves of migration of Nahuas and Coixas came through here.
These people were the antecedents of the Aztecs. In the 15th century, after four years of military struggle, Acapulco became part of the Aztec empire during the reign of Ahuizotl, it was annexed to a tributary province named Tepecuacuilco. However, this was only transitory, as the Aztecs could only establish an unorganized military post at the city's outskirts; the city was on territory under control of the Yopes, who continued defending it and living there until the arrival of the Spanish in the 1520s. There are two stories about; the first states that two years after the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, Hernán Cortés sent explorers west to find gold. The explorers had subdued this area after 1523, Captain Saavedra Cerón was authorized by Cortés to found a settlement here; the other states that the bay was discovered on December 13, 1526 by a small ship named the El Tepache Santiago captained by Santiago Guevara. The first encomendero was established in 1525 at Cacahuatepec, part of the modern Acapulco municipality.
In 1531, a number of Spaniards, most notably Juan Rodriguez de Villafuerte, left the Oaxaca coast and founded the village of Villafuerte where the city of Acapulco now stands. Villafuerte was unable to subdue the local native peoples, this resulted in the Yopa Rebellion in the region of Cuautepec. Hernán Cortés was obligated to send Vasco Porcayo to negotiate with the indigenous people giving concessions; the province of Acapulco became the encomendero of Rodriguez de Villafuerte who received taxes in the form of cocoa and corn. Cortés established Acapulco as a major port by the early 1530s, with the first major road between Mexico City and the port constructed by 1531; the wharf, named Marqués, was constructed by 1533 between Diamond Point. Soon after, the area was made an "alcadia". Spanish trade in the Far East would give Acapulco a prominent position in the economy of New Spain. Galleons started arriving here from Asia by 1550, in that year thirty Spanish families were sent to live here from Mexico City to have a permanent base of European residents.
Acapulco would become the second most important port, after Veracruz, due to its direct trade with the Philippines. This trade would focus on the yearly Manila-Acapulco Galleon trade, the nexus of all kinds of communications between New Spain and Asia. In 1573, the port was granted the monopoly of the Manila trade; the galleon trade made its yearly run from the mid-16th century unt
Mars is a borough in Butler County, United States. The population was 1,699 at the 2010 census. Mars is located in southern Butler County at 40°41′48″N 80°0′44″W, about halfway between the cities of Pittsburgh and Butler; the small community is nestled in a small valley along Breakneck Creek. Pennsylvania Route 228 bypasses the borough to the south, leading east 4 miles to Pennsylvania Route 8 and west 5 miles to Interstates 79 and 76 in Cranberry Township; the Mars-Evans City Road leads out of town to the north. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough of Mars has a total area of 0.5 square miles, all land. Mars is home to the popular roadside attraction the Mars "Spaceship" or "Flying Saucer", it is home to the Mars Station, one of the last railroad depots still standing from the now defunct Pittsburgh and Western Railroad. In 1873, Samuel Parks constructed a water-powered gristmill along Breakneck Creek. Parks decided to have a post office placed in his home, so he received help from his friend Samuel Marshall to help establish it.
The name of the post office became Overbrook. In 1877, the Pittsburgh, New Castle and Lake Erie Railroad was constructed through Overbrook, had a station built there. In 1882, the name of the community was changed to Mars since the railroad had a stop with the name "Overbrook". No one is sure; some say it was Park's wife who enjoyed astronomy, while others believe it was shortened after Samuel Marshall's name. On March 6, 1895, Mars was incorporated as a borough. In 1904, the Pittsburgh and Butler Street Railway gained permission from Mars to construct its right-of-way through the borough; the line become part of the Pittsburgh, Harmony and New Castle Railway in 1917, being renamed Pittsburgh and Butler Railway. The line closed in 1931; the USS Mars was named after the borough. The ship became part of the United States Pacific Fleet in 1963, was decommissioned in 1998, it was sunk in 2006 as a target vessel. The bell of the USS Mars was donated to the borough and has become a permanent memorial in the downtown park.
Mars National Bank, founded in 1900, has its headquarters located in the borough, with seven branches located in Butler and Allegheny counties. The Mars Area School District serves the boroughs of Mars and Valencia, as well as Adams Township and Middlesex Township in Butler County; the Mars Fightin' Planets are one of the many teams located in the north Pittsburgh area. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,746 people, 687 households, 395 families residing in the borough; the population density was 3,906.5 people per square mile. There were 715 housing units at an average density of 1,599.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 98.68% White, 0.46% African American, 0.06% Native American, 0.40% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.11% from other races, 0.23% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.40% of the population. There were 687 households, out of which 25.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.7% were married couples living together, 10.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 42.4% were non-families.
