Adak Adak Station, is a city located on Adak Island, in the Aleutians West Census Area, United States. At the 2010 census the population was 326, up from 316 in 2000, it is the southernmost city in Alaska. The city is Adak Naval Operating Base, NAVFAC Adak. There are no radio stations within 200 miles of Adak. Adak is located on Kuluk Bay, on Adak Island, in the Andreanof Islands group of the Aleutian Islands Recording District, in the 3rd Judicial District, it lies 1,200 miles southwest of Anchorage and 450 miles west of Dutch Harbor at 51.872° North, 176.636° West, near the Russian end of the arc that makes up this volcanic island chain. Flight time to Anchorage is three hours or longer depending on weather. Adak is the southernmost community in Alaska and on the same latitude as Haida Gwaii in Canada, Brussels, Belgium, it is less than three degrees of latitude north of the 49th parallel, which forms the western part of the land border between the Contiguous United States and Canada. According to the U.
S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 127.3 square miles, of which 122.4 square miles is land and 4.9 square miles is water. Adak lies in the subpolar oceanic climate zone, characterized by persistently overcast skies, moderated temperatures, high winds, frequent cyclonic storms. Winter squalls produce wind gusts in excess of 100 knots. During the summer, extensive fog forms over the Bering North Pacific. Average temperatures range from 20 to 60 °F. Average annual precipitation is 65.6 inches annually, concentrated markedly in winter. December is the wettest single month on average, while June and July are markedly the driest months, with thunderstorms unknown here. Snowfall averages nearly 100 inches per winter season, which however tends to melt soon after falling. With 263 rainy days per year, Adak has the second highest number of any inhabited locality in the United States after Hilo, Hawaii; the Aleutian Islands were occupied by the Unanga, more known now as the Aleuts. The once populated island was abandoned in the early 19th century as the Aleutian Island hunters followed the Russian fur trade eastward, famine set in on the Andreanof Island group.
However, they continued to hunt and fish around the island over the years, until World War II broke out. Adak Army installations allowed U. S. forces to mount a successful offensive against the Japanese-held islands of Attu. After the war, Adak was developed as a naval air station, playing an important role during the Cold War as a submarine surveillance center. Large earthquakes rocked the island in 1957, 1964 and 1977. At its peak, the station housed over their families. In 1994, the base was downsized, both family housing and schools were closed; the station closed on March 31, 1997, as a result of 1995 Base Realignment and Closure Commission. The Aleut Corporation purchased Adak's facilities under a land transfer agreement with the Department of the Interior and the U. S. Navy/Department of Defense; this agreement was finalized in March, 2004. About 30 families with children relocated to Adak in September 1998, most of them Aleut Corp. shareholders, the former high school was reopened at that time as a K-12 institution.
The community incorporated as a second-class city in April 2001. All of the infrastructure and facilities on Adak are owned by Aleut Corporation, developing Adak as a commercial center via their subsidiary companies. For example, properties in active use are leased by Adak Commercial Properties, LLC. Since World War II, the U. S. Navy and Coast Guard developed facilities and recreation opportunities at Adak. At its peak, Adak had a college, a McDonald's restaurant, a Baskin-Robbins ice cream stand, movie theater, roller skating rink, swimming pool, ski lodge, bowling alleys, skeet range, auto hobby shop, photo lab, racquetball and tennis courts. A new $18-million hospital was built in 1990, just seven years prior to the closure of the station. By March 2003, six years after the closure of the station, most of these facilities had closed. Adak first appeared on the 2000 U. S. Census as a census-designated place, although it was the Adak Naval Station from 1970-90. In 2001, it formally incorporated as a city.
