Virginia was one of the participants in the Battle of Hampton Roads, opposing the Unions USS Monitor in March 1862. The battle is significant in naval history as the first battle between ironclads. When the Commonwealth of Virginia seceded from the Union in 1861, one of the important federal military bases threatened was Gosport Navy Yard in Portsmouth, orders were sent to destroy the base rather than allow it to fall into Confederate hands. On the afternoon of 17 April, the day Virginia seceded, the previous night secessionists had sunk lightboats between Craney Island and Sewells Point, blocking the channel. On 20 April, before evacuating the Navy Yard, the U. S. Navy burned Merrimack to the waterline and sank her to preclude capture. When the Confederate government took possession of the fully provisioned yard and this was completed by May 30, and she was towed into the shipyards only graving dock, where the burned structures were removed. The wreck was surveyed and her hull and machinery were discovered to be undamaged.
Stephen Mallory, Secretary of the Navy decided to convert the Merrimack into an ironclad, preliminary sketch designs were submitted by Lieutenants John Mercer Brooke and John L. Porter, each of whom envisaged the ship as a casemate ironclad. Brookes general design showed the bow and stern portions submerged, the detailed design work would be completed by Porter, who was a trained naval constructor. The hulls burned timbers were cut down past the original waterline, leaving just enough clearance to accommodate her large. A new fantail and armored casemate were built atop a new deck, and a v-shaped breakwater was added to her bow. This forward and aft deck and fantail were designed to stay submerged and were covered in 4-inch-thick iron plate. It was decided to equip their ironclad with a ram, an anachronism on a 19th century warship, merrimacks steam engines, now part of Virginia, were in poor working order, they had been slated for replacement when the decision was made to abandon the Norfolk naval yard.
There were four gun ports on each broadside, their protective iron shutters remained uninstalled during both days of the Battle of Hampton Roads, Virginias battery consisted of four muzzle-loading single-banded Brooke rifles and six smoothbore 9-inch Dahlgren guns salvaged from the old Merrimack. Two of the rifles, the bow and stern guns, were 7-inch caliber. The other two were 6. 4-inch cannon of about 9,100 pounds, one on each broadside. The 9-inch Dahlgrens were mounted three to a side, each weighed approximately 9,200 pounds and could fire a 72. 5-pound shell up to a range of 3,357 yards at an elevation of 15°. Both amidship Dahlgrens nearest the boiler furnaces were fitted-out to fire heated shot, on her upper casemate deck were positioned two anti-boarding/personnel 12-pounder Howitzers
South America is a continent located in the western hemisphere, mostly in the southern hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the northern hemisphere. It may be considered a subcontinent of the Americas, which is the used in nations that speak Romance languages. The reference to South America instead of other regions has increased in the last decades due to changing geopolitical dynamics. It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the north and east by the Atlantic Ocean, North America and it includes twelve sovereign states, a part of France, and a non-sovereign area. In addition to this, the ABC islands of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and Tobago, South America has an area of 17,840,000 square kilometers. Its population as of 2005 has been estimated at more than 371,090,000, South America ranks fourth in area and fifth in population. Brazil is by far the most populous South American country, with more than half of the population, followed by Colombia, Venezuela. In recent decades Brazil has concentrated half of the regions GDP and has become a first regional power, most of the population lives near the continents western or eastern coasts while the interior and the far south are sparsely populated.
Most of the continent lies in the tropics, the continents cultural and ethnic outlook has its origin with the interaction of indigenous peoples with European conquerors and immigrants and, more locally, with African slaves. Given a long history of colonialism, the majority of South Americans speak Portuguese or Spanish. South America occupies the portion of the Americas. The continent is delimited on the northwest by the Darién watershed along the Colombia–Panama border. Almost all of mainland South America sits on the South American Plate, South Americas major mineral resources are gold, copper, iron ore and petroleum. These resources found in South America have brought high income to its countries especially in times of war or of rapid growth by industrialized countries elsewhere. However, the concentration in producing one major export commodity often has hindered the development of diversified economies and this is leading to efforts to diversify production to drive away from staying as economies dedicated to one major export.