38.3% of all households were made up of individuals, 24.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.16 and the average family size was 2.89. In the borough the population was spread out, with 18.6% under the age of 18, 5.7% from 18 to 24, 24.8% from 25 to 44, 17.8% from 45 to 64, 33.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 46 years. For every 100 females, there were 70.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 64.2 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $33,073, the median income for a family was $46,136. Males had a median income of $34,083 versus $26,080 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $17,701. About 7.8% of families and 9.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.8% of those under age 18 and 14.4% of those age 65 or over. Because of its unique name, proximity to Pittsburgh, Mars has on occasion received national media attention. In 2011, a representative from The Walt Disney Company invited students from Mars Elementary School to attend the Pittsburgh premiere of Mars Needs Moms, after reading a featured article on the town by msnbc.com.
Mars was the only school nationwide invited to the film's premiere. The borough has been a location for films and television commercials; the 1988 comedy-drama film The Prince of Pennsylvania and the 1996 comedy film Kingpin were filmed throughout the borough. In 2000, a Kraft salad dressing commercial was filmed in downtown. Canadian musician John Southworth named his first album Mars, Pennsylvania after the town, which he had passed through many years earlier on a school trip. Mars was the inspiration for the fictional town of Athena, the setting for the 2015 fictional trilogy, Benjamin's Field, by local author J. J. Knights. Mars has several Christian denominations located within and just outside the community. One of the largest churches was Saint Kilian Parish. Founded in 1917, the parish was located in downtown Mars, but by the early 2000s, membership had swelled so much that a new facility was constructed just outside the neighboring Seven Fields borough along PA 228 in 2008. There is a large presence of Presbyterians in the borough.
The Mars United Presbyterian was founded in 1969 with the merging of two older churches, one under the United Presbyterian Church of North America, the other under the Presbyterian Church. There is a Lutheran and Methodist church located within the borough; the Woodlan
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south and is bounded by Asia and Australia in the west and the Americas in the east. At 165,250,000 square kilometers in area, this largest division of the World Ocean—and, in turn, the hydrosphere—covers about 46% of Earth's water surface and about one-third of its total surface area, making it larger than all of Earth's land area combined; the centers of both the Water Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere are in the Pacific Ocean. The equator subdivides it into the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean, with two exceptions: the Galápagos and Gilbert Islands, while straddling the equator, are deemed wholly within the South Pacific, its mean depth is 4,000 meters. The Mariana Trench in the western North Pacific is the deepest point in the world, reaching a depth of 10,911 meters; the western Pacific has many peripheral seas. Though the peoples of Asia and Oceania have traveled the Pacific Ocean since prehistoric times, the eastern Pacific was first sighted by Europeans in the early 16th century when Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama in 1513 and discovered the great "southern sea" which he named Mar del Sur.
The ocean's current name was coined by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan during the Spanish circumnavigation of the world in 1521, as he encountered favorable winds on reaching the ocean. He called it Mar Pacífico, which in both Portuguese and Spanish means "peaceful sea". Important human migrations occurred in the Pacific in prehistoric times. About 3000 BC, the Austronesian peoples on the island of Taiwan mastered the art of long-distance canoe travel and spread themselves and their languages south to the Philippines and maritime Southeast Asia. Long-distance trade developed all along the coast from Mozambique to Japan. Trade, therefore knowledge, extended to the Indonesian islands but not Australia. By at least 878 when there was a significant Islamic settlement in Canton much of this trade was controlled by Arabs or Muslims. In 219 BC Xu Fu sailed out into the Pacific searching for the elixir of immortality. From 1404 to 1433 Zheng He led expeditions into the Indian Ocean; the first contact of European navigators with the western edge of the Pacific Ocean was made by the Portuguese expeditions of António de Abreu and Francisco Serrão, via the Lesser Sunda Islands, to the Maluku Islands, in 1512, with Jorge Álvares's expedition to southern China in 1513, both ordered by Afonso de Albuquerque from Malacca.
The east side of the ocean was discovered by Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa in 1513 after his expedition crossed the Isthmus of Panama and reached a new ocean. He named it Mar del Sur because the ocean was to the south of the coast of the isthmus where he first observed the Pacific. In 1519, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailed the Pacific East to West on a Spanish expedition to the Spice Islands that would result in the first world circumnavigation. Magellan called the ocean Pacífico because, after sailing through the stormy seas off Cape Horn, the expedition found calm waters; the ocean was called the Sea of Magellan in his honor until the eighteenth century. Although Magellan himself died in the Philippines in 1521, Spanish Basque navigator Juan Sebastián Elcano led the remains of the expedition back to Spain across the Indian Ocean and round the Cape of Good Hope, completing the first world circumnavigation in a single expedition in 1522. Sailing around and east of the Moluccas, between 1525 and 1527, Portuguese expeditions discovered the Caroline Islands, the Aru Islands, Papua New Guinea.