As of the 2010 census, Adak was the only city in Alaska to have a majority Asian population. Akutan and Kodiak have Asian pluralities; as of the census of 2000, there were 316 people, 159 households, 61 families residing in the city. The population density was 2.6 people per square mile. There were 884 housing units at an average density of 7.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 49.68% White, 1.27% Black or African American, 35.13% Native American, 9.81% Asian, 1.90% Pacific Islander, 2.22% from two or more races. 5.06% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 159 households out of which 18.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 28.9% were married couples living together, 2.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 61.6% were non-families. 46.5% of all households were made up of individuals and none had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.99 and the average family s
Battle of Leyte
The Battle of Leyte in the Pacific campaign of World War II was the amphibious invasion of the island of Leyte in the Philippines by American forces and Filipino guerrillas under the command of General Douglas MacArthur, who fought against the Imperial Japanese Army in the Philippines led by General Tomoyuki Yamashita. The operation, codenamed King Two, launched the Philippines campaign of 1944–45 for the recapture and liberation of the entire Philippine Archipelago and to end three years of Japanese occupation. Japan had conquered the Philippines in 1942. Controlling it was vital for Japan's survival in World War II because it commanded sea routes to Borneo and Sumatra by which rubber and petroleum were shipped to Japan. For the U. S. capturing the Philippines was a key strategic step in isolating Imperial Japan's military holdings in China and the Pacific theater. It was a personal matter of pride for MacArthur. In 1942, just a month before Japan forced the surrender of all USAFFE forces in the Philippines, U.
S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt had ordered MacArthur to leave the Philippines and organize the U. S. forces gathering in Australia, which were meant to relieve the USAFFE. Those relief forces were non-existent. Still, MacArthur had vowed, he stated that it was a moral obligation of the U. S. to liberate the Philippines as soon as possible. In March 1944, the Joint Chiefs of Staff ordered MacArthur to plan an attack on the southern Philippines by the end of the year, Luzon in early 1945. In July 1944, Roosevelt met with MacArthur and Chester Nimitz in Hawaii, where the decision was made to invade the Philippines, from which land air bases could be used for the Pacific Theater of Operations. Over the summer of 1944, planes from the aircraft carriers of the U. S. 3rd Fleet under Admiral William F. Halsey carried out several successful missions over the Philippines and found Japanese resistance lacking. Halsey recommended a direct strike on Leyte, canceling other planned operations, the Leyte invasion date moved forward to October.
Leyte, one of the larger islands of the Philippines, has numerous deep-water approaches and sandy beaches which offered opportunities for amphibious assaults and fast resupply. The roads and lowlands extending inland from Highway 1, that ran for 40 mi along the east coast between Abuyog town to the north and the San Juanico Strait between Leyte and Samar Islands, provided avenues for tank-infantry operations, as well as suitable ground for airfield construction. American air forces based on Leyte could strike at enemy bases and airfields anywhere in the archipelago. A forested north-south mountain range dominates the interior and separates two sizable valleys, or coastal plains; the larger Leyte Valley extends from the northern coast to the long eastern shore and contains most of the towns and roadways on the island. The other, Ormoc Valley, situated on the west side, was connected to Leyte Valley by a roundabout and winding road, Highway 2; this continued south to the port of Ormoc City along the western shore to Baybay town.
The road turned east to cross the mountainous waist of the island and it connected with Highway 1 on the east coast at Abuyog. Below these towns, the mountainous southern third of Leyte was undeveloped. High mountain peaks over 4,400 ft, as well as the jagged outcroppings and caves typical of volcanic islands offered formidable defensive opportunities; the timing late in the year of the assault would force combat troops and supporting pilots, as well as logistical units, to contend with monsoon rains. Leyte's population of over 900,000 people—mostly farmers and fishermen—could be expected to assist an American invasion, since many residents supported the guerrilla struggle against the Japanese in the face of harsh repression. Japanese troop strength on Leyte was estimated by U. S. intelligence at 20,000. Southwest Pacific Area General Douglas MacArthur in light cruiser Nashville US Seventh Fleet Vice Admiral Thomas C. Kinkaid in amphibious command ship Wasatch Task Group 77.4 – Escort Carrier Group Rear Adm. Thomas L. Sprague Task Force 78 – Northern Attack Force Rear Admiral Daniel E. Barbey in amphibious command ship Blue Ridge Embarking Maj. Gen. Franklin C.