South America is one of the most biodiverse continents on earth, South America is home to many interesting and unique species of animals including the llama, piranha, vicuña, and tapir. The Amazon rainforests possess high biodiversity, containing a proportion of the Earths species. Brazil is the largest country in South America, encompassing around half of the land area
Boston Harbor is a natural harbor and estuary of Massachusetts Bay, and is located adjacent to the city of Boston, Massachusetts. It is home to the Port of Boston, a shipping facility in the northeastern United States. Since its discovery to Europeans by John Smith in 1614, Boston Harbor has been an important port in American history and it was the site of the Boston Tea Party as well as almost continuous backfilling of the harbor until the 19th century. By 1660 almost all came to the greater Boston area. A rapid influx of people transformed Boston into a booming city, the health of the harbor quickly decreased as the population of Boston increased. As early as the late 19th century Boston citizens were advised not to swim in any portion of the Harbor, in the 19th century two of the first steam sewage stations were built. With these mandates the harbor was seeing small improvements, but raw sewage was still continuously pumped into the harbor, in 1919 the Metropolitan District Commission was created to oversee and regulate the quality of harbor water.
However, not much improvement was seen and general awareness of the poor quality of water was very low. In 1972 the Clean Water Act was passed in order to promote increased national water quality. Boston did not receive a clean water act waiver from the Environmental Protection Agency, since the mid-1970s organizations within the Boston community have battled for a cleaner Boston Harbor. More recently, the harbor was the site of the $4.5 billion Boston Harbor Project, failures at the Nut Island sewage treatment plant in Quincy and the companion Deer Island plant adjacent to Winthrop had far-reaching environmental and political effects. Fecal coliform bacteria levels forced frequent swimming prohibitions along the harbor beaches and that suit was followed by one by the Conservation Law Foundation and finally by the United States government, resulting in the landmark court-ordered cleanup of Boston Harbor. The court ordered cleanup continued throughout the two decades and is still ongoing. Before the cleanup projects, the water was so polluted that The Standells released a song in 1966 called Dirty Water about the state of the Charles River.
The song is popular with Red Sox fans and is played regularly at Fenway Park whenever the Red Sox win a game. Neal Stephenson, who attended Boston University from 1977 to 1981, based his novel, Zodiac. Boston Harbor is a harbor which constitutes the western extremity of Massachusetts Bay. The harbor is often described as being split into an inner harbor, the harbor itself comprises fifty square miles with 180 miles of shoreline and 34 harbor islands
USS Monitor was an iron-hulled steamship. Built during the American Civil War, she was the first ironclad warship commissioned by the Union Navy, the unique design of the ship, distinguished by its revolving turret which was designed by American inventor Theodore Timby, was quickly duplicated and established the monitor type of warship. The remainder of the ship was designed by the Swedish-born engineer and inventor John Ericsson, before Monitor could reach Hampton Roads, the Confederate ironclad had destroyed the sail frigates USS Cumberland and USS Congress and had run the steam frigate USS Minnesota aground. A four-hour battle ensued, both ships pounding the other with cannon fire, although neither ship could destroy or seriously damage the other. This was the battle fought between two armored warships and marked a turning point in naval warfare. After the Confederates were forced to destroy Virginia as they withdrew in early May, on her way there she foundered while under tow, during a storm off Cape Hatteras on the last day of the year.
Monitors wreck was discovered in 1973 and has been partially salvaged and her guns, gun turret and other relics are on display at the Mariners Museum in Newport News, Virginia. The use of iron plating on the sides of warships was not practical until steam propulsion matured enough to carry its great weight. Developments in gun technology had progressed by the 1840s so that no practical thickness of wood could withstand the power of a shell, since there was no pressing need for such a ship at the time, there was little demand to continue work on the unfinished vessel. It was France that introduced the first operational armored ships as well as the first shell guns, the French followed those ships with the first ocean-going ironclad, the armored frigate Gloire in 1859, and the British responded with HMS Warrior. Northern newspapers published accounts of the Confederates progress in converting the Merrimack to an ironclad. Concealed in her dress was a message from a Union sympathizer who worked in the Navy Yard warning that the former Merrimack, convinced by the papers Mary was carrying he had production of Monitor sped up.