In 1542–43 the Portuguese reached Japan. In 1564, five Spanish ships carrying 379 explorers crossed the ocean from Mexico led by Miguel López de Legazpi, sailed to the Philippines and Mariana Islands. For the remainder of the 16th century, Spanish influence was paramount, with ships sailing from Mexico and Peru across the Pacific Ocean to the Philippines via Guam, establishing the Spanish East Indies; the Manila galleons operated for two and a half centuries, linking Manila and Acapulco, in one of the longest trade routes in history. Spanish expeditions discovered Tuvalu, the Marquesas, the Cook Islands, the Solomon Islands, the Admiralty Islands in the South Pacific. In the quest for Terra Australis, Spanish explorations in the 17th century, such as the expedition led by the Portuguese navigator Pedro Fernandes de Queirós, discovered the Pitcairn and Vanuatu archipelagos, sailed the Torres Strait between Australia and New Guinea, named after navigator Luís Vaz de Torres. Dutch explorers, sailing around southern Africa engaged in discovery and trade.
In the 16th and 17th centuries Spain considered the Pacific Ocean a mare clausum—a sea closed to other naval powers. As the only known entrance from the Atlantic, the Strait of Magellan was at times patrolled by fleets sent to prevent entrance of non-Spanish ships. On the western side of the Pacific Ocean the Dutch threatened the Spanish Philippines; the 18th cen
San Francisco the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. San Francisco is the 13th-most populous city in the United States, the fourth-most populous in California, with 884,363 residents as of 2017, it covers an area of about 46.89 square miles at the north end of the San Francisco Peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area, making it the second-most densely populated large US city, the fifth-most densely populated U. S. county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. San Francisco is part of the fifth-most populous primary statistical area in the United States, the San Jose–San Francisco–Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area; as of 2017, it was the seventh-highest income county in the United States, with a per capita personal income of $119,868. As of 2015, San Francisco proper had a GDP of $154.2 billion, a GDP per capita of $177,968. The San Francisco CSA was the country's third-largest urban economy as of 2017, with a GDP of $907 billion.
Of the 500+ primary statistical areas in the US, the San Francisco CSA had among the highest GDP per capita in 2017, at $93,938. San Francisco was ranked 14th in the world and third in the United States on the Global Financial Centres Index as of September 2018. San Francisco was founded on June 29, 1776, when colonists from Spain established Presidio of San Francisco at the Golden Gate and Mission San Francisco de Asís a few miles away, all named for St. Francis of Assisi; the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856. San Francisco's status as the West Coast's largest city peaked between 1870 and 1900, when around 25% of California's population resided in the city proper. After three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a major port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater.
It became the birthplace of the United Nations in 1945. After the war, the confluence of returning servicemen, significant immigration, liberalizing attitudes, along with the rise of the "hippie" counterculture, the Sexual Revolution, the Peace Movement growing from opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War, other factors led to the Summer of Love and the gay rights movement, cementing San Francisco as a center of liberal activism in the United States. Politically, the city votes along liberal Democratic Party lines. A popular tourist destination, San Francisco is known for its cool summers, steep rolling hills, eclectic mix of architecture, landmarks, including the Golden Gate Bridge, cable cars, the former Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary, Fisherman's Wharf, its Chinatown district. San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Gap Inc. Fitbit, Salesforce.com, Reddit, Inc. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation and Weather Underground.
It is home to a number of educational and cultural institutions, such as the University of San Francisco, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco State University, the De Young Museum, the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the California Academy of Sciences. As of 2019, San Francisco is the highest rated American city on world liveability rankings; the earliest archaeological evidence of human habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. The Yelamu group of the Ohlone people resided in a few small villages when an overland Spanish exploration party, led by Don Gaspar de Portolà, arrived on November 2, 1769, the first documented European visit to San Francisco Bay. Seven years on March 28, 1776, the Spanish established the Presidio of San Francisco, followed by a mission, Mission San Francisco de Asís, established by the Spanish explorer Juan Bautista de Anza. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the area became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the mission system ended, its lands became privatized.
In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, near a boat anchorage around what is today Portsmouth Square. Together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7, 1846, during the Mexican–American War, Captain John B. Montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, Mexico ceded the territory to the United States at the end of the war. Despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography; the California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers. With their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849; the promise of great wealth was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor.
Some of these 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels.