Sibert's X Army CorpsTask Force 79 – Southern Attack Force Vice Admiral Theodore S. Wilkinson Embarking Maj. Gen. John R. Hodge's XXIV Army CorpsAllied Air Forces Lieutenant General George C. Kenney, USAAF Fifth Air Force Thirteenth Air ForceUS Sixth Army Lieutenant General Walter Krueger X Army Corps Lieutenant General Franklin C. Sibert Left Sector: 24th Infantry "Taro" Division Division commander: Maj. Gen. Frederick A. Irving 19th Infantry Regiment 34th Infantry RegimentRight Sector: 1st Cavalry Division Division commander: Maj. Gen. Verne D. Mudge 5th Cavalry Regiment 7th Cavalry Regiment 12th Cavalry Regiment Reserve: 7th Cavalry RegimentXXIV Army Corps Lieutenant General John R. Hodge Left Sector: 7th Infantry "Bayonet" Division Division commander: Maj. Gen. Archibald V. Arnold 17th Infantry Regiment 32nd Infantry Regiment 184th Infantry RegimentRight Sector: 96th Infantry "Deadeye" Division Division commander: Maj. Gen. James L. Bradley 381st Infa
Landing Ship, Tank
Landing Ship, Tank, or tank landing ship, is the naval designation for ships first developed during World War II to support amphibious operations by carrying tanks, vehicles and landing troops directly onto shore with no docks or piers. This enabled amphibious assaults on any beach; the bow of the LST had a large door. The LST had a special flat keel that allowed the ship to stay upright; the twin propellers and rudders had protection from grounding. The LSTs served across the globe during World War II including in the Pacific War and in the European theatre; the first tank-landing ships were built to British requirements by converting existing ships. Over 1,000 LSTs were laid down in the United States during World War II for use by the Allies; the British evacuation from Dunkirk in 1940 demonstrated to the Admiralty that the Allies needed large, ocean-going ships that could handle shore-to-shore delivery of tanks and other vehicles in amphibious assaults upon the continent of Europe. As an interim measure, three 4,000- to 4,800-GRT tankers, built to pass over the restrictive bars of Lake Maracaibo, were selected for conversion because of their shallow draft.
Bow doors and ramps were added to these ships, which became the first tank landing ships, LST: HMS Misoa and Bachaquero. They proved their worth during the invasion of Algeria in 1942, but their bluff bows made for inadequate speed and pointed out the need for an all-new design incorporating a sleeker hull; the first purpose-built LST design was HMS Boxer. It was a scaled-down design from ideas penned by Prime Minister Winston Churchill. In order that it could carry 13 Churchill infantry tanks, 27 other vehicles and nearly 200 men at a speed of 18 knots, it could not have a shallow draught sufficient for easy unloading; as a result, each of the three ordered in March 1941 had a long ramp stowed behind the bow doors. The three ships were converted to "Fighter Direction Ships" for the invasion of Normandy; the U. S. were to build seven LST but in light of the problems with the design and progress with the LST Mark II the plans were canceled. Construction of the LST s took until the first US LST was launched before them.
At their first meeting at the Atlantic conference in Argentia, Newfoundland, in August 1941, President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Prime Minister Winston Churchill confirmed the Admiralty's views. In November 1941, a small delegation from the Admiralty arrived in the United States to pool ideas with the United States Navy's Bureau of Ships with regard to development of ships and the possibility of building further Boxers in the US. During this meeting, it was decided; as with the standing agreement, these ships would be built by the US so British shipyards could concentrate on building vessels for the Royal Navy. The specifications called for vessels capable of crossing the Atlantic, the original title given to them was "Atlantic Tank Landing Craft". Calling a vessel 300 ft long a "craft" was considered a misnomer and the type was re-christened "Landing Ship, Tank", or "LST"; the LST design incorporated elements of the first British LCTs from their designer, Sir Rowland Baker, part of the British delegation.
One of the elements provided for sufficient buoyancy in the ships' sidewalls so that they would float the ship when the tank deck was flooded. The LST gave up the speed of HMS Boxer, at only 10 knots, but carried a similar load while drawing only three feet forward when beaching. Within a few days, John C. Niedermair of the Bureau of Ships sketched out an awkward looking ship that proved to be the basic design for the more than 1,000 LST that were built during World War II. To meet the conflicting requirements of deep draft for ocean travel and shallow draft for beaching, the ship was designed with a large ballast system that could be filled for ocean passage and pumped out for beaching operations. An anchor and mechanical winch system aided in the ship's ability to pull itself off the beach; the rough sketch was accepted immediately. The Admiralty requested that the United States build 200 "LST" for the Royal Navy under the terms of lend-lease; the preliminary plans called for an LST 280 feet in length.