Welles recorded in his memoirs that Mrs. Louveste encountered no small risk in bringing this information, after the United States received word of the construction of Virginia, Congress appropriated $1.5 million on 3 August 1861 to build one or more armored steamships. It ordered the creation of a board to inquire into the various designs proposed for armored ships, the Union Navy advertised for proposals for iron-clad steam vessels of war on 7 August and Welles appointed three senior officers as the Ironclad Board the following day. Their task was to examine plans for the completion of iron-clad vessels, the two first met on 9 September and again on the following day, after Ericsson had time to evaluate Galenas design. During this second meeting Ericsson showed Bushnell a model of his own design, Bushnell got Ericssons permission to show the model to Welles, who told Bushnell to show it to the board. Upon review of Ericssons unusual design, the board was skeptical, concerned that such a vessel would not float, especially in rough seas, President Lincoln, who had examined the design, overruled them.
Ericsson assured the board his ship would float exclaiming, The sea shall ride over her, on 15 September, after further deliberations, the board accepted Ericssons proposal
Abraham Lincoln was an American politician and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. Lincoln led the United States through its Civil War—its bloodiest war and perhaps its greatest moral, constitutional, in doing so, he preserved the Union, abolished slavery, strengthened the federal government, and modernized the economy. Born in Hodgenville, Lincoln grew up on the frontier in Kentucky. Largely self-educated, he became a lawyer in Illinois, a Whig Party leader, elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1846, Lincoln promoted rapid modernization of the economy through banks and railroads. Reentering politics in 1854, he became a leader in building the new Republican Party, in 1860, Lincoln secured the Republican Party presidential nomination as a moderate from a swing state. Though he gained little support in the slaveholding states of the South. Subsequently, on April 12,1861, a Confederate attack on Fort Sumter inspired the North to enthusiastically rally behind the Union.
Politically, Lincoln fought back by pitting his opponents against each other, by carefully planned political patronage and his Gettysburg Address became an iconic endorsement of the principles of nationalism, equal rights and democracy. Lincoln initially concentrated on the military and political dimensions of the war and his primary goal was to reunite the nation. He suspended habeas corpus, leading to the ex parte Merryman decision. Lincoln closely supervised the war effort, especially the selection of top generals, including his most successful general, Lincoln tried repeatedly to capture the Confederate capital at Richmond, each time a general failed, Lincoln substituted another, until finally Grant succeeded. As the war progressed, his moves toward ending slavery included the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863. On April 14,1865, five days after the surrender of Confederate commanding general Robert E. Lee, Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth, a Confederate sympathizer. Secretary of War Edwin Stanton launched a manhunt for Booth, and 12 days on April 26, Lincoln has been consistently ranked both by scholars and the public as among the greatest U. S. presidents.
Abraham Lincoln was born February 12,1809, the child of Thomas and Nancy Hanks Lincoln, in a one-room log cabin on the Sinking Spring Farm near Hodgenville. He was a descendant of Samuel Lincoln, an Englishman who migrated from Hingham, Norfolk to its namesake of Hingham, samuels grandson and great-grandson began the familys western migration, which passed through New Jersey and Virginia. Lincolns paternal grandfather and namesake, Captain Abraham Lincoln, moved the family from Virginia to Jefferson County, Captain Lincoln was killed in an Indian raid in 1786. His children, including eight-year-old Thomas, the presidents father
The Merrimack River is a 117-mile-long river in the northeastern United States. From Pawtucket Falls in Lowell, onward, the Massachusetts–New Hampshire border is roughly calculated as the three miles north of the river. The Merrimack is an important regional focus in both New Hampshire and Massachusetts, the central-southern part of New Hampshire and most of northeast Massachusetts is known as the Merrimack Valley. Several U. S. naval ships have been named the USS Merrimack, prior to glaciation, the Merrimack continued its southward course far beyond the present day New Hampshire-Massachusetts border to enter the Atlantic Ocean near Boston. Upon the glaciers retreat, debris deposited north of Boston filled the lower Merrimack Valley, the Neville archaeological site is located along the rivers banks in New Hampshire. The total watershed of the river is approximately 4,700 square miles, covering much of southern New Hampshire, at the mouth of the river is the small city of Newburyport. Prior to the construction of the Middlesex Canal, Newburyport was an important shipbuilding city, the river is perhaps best known for the early American literary classic A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers by Henry David Thoreau.
