USS Missouri is an Iowa-class battleship and was the third ship of the United States Navy to be named after the U. S. state of Missouri. Missouri was the last battleship commissioned by the United States and is best remembered as the site of the surrender of the Empire of Japan, which ended World War II. Missouri was ordered in 1940 and commissioned in June 1944. In the Pacific Theater of World War II she fought in the battles of Iwo Jima and Okinawa and shelled the Japanese home islands, she fought in the Korean War from 1950 to 1953, she was decommissioned in 1955 into the United States Navy reserve fleets, but reactivated and modernized in 1984 as part of the 600-ship Navy plan, provided fire support during Operation Desert Storm in January/February 1991. Missouri received a total of 11 battle stars for service in World War II, the Persian Gulf, was decommissioned on 31 March 1992 after serving a total of 17 years of active service, but remained on the Naval Vessel Register until her name was struck in January 1995.
In 1998, she was donated to the USS Missouri Memorial Association and became a museum ship at Pearl Harbor. Missouri was one of the Iowa-class "fast battleship" designs planned in 1938 by the Preliminary Design Branch at the Bureau of Construction and Repair, she was laid down at the Brooklyn Navy Yard on 6 January 1941, launched on 29 January 1944 and commissioned on 11 June with Captain William Callaghan in command. The ship was the third of the Iowa class, but the fourth and final Iowa-class ship commissioned by the U. S. Navy; the ship was christened at her launching by Mary Margaret Truman, daughter of Harry S. Truman a United States Senator from Missouri. Missouri's main battery consisted of nine 16 in /50 cal Mark 7 guns, which could fire 2,700 lb armor-piercing shells some 20 mi, her secondary battery consisted of twenty 5 in /38 cal guns in twin turrets, with a range of about 10 mi. With the advent of air power and the need to gain and maintain air superiority came a need to protect the growing fleet of allied aircraft carriers.
When reactivated in 1984 Missouri had her 20 mm and 40 mm AA guns removed, was outfitted with Phalanx CIWS mounts for protection against enemy missiles and aircraft, Armored Box Launchers and Quad Cell Launchers designed to fire Tomahawk missiles and Harpoon missiles, respectively. Missouri and her sister ship Wisconsin were fitted with thicker traverse bulkhead armor, 14.5 inches, compared to 11.3 inches in the first two ships of her class, the Iowa and New Jersey. Missouri was the last U. S. battleship to be completed. Wisconsin, the highest-numbered U. S. battleship built, was completed before Missouri. The last-two Iowa-class battleships and Kentucky