Within a month, final working plans were developed that further stretched the overall length to 328 feet and called for a 50-foot beam and a minimum draft of 3.8 feet. This scheme distributed the ship's weight over a greater area, enabling her to ride higher in the water when in landing trim; the LST could carry a 2,100 short tons load of vehicles. The larger dimensions permitted the designers to increase the width of the bow door opening and ramp from 12 to 14 feet in order for it to be able to accommodate most Allied vehicles; as the dimensions and weight of the LST increased, steel plating thickness increased from 1⁄4-inch to 3⁄8-inch on the deck and sides, with 1-inch-thick plating under the bow. By January 1942, the first scale model of the LST had been built and was undergoing tests at the David Taylor Model Basin in Washington, D. C. Provisions were made for the satisfactory ventilation of the tank space while the tank motors were running, an elevator was provided to lower vehicles
Battle of Okinawa
The Battle of Okinawa, codenamed Operation Iceberg, was a major battle of the Pacific War fought on the island of Okinawa by United States Marine and Army forces against the Imperial Japanese Army. The initial invasion of Okinawa on April 1, 1945, was the largest amphibious assault in the Pacific Theater of World War II; the 82-day battle lasted from April 1 until June 22, 1945. After a long campaign of island hopping, the Allies were planning to use Kadena Air Base on the large island of Okinawa as a base for Operation Downfall, the planned invasion of the Japanese home islands, 340 mi away; the United States created the Tenth Army, a cross-branch force consisting of the 7th, 27th, 77th, 96th infantry divisions of the US Army with the 1st, 2nd, 6th divisions of the Marine Corps, to fight on the island. The Tenth was unique in that it had its own tactical air force, was supported by combined naval and amphibious forces; the battle has been referred to as the "typhoon of steel" in English, tetsu no ame or tetsu no bōfū in Japanese.
The nicknames refer to the ferocity of the fighting, the intensity of Japanese kamikaze attacks, the sheer numbers of Allied ships and armored vehicles that assaulted the island. The battle was one of the bloodiest in the Pacific, with 160,000 casualties on both sides: at least 75,000 Allied and 84,166–117,000 Japanese, including drafted Okinawans wearing Japanese uniforms. 149,425 Okinawans were killed, committed suicide or went missing, a significant proportion of the estimated pre-war 300,000 local population. In the naval operations surrounding the battle, both sides lost considerable numbers of ships and aircraft, including the Japanese battleship Yamato. After the battle, Okinawa provided a fleet anchorage, troop staging areas, airfields in proximity to Japan in preparation for the planned invasion. In all, the Army had over 102,000 soldiers, over 18,000 Navy personnel. At the start of the Battle of Okinawa, the 10th Army had 182,821 personnel under its command, it was planned that General Buckner would report to Turner until the amphibious phase was completed, after which he would report directly to Spruance.
Although Allied land forces were composed of American units, the British Pacific Fleet provided about ¼ of Allied naval air power. It comprised a force. Although all the BPF aircraft carriers were provided by Britain, the carrier group was a combined British Commonwealth fleet with Australian, New Zealand and Canadian ships and personnel, their mission was to neutralize Japanese airfields in the Sakishima Islands and provide air cover against Japanese kamikaze attacks. Most of the air-to-air fighters and the small dive bombers and strike aircraft were US Navy carrier-based airplanes; the Japanese land campaign was conducted by the 67,000-strong regular 32nd Army and some 9,000 Imperial Japanese Navy troops at Oroku naval base, supported by 39,000 drafted local Ryukyuan people. The Japanese had used kamikaze tactics since the Battle of Leyte Gulf, but for the first time, they became a major part of the defense. Between the American landing on April 1 and May 25, seven major kamikaze attacks were attempted, involving more than 1,500 planes.