The Merrimack is listed as one of the Navigable Waters of the United States, subject to Section 10, the etymology of the name of the Merrimack River - from which all subsequent uses derive, such as the name of the Civil War ironclad - remains uncertain. There is some evidence that it is Native American, in 1604 the natives of New England told Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Monts, who was leading a colony of French language speakers to Acadia, of a beautiful river to the south. The French promptly pronounced its name as Merremack. In 1605 Samuel de Champlain followed this lead, found the river, the French and their name did not remain on the Merrimack. These were all members of a nation of Algonquian speakers known as the Nipmuck, according to Joseph B. the rivers rapids. Potter was an authority on Native American affairs in colonial New England, by contrast, in A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers, Henry David Thoreau implies that its name signifies the Sturgeon River. William Woods New Englands Prospect of 1634 calls the river the Merrimacke and it hosts, he says, Sturgeon and Basse, and divers other kinds of fish.
Merrimac, settled in 1638 and originally part of Amesbury, was called West Amesbury until 1876, at time it adopted its current name. Merrimack, New Hampshire, was incorporated in 1746, spelling its name Marrymac in the record of its first town meeting. It is referred to as Merrimac into the early 19th century, in the 1810 decennial census, it was spelled Merrimac, in 1914, US Congressman John Jacob Rogers petitioned that the official spelling be Merrimack. Reports of total rainfall vary, but most areas appear to have received around a foot of rain with some receiving as much as 17 inches
A ram was a weapon carried by varied types of ships, dating back to antiquity. The weapon comprised an underwater prolongation of the bow of the ship to form an armoured beak and this would be driven into the hull of an enemy ship in order to puncture it and thus sink, or at least disable, the ship. The ram was a weapon in the Greek/Roman antiquity and was used in such naval battles as Salamis. The Athenians were especially known for their diekplus and periplus tactics that disabled enemy ships with speed, rams were first recorded in use at the battle of Alalia in 535 BC. There is evidence available to suggest that it existed much earlier and they appear first on stylized images found on Greek pottery and jewelry and on Assyrian reliefs and paintings. The ram most likely evolved from cutwaters, structures designed to support the joint and allow for greater speed. Many other historical vessels were used as rams, such as the Korean Turtle ship, the Athlit ram, found in 1980 off of the coast of Israel near Atlit, is an example of an ancient ram.
Carbon 14 dating of timber remnants date it to between 530 BC and 270 BC. Rams were thought to be one of the weapons of war galleys after c.700 BC. Heavy timbers were shaped and attached to the hull, and the bronze ram was created to fit around the timbers for added strength, the evidence for this lies in the remnants of timbers found inside the Athlit ram when it was discovered. It was likely to become stuck in the hull of its target. The Athlit ram consists of a bronze casting weighing 465 kilograms. It is 226 centimetres long with a width of 76 centimetres. The bronze that makes up the shell is a high-quality alloy containing 9. 78% tin with traces of lead, the shell was cast as a single piece to perfectly fit the timbers it protects. The casting of an object as large as the Athlit ram was an operation at the time. The ram comprises three sections – the driving centre, the plate, and the cowl. The driving centre is 30 centimetres long and 76 centimetres wide and this is the area of the ram that makes contact with enemy vessels in battle.