The M2 Machine Gun or Browning.50 Caliber Machine Gun is a heavy machine gun designed toward the end of World War I by John Browning. Its design is similar to Browning's earlier M1919 Browning machine gun, chambered for the.30-06 cartridge. The M2 uses the much larger and much more powerful.50 BMG cartridge, developed alongside and takes its name from the gun itself. It has been referred to in reference to its M2 nomenclature; the design has had many specific designations. It is effective against infantry, unarmored or armored vehicles and boats, light fortifications and low-flying aircraft; the Browning.50 caliber machine gun has been used extensively as a vehicle weapon and for aircraft armament by the United States from the 1930s to the present. It was used during World War II, the Korean War, the Vietnam War, the Falklands War, the Soviet–Afghan War, the Gulf War, the Iraq War and the War in Afghanistan in the 2000s and 2010s, it is the primary heavy machine gun of NATO countries, has been used by many other countries as well.
The M2 has been in use longer than any other firearm in U. S. inventory except the.45 ACP M1911 pistol designed by John Browning. The current M2HB is manufactured in the U. S. by General Dynamics and U. S. Ordnance for use by the U. S. government, for allies via Foreign Military Sales, as well as foreign manufacturers such as FN Herstal. Machine guns were used in World War I, weapons of larger than rifle caliber began appearing on both sides of the conflict; the larger rounds were needed to defeat the armor, being introduced to the battlefield, both on the ground and in the air. During World War I, the Germans introduced a armored airplane, the Junkers J. I; the armor made aircraft machine guns using conventional rifle ammunition ineffective. The American Expeditionary Force's commander General John J. Pershing asked for a larger caliber machine gun. Pershing asked the Army Ordnance Department to develop a machine gun with a caliber of at least 0.50 inches and a muzzle velocity of at least 2,700 feet per second.
U. S. Col. John Henry Parker, commanding a machine gun school in France, observed the effectiveness of a French 11 mm incendiary armor-piercing round; the Army Ordnance Department ordered eight experimental Colt machine guns rechambered for the French 11 mm cartridge. The French 11 mm round was found to be unsuitable. Pershing wanted a muzzle velocity of 2,700 ft/s. Development with the French round was dropped. Around July 1917, John M. Browning started redesigning his.30-06 M1917 machine gun for a larger and more powerful round. Winchester worked on the cartridge, a scaled-up version of the.30-06. Winchester added a rim to the cartridge because the company wanted to use the cartridge in an anti-tank rifle, but Pershing insisted the cartridge be rimless; the first.50 machine gun underwent trials on 15 October 1918. It fired at less than 500 rounds per minute, the muzzle velocity was only 2,300 ft/s. Cartridge improvements were promised; the gun was heavy, difficult to control, fired too for the anti-personnel role, was not powerful enough against armor.
While the.50 was being developed, some German T Gewehr 1918 anti-tank rifles and ammunition were seized. The German rounds had a muzzle velocity of 2,700 ft/s, an 800 gr bullet, could pierce1 in at 250 yd. Winchester improved the.50 caliber round to have similar performance. The muzzle velocity was 2,750 ft/s. Efforts by John M. Browning and Fred T. Moore resulted in the water-cooled Browning machine gun, caliber.50, M1921. An aircraft version was termed the Browning aircraft machine gun, caliber.50, M1921. These guns were used experimentally from 1921 until 1937, they had the ammunition fed only from the left side. Service trials raised doubts whether the guns would be suitable for aircraft or for anti-aircraft use. A heavy barrel M1921 was considered for ground vehicles. John M. Browning died in 1926. Between 1927 and 1932, S. H. Green studied the design problems of the needs of the armed services; the result was a single receiver design that could be turned into seven types of.50 caliber machine guns by using different jackets and other components.
The new receiver allowed left side feed. In 1933, Colt manufactured several prototype Browning machine guns. With support from the Navy, Colt started manufacturing the M2 in 1933. FN Herstal has manufactured the M2 machine gun since the 1930s. General Dynamics, U. S. Ordnance and Ohio Ordnance Works Inc. are other current manufacturers. A variant without a water jacket, but with a thicker-walled, air-cooled barrel was designated the M2 HB; the added mass and surface area of the heavy barrel compensated somewhat for the loss of water-cooling, while reducing bulk and weight: the M2 weighs 121 lb with a water jacket, but the M2 HB weighs 84 lb. Due to the long procedure for changing the barrel, an improved system was developed called QCB; the lightweight "Army/Navy" prefixed AN/M2 "light-barrel" version of the Browning M2 weighing 60 pounds was developed, became the standard.50-caliber aviation machine gun of the World War II-era for American military aircraft of nearly every type replacing Browning's own air-cooled.30 caliber machine gun design in nearly