The 32nd Army consisted of the 9th, 24th, 62nd Divisions, the 44th Independent Mixed Brigade. The 9th Division was moved to Taiwan before the invasion, resulting in shuffling of Japanese defensive plans. Primary resistance was to be led in the south by Lieutenant General Mitsuru Ushijima, his chief of staff, Lieutenant General Isamu Chō and his chief of operations, Colonel Hiromichi Yahara. Yahara advocated a defensive strategy, whilst Chō advocated an offensive one. In the north, Colonel Takehido Udo was in command; the IJN troops were led by Rear Admiral Minoru Ōta. They expected the Americans to land 6–10 divisions against the Japanese garrison of two and a half divisions; the staff calculated that superior quality and numbers of weapons gave each US division five or six times the firepower of a Japanese division. To this, would be added the Americans' abundant naval and air firepower. In Okinawa island, middle school boys were organized into front-line-service Tekketsu Kinnōtai, while Himeyuri students were organized into a nursing unit.
The Japanese Imperial Army mobilized 1,780 middle school boys aged 14–17 years into front-line-service. They were named "Tekketsu Kinnōtai"; this mobilization was conducted by the ordinance of the Ministry of Army, not by law. The ordinances mobilized the student as a volunteer soldier for form's sake. In reality, the military authorities ordered schools to force all students to "volunteer" as soldiers. Sometimes they counterfeited the necessary documents. About half of Tekketsu Kinnōtai were killed, including in suicide bomb attacks against tanks, in guerrilla operations. After losing the Battle of Okinawa, the Japanese government enacted new laws in preparation for the decisive battles in the main islands; these laws made it possi
Kearny, New Jersey
Kearny is a town in Hudson County, New Jersey, United States and a suburb of Newark. As of the 2010 United States Census, the town's population was 40,684, reflecting an increase of 171 from the 40,513 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 5,639 from the 34,874 counted in the 1990 Census. Kearny is named after Civil War general Philip Kearny, it began as a township formed by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on April 8, 1867, from portions of Harrison Township. Portions of the township were taken on July 1895, to form East Newark. Kearny was incorporated as a town on January 19, 1899, based on the results of a referendum held two days earlier; the Arlington section of town was named for Arlington Station on the Erie Railroad at the Arlington Mill plant, owned by Arlington Mills of Lawrence, Massachusetts. The area of Kearny Township, created in 1867, had been part of the original Crown Grant of 30,000 acres obtained by Major William Sandford of Barbados on July 4, 1668.
Major Sandford named it New Barbadoes Neck after his old home. As was the custom of the time, the Major paid 20 pounds sterling to Chief Tantaqua of the Hackensack tribe for all their reserve rights and titles. Sanford's friend Major Nathaniel Kingsland acquired the property in 1708 and sold the upper western tract of the Grant for 300 pounds sterling to Captain Arent Schuyler two years later; the new purchase included present-day Kearny, North Arlington and Kingsland. Shortly after Schuyler's purchase of his new homestead, a peculiar green stone was uncovered, it was sent to England for analysis and he learned that it contained 80% copper. His opening of a copper mine brought the first steam engine to America from England; the engine was secretly delivered by Josiah Hornblower. The engine and mines remained idle for some years. Schuyler Mansion played a role during the American Revolutionary War Era; when Lord Howe of England took possession of New York Harbor, the proximity of Schuyler Mansion drew many of his officers.
They traveled over a road that today is referred to as the Belleville Turnpike, constructed in 1759 using cedar logs from the nearby swamps. During September 1777, General Henry Clinton, head of the British Expeditionary Forces in America, selected Schuyler Mansion for his headquarters during one of his more important raiding operations which included the famed Battle of Second River; the Mansion stood until 1924, a period of 214 years, when it was torn down by a land development company, despite the company's offers to transfer the land an organization that would be able to pay to maintain the property. In the middle 19th century, Kearny was the northern, section of the Township of Harrison. A prominent citizen and resident of the upper section, General N. M. Halsted, felt it was impossible under these political conditions for his section to obtain proper recognition, he engaged an energetic campaign for an independent township. He succeeded when the NJ Legislature of 1867 on March 14, adopted "an act creating the Township of Kearny".