The front wall of the head of the ram has the thickest layer of casting at 6.8 centimetres for extra protection during battle, the surface of the ram was decorated with several symbols
The hull is the watertight body of a ship or boat. Above the hull is the superstructure and/or deckhouse, where present, the line where the hull meets the water surface is called the waterline. The structure of the hull varies depending on the vessel type, the uppermost continuous deck may be called the upper deck, weather deck, spar deck, main deck, or simply deck. The particular name given depends on the type of ship or boat. In a typical wooden sailboat, the hull is constructed of wooden planking, supported by transverse frames and bulkheads, often but not always there is a centerline longitudinal member called a keel. In fiberglass or composite hulls, the structure may resemble wooden or steel vessels to some extent, in many cases, composite hulls are built by sandwiching thin fiber-reinforced skins over a lightweight but reasonably rigid core of foam, balsa wood, impregnated paper honeycomb or other material. The shape of the hull is entirely dependent upon the needs of the design, shapes range from a nearly perfect box in the case of scow barges, to a needle-sharp surface of revolution in the case of a racing multihull sailboat.
Hulls come in varieties and can have composite shape, but are grouped primarily as follows. Examples are the flat-bottom, v-bottom, and multi-bottom hull and these types have at least one pronounced knuckle throughout all or most of their length. These hull shapes all have smooth curves, examples are the round bilge, semi-round bilge, and s-bottom hull. After this they can be categorized as, Displacement The hull is supported exclusively or predominantly by buoyancy, vessels that have this type of hull travel through the water at a limited rate that is defined by the waterline length. They are often, though not always, heavier than planing types, planing The planing hull form is configured to develop positive dynamic pressure so that its draft decreases with increasing speed. The dynamic lift reduces the surface and therefore the drag. They are sometimes flat-bottomed, sometimes V-bottomed and more rarely, round-bilged, the most common form is to have at least one chine, which makes for more efficient planing and can throw spray down.
Planing hulls are more efficient at speeds, although they still require more energy to achieve these speeds. An effective planing hull must be as light as possible with flat surfaces that are consistent with sea keeping. Sail boats that plane must sail efficiently in displacement mode in light winds, semi-displacement, or semi-planing The hull form is capable of developing a moderate amount of dynamic lift, most of the vessels weight is still supported through buoyancy. At present, the most widely used form is the round bilge hull, in the inverted bell shape of the hull, with a smaller payload the waterline cross-section is less, hence the resistance is less and the speed is higher
Boston is the capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. Boston is the seat of Suffolk County, although the county government was disbanded on July 1,1999. The city proper covers 48 square miles with a population of 667,137 in 2015, making it the largest city in New England. Alternately, as a Combined Statistical Area, this wider commuting region is home to some 8.1 million people, One of the oldest cities in the United States, Boston was founded on the Shawmut Peninsula in 1630 by Puritan settlers from England. It was the scene of several key events of the American Revolution, such as the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, the Battle of Bunker Hill, and the Siege of Boston. Upon U. S. independence from Great Britain, it continued to be an important port and manufacturing hub as well as a center for education, through land reclamation and municipal annexation, Boston has expanded beyond the original peninsula. Its rich history attracts many tourists, with Faneuil Hall alone drawing over 20 million visitors per year, Bostons many firsts include the United States first public school, Boston Latin School, first subway system, the Tremont Street Subway, and first public park, Boston Common.
Bostons economic base includes finance and business services, information technology, the city has one of the highest costs of living in the United States as it has undergone gentrification, though it remains high on world livability rankings. Bostons early European settlers had first called the area Trimountaine but renamed it Boston after Boston, England, the renaming on September 7,1630 was by Puritan colonists from England who had moved over from Charlestown earlier that year in quest of fresh water. Their settlement was limited to the Shawmut Peninsula, at that time surrounded by the Massachusetts Bay and Charles River. The peninsula is thought to have been inhabited as early as 5000 BC, in 1629, the Massachusetts Bay Colonys first governor John Winthrop led the signing of the Cambridge Agreement, a key founding document of the city. Puritan ethics and their focus on education influenced its early history, over the next 130 years, the city participated in four French and Indian Wars, until the British defeated the French and their Indian allies in North America.
Boston was the largest town in British America until Philadelphia grew larger in the mid-18th century, Bostons harbor activity was significantly curtailed by the Embargo Act of 1807 and the War of 1812. Foreign trade returned after these hostilities, but Bostons merchants had found alternatives for their investments in the interim. Manufacturing became an important component of the economy, and the citys industrial manufacturing overtook international trade in economic importance by the mid-19th century. Boston remained one of the nations largest manufacturing centers until the early 20th century, a network of small rivers bordering the city and connecting it to the surrounding region facilitated shipment of goods and led to a proliferation of mills and factories. Later, a network of railroads furthered the regions industry. Boston was a port of the Atlantic triangular slave trade in the New England colonies
Hampton Roads is the name of both a body of water in Virginia and the surrounding metropolitan region in Southeastern Virginia and Northeastern North Carolina, United States. The body of known as Hampton Roads is one of the worlds largest natural harbors. It incorporates the mouths of the Elizabeth River, Nansemond River, the land area includes a collection of cities and towns on the Virginia Peninsula and in South Hampton Roads. Some of the areas further from the harbor may or may not be included as part of Hampton Roads. The Combined Statistical Area includes four counties in North Carolina, pushing the regional population to over 1.8 million residents. The area is steeped in 400 years of American history, with hundreds of historical sites, the harbor was the key to Hampton Roads growth, both on land and in water-related activities and events. While the harbor and its tributaries were important transportation conduits, at the time they presented obstacles to land-based commerce. Creating and maintaining adequate infrastructure has long been a major challenge, the term Hampton Roads is a centuries-old designation that originated when the region was a struggling English outpost nearly four hundred years ago.
The origin of the two words is noteworthy, the word Hampton honors one of the founders of the Virginia Company of London and a great supporter of the colonization of Virginia, Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton. The early administrative center of the new colony was known as Elizabeth Cittie, named for Princess Elizabeth, the daughter of King James I, the town at the center of Elizabeth Cittie became known as Hampton, and a nearby waterway was designated Hampton Creek. Other references to the Earl include the area to the north across the bay became known as Northampton. As with Hampton, both of these remain in use today. The term Roads indicates the safety of a port, as applied to a body of water, examples of other roadsteads are Castle Roads, in another of the Virginia Companys settlements and Lahaina Roads, in Hawaii. In 1755, the Virginia General Assembly recorded the name Hampton Roads as the channel linking the James and Nansemond rivers with the Chesapeake Bay. Hampton Roads has become known as the worlds largest natural harbor, the U. S.
Postal Service changed the areas postmark from Tidewater Virginia to Hampton Roads, Virginia beginning in 1983. While the borders of what locals call Hampton Roads may not perfectly align with the definition of the MSA, Virginia Beach–Norfolk–Newport News, VA–NC MSA is a U. S. According to the 2010 Census, its population is 1,676,822, since a state constitutional change in 1871, all cities in Virginia are independent cities and they are not legally located in a county. The OMB considers these independent cities to be county-equivalents for the purpose of defining MSAs in Virginia, each MSA is listed by its counties, cities, in alphabetical order and not by size
Lisbon is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with a population of 552,700 within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km². Its urban area extends beyond the administrative limits with a population of around 2.7 million people. About 2.8 million people live in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area and it is continental Europes westernmost capital city and the only one along the Atlantic coast. Lisbon lies in the western Iberian Peninsula on the Atlantic Ocean, the westernmost areas of its metro area is the westernmost point of Continental Europe. Lisbon is recognised as a city because of its importance in finance, media, arts, international trade, education. It is one of the economic centres on the continent, with a growing financial sector. Humberto Delgado Airport serves over 20 million passengers annually, as of 2015, and the motorway network, the city is the 7th-most-visited city in Southern Europe, after Istanbul, Barcelona, Madrid and Milan, with 1,740,000 tourists in 2009. The Lisbon region contributes with a higher GDP PPP per capita than any region in Portugal.