The town was named to honor Major General Phil Kearny, Commander of the New Jersey Forces in the Civil War and the owner of the mansion known as Belle Grove, locally called "Kearny Castle". On April 8, 1867, the first election of town officers was held. General N. M. Halsted was elected Chairman; the first official seat of Government was three rooms in the old Lodi Hotel, on the northeast corner of Schuyler and Harrison Avenues. In the early 1870s, Kearny erected its first Town Hall, on the corner of Kearny and Woodland Avenues, the present site of the Knox Presbyterian Church Parish Hall; this served as a Town Hall, Court House, Schoolhouse. The Minute Book of the Township states on August 16, 1870, the first step toward establishing Kearny's present public school system was taken; the first schoolhouse was housed in the Town Hall built at Kearny and Woodland Avenues in 1873. The Highland Hose No. 4 firehouse, now on the National Register of Historic Places list was built in 1895. The town's nickname, "Soccer Town, U.
S. A." is derived from a soccer tradition that originated in the mid-1870s, when thousands of Scottish and Irish immigrants settled in the town, after two Scottish companies, Clark Thread Company and Nairn Linoleum, opened two local mills and a factory. When the town's growth demanded larger quarters, the present Kearny Town Hall, built of Indiana limestone, was erected in 1909; the early influx and development of industry in Kearny dates back to 1875 when the Clark Thread Company of Paisley in Scotland extended its activities to the United States by erecting two large mills in Kearny, adding two others in 1890. These mills brought to Kearny thousands of Scots immigrants. Many of them would play on Kearny's soccer teams in National Association Football League. Many are buried at Arlington Memorial Park in the Kearny Uplands. In 1876, the Mile End Thread Mills started operating, giving employment to several hundred operators. In 1883, the Marshall Flax Spinning Company of England erected a large plant in Kearny, known as the Linen Thread Company.
Their need for experienced flax spinners brought an influx of workers from other sections of the British Isles. Families of those early textile workers were the nucleus of Kearny's present population; the Puraline Manufacturing Company called the Arlington Company, which became a subsidiary of E. I. DuPont de Nemours Company, had purchased a large tract of land east of the Arlington Station on the Erie Railroad extending well out, north of the railroad embankment, into the meadowland. In 1887, Sir Michael Nairn established the Nairn Linoleum Company of Kirkcaldy in Scotland, now the
Battle of Saipan
The Battle of Saipan was a battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II, fought on the island of Saipan in the Mariana Islands from 15 June to 9 July 1944. The Allied invasion fleet embarking the expeditionary forces left Pearl Harbor on 5 June 1944, the day before Operation Overlord in Europe was launched; the U. S. 2nd Marine Division, 4th Marine Division, the Army's 27th Infantry Division, commanded by Lieutenant General Holland Smith, defeated the 43rd Infantry Division of the Imperial Japanese Army, commanded by Lieutenant General Yoshitsugu Saito. The loss of Saipan, with the death of at least 29,000 troops and heavy civilian casualties, precipitated the resignation of Japanese Prime Minister Hideki Tōjō and left the Japanese mainland within the range of Allied B-29 bombers. In the campaigns of 1943 and the first half of 1944, the Allies had captured the Solomon Islands, the Gilbert Islands, the Marshall Islands and the Papuan Peninsula of New Guinea; this left the Japanese holding the Philippines, the Caroline Islands, Palau Islands, Mariana Islands.
It had always been the intention of the American planners to bypass the Carolines and Palauan islands and to seize the Marianas and Taiwan. From these latter bases, communications between the Japanese archipelago and Japanese forces to the south and west could be cut. From the Marianas, Japan would be well within the range of an air offensive relying on the new Boeing B-29 Superfortress long-range bomber with its operational radius of 1,500 mi. While not part of the original American plan, Douglas MacArthur, commander of the Southwest Pacific Area command, obtained authorization to advance through New Guinea and Morotai toward the Philippines; this allowed MacArthur to keep his personal pledge to liberate the Philippines, made in his "I shall return" speech, allowed the active use of the large forces built up in the southwest Pacific theatre. The Japanese, expecting an attack somewhere on their perimeter, thought an attack on the Caroline Islands most likely. To reinforce and supply their garrisons, they needed naval and air superiority, so Operation A-Go, a major carrier attack, was prepared for June 1944.