Its GDP amounts to 96.3 billion USD and thus $32,434 per capita, the city occupies 32nd place of highest gross earnings in the world. Most of the headquarters of multinationals in the country are located in the Lisbon area and it is the political centre of the country, as its seat of Government and residence of the Head of State. Lisbon is one of the oldest cities in the world, julius Caesar made it a municipium called Felicitas Julia, adding to the name Olissipo. Ruled by a series of Germanic tribes from the 5th century, in 1147, the Crusaders under Afonso Henriques reconquered the city and since it has been a major political and cultural centre of Portugal. Unlike most capital cities, Lisbons status as the capital of Portugal has never been granted or confirmed officially – by statute or in written form. Its position as the capital has formed through constitutional convention, making its position as de facto capital a part of the Constitution of Portugal. It has one of the warmest winters of any metropolis in Europe, the typical summer season lasts about four months, from June to September, although in April temperatures sometimes reach around 25 °C.
Although modern archaeological excavations show a Phoenician presence at this location since 1200 BC, another conjecture based on ancient hydronymy suggests that the name of the settlement derived from the pre-Roman appellation for the Tagus, Lisso or Lucio. Lisbons name was written Ulyssippo in Latin by the geographer Pomponius Mela and it was referred to as Olisippo by Pliny the Elder and by the Greeks as Olissipo or Olissipona. The Indo-European Celts invaded in the 1st millennium BC, mixing with the Pre-Indo-European population and this indigenous settlement maintained commercial relations with the Phoenicians, which would account for the recent findings of Phoenician pottery and other material objects
USS Roanoke (1855)
USS Roanoke was a wooden-hulled Merrimack-class screw frigate built for the United States Navy in the mid-1850s. She served as flagship of the Home Squadron in the late 1850s, the ship was converted into an ironclad monitor during 1862–63, the first ship with more than two gun turrets in history. Her conversion was not very successful as she rolled excessively and the weight of her armor and her deep draft meant that she could not operate off shallow Confederate ports and she was relegated to harbor defense at Hampton Roads, Virginia for the duration of the war. Roanoke was placed reserve after the war and sold for scrap in 1883, Roanoke was 263 feet 8 inches long between perpendiculars and had a beam of 51 feet 4 inches. The ship had a draft of 23 feet 9 inches and a depth of hold of 26 ft 2 in and she displaced 4,472 long tons and had a burthen of 3,400 tons. Roanokes hull was reinforced by wrought iron straps. Her crew numbered 674 officers and enlisted men, the ship had one horizontal two-cylinder trunk steam engine driving a single propeller using steam provided by four Martin boilers.
The engine produced a total of 996 indicated horsepower and the ship had a speed of 8.8 knots under steam alone. The propeller could be hoisted and the single funnel lowered to increase speed under sail alone, Roanoke was ship rigged and had a sail area of 28,008 square feet. In 1861, the armament consisted of one 10-inch smoothbore Dahlgren pivot gun, twenty-eight 9-inch Dahlgren guns. The 10-inch Dahlgren weighed 12,500 pounds and could fire a 103-pound shell up to a range of 3,000 yards at +19° elevation. The nine-inch gun weighed 9,200 pounds and could fire a 72. 5-pound shell to a range of 3,357 yards at an elevation of +15°. The eight-inch Dahlgren had a range of 2,300 yards at an elevation of +10° with a 51. 5-pound shell, named after the Roanoke River, was laid down at the Norfolk Navy Yard in May 1854 and launched on 13 December 1855. The ship sank when launched and had to be refloated before she could be completed and she was commissioned on 4 May 1857 with Captain John B. Roanoke arrived on 4 August and the ship was decommissioned at the Boston Navy Yard on 24 September 1857, recommissioned on almost a year on 18 August 1858, Roanoke resumed her duties as flagship of the Home Squadron.
For over a year, she was stationed at Aspinwall awaiting the arrival of the first Japanese embassy to the United States to ratify the 1858 Treaty of Amity and Commerce. They reached Aspinwall on 25 April 1860 and Roanoke reached Hampton Roads on 12 May 1860 with the delegation and was again decommissioned, after the start of the Civil War, Roanoke recommissioned on 20 June 1861 and was assigned to the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron. She destroyed the schooner Mary off Lockwood Folly Inlet, North Carolina, the ship subsequently helped to capture the schooners Albion and Alert and the ship Thomas Watson off Charleston, South Carolina, on 15 October 1861