U. S. Fifth Fleet Admiral Raymond A. Spruance in heavy cruiser Indianapolis Joint Expeditionary Force Vice Admiral Richmond Kelly Turner in amphibious command ship Rocky Mount Northern Attack Force Vice Admiral Richmond Kelly Turner in amphibious command ship Rocky Mount V Amphibious Corps Commanding General: Lieutenant General Holland M. Smith Commanding General: Major General Harry Schmidt Chief of Staff: Brigadier General Graves B. ErskineNorthern sector: 2nd Marine Division Commanding General: Major General Thomas E. Watson Asst. Div. Commander: Brigadier General Merritt A. Edson 2nd Marine Regiment Commanding Officer: Colonel Walter J. Stuart Executive Officer: Lieut. Col. John H. Griebel 6th Marine Regiment Commanding Officer: Colonel James P. Riseley Executive Officer: Lieut. Col. Kenneth F. McLeod 8th Marine Regiment Commanding Officer: Colonel Clarence R. Wallace Executive Officer: Lieut. Col. Jack P. Juhan 10th Marine Regiment Commanding Officer: Colonel Raphael Griffin Executive Officer: Lieut.
Col. Ralph E. Forsyth 18th Marine Regiment Commanding Officer: Lieut. Col. Ewart S. Laue 1st Battalion, 29th Marine RegimentCommanding Officer: Lieut. Col. Rathvon M. Tompkins Lieut. Col. Jack P. Juhan Amphibious Unit: 715th Amphibian Tractor Bttn. Southern sector: 4th Marine Division Commanding General: Major General Harry Schmidt Commanding General: Major General Clifton B. Cates Asst. Div. Commander: Brigadier General Samuel C. Cumming 14th Marine Regiment Commanding Officer: Colonel Louis G. DeHaven Executive Officer: Lieut. Col. Randall M. Victory 20th Marine Regiment Commanding Officer: Lieut. Col. Nelson K. Brown Executive Officer: Captain William M. Anderson 23rd Marine Regiment Commanding Officer: Colonel Louis R. Jones Executive Officer: Lieut. Col. John R. Lanigan 24th Marine Regiment Commanding Officer: Colonel Franklin A. Hart Executive Officer: Lieut. Col. Austin R. Brunelli 25th Marine Regiment Commanding Officer: Colonel Merton J. Batchelder Executive Officer: Lieut. Col. Clarence J. O'Donnell Amphibious Units: 708th Amphibian Tank Bttn.
773rd Amphibian Tractor Bttn. 534th Amphibian Tractor Bttn. Army: 27th Infantry Division Commanding General: Major General Ralph C. Smith Commanding General: Major General Sanderford Jarman Commanding General: Major General George W. Griner 105th Infantry Regiment 106th Infantry Regiment 165th Infantry Regiment Artillery: 104th Field Artillery Bttn. 105th Field Artillery Bttn. 106th Field Artillery Bttn. 249th Field Artillery Bttn. Engineers: 102nd Engineer Combat Bttn. 502nd Engineer Combat Bttn. XXIV Corps Artillery Commanding General: Brigadier General Arthur M. Harper 1st Provisional Gun Group 225th Field Artillery Howitzer Group Central Pacific Area Fleet HQ Commanding officer: Vice Admiral Chūichi Nagumo Chief of staff: Rear Admiral Hideo Yano 31st Army Commanding officer: Lieutenant General Hideyoshi Obata 14th Air FleetDefenses of Saipan Commanding General: Lieutenant General Saito Yoshitsugu 43rd Infantry Division 118th Infantry Regiment 135th Infantry Regiment 136th Infantry Regiment 47th Independent Mixed Brigade 316th Independent Infantry Battalion 317th Indepen
Korea is a region in East Asia. Since 1948, it has been divided between two distinct sovereign states: South Korea. Korea consists of the Korean Peninsula, Jeju Island, several minor islands near the peninsula. Korea is bordered by China to the northwest, Russia to the northeast, neighbours Japan to the east by the Korea Strait and the Sea of Japan. During the first half of the 1st millennium, Korea was divided between the three competing states of Baekje and Silla, together known as the "Three Kingdoms of Korea". In the second half of the 1st millennium and Goguryeo were conquered by Silla, leading to the "Unified Silla" period. Meanwhile, Balhae formed in the north following the collapse of Goguryeo. Unified Silla collapsed into three separate states due to civil war, ushering in the Later Three Kingdoms. Toward the end of the 1st millennium Goryeo, a revival of Goguryeo, defeated the two other states and unified the Korean Peninsula as one single state. Around the same time, Balhae collapsed and its last crown prince fled south to Goryeo.
Goryeo, whose name developed into the modern exonym "Korea", was a cultured state that created the world's first metal movable type in 1234. However, multiple invasions by the Mongol Empire during the 13th century weakened the nation, which agreed to become a vassal state after decades of fighting. Following military resistance under King Gongmin which ended Mongol political influence in Goryeo, severe political strife followed, Goryeo fell to a coup led by General Yi Seong-gye, who established Joseon in 1392; the first 200 years of Joseon were marked by relative peace. During this period, the Korean alphabet was created by Sejong the Great in the 15th century and there was increasing influence of Confucianism. During the part of the dynasty, Korea's isolationist policy earned it the Western nickname of the "Hermit Kingdom". By the late 19th century, the country became the object of imperial design by the Empire of Japan. After the First Sino-Japanese War, despite the Korean Empire's effort to modernize, it was annexed by Japan in 1910 and ruled by Imperial Japan until the end of World War II in August 1945.
In 1945, the Soviet Union and the United States agreed on the surrender of Japanese forces in Korea in the aftermath of World War II, leaving Korea partitioned along the 38th parallel. The North was under Soviet occupation and the South under U. S. occupation. These circumstances soon became the basis for the division of Korea by the two superpowers, exacerbated by their inability to agree on the terms of Korean independence; the Communist-inspired government in the North received backing from the Soviet Union in opposition to the pro-Western government in the South, leading to Korea's division into two political entities: North Korea, South Korea. Tensions between the two resulted in the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950. With involvement by foreign troops, the war ended in a stalemate in 1953, but without a formalized peace treaty; this status contributes to the high tensions. Both governments of the two Koreas claim to be the sole legitimate government of the region. "Korea" is the modern spelling of "Corea", a name attested in English as early as 1614.
Korea was transliterated as Cauli in The Travels of Marco Polo, of the Chinese 高麗. This was the Hanja for the Korean kingdom of Goryeo, which ruled most of the Korean peninsula during Marco Polo's time. Korea's introduction to the West resulted from trade and contact with merchants from Arabic lands, with some records dating back as far as the 9th century. Goryeo's name was a continuation of Goguryeo the northernmost of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, known as Goryeo beginning in the 5th century; the original name was a combination of the adjective go with the name of a local Yemaek tribe, whose original name is thought to have been either *Guru or *Gauri. With expanding British and American trade following the opening of Korea in the late 19th century, the spelling "Korea" appeared and grew in popularity; the name Korea is now used in English contexts by both North and South Korea. In South Korea, Korea as a whole is referred to as Hanguk; the name references Samhan, referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula.
Although written in Hanja as 韓, 幹, or 刊, this Han has no relation to the Chinese place names or peoples who used those characters but was a phonetic transcription of a native Korean word that seems to have had the meaning "big" or "great" in reference to leaders. It has been tentatively linked with the title khan used by the nomads of Central Asia. In North Korea, China and Japan, Korea as a whole is referred to as. "Great Joseon" was the name of the kingdom ruled by the Joseon dynasty from 1393 until their declaration of the short-lived Great Korean Empire in 1897. King Taejo had named them for the earlier Kojoseon, who ruled northern Korea from its legendary prehistory until their conquest in 108 BC by China's Han Empire; this go is the Hanja 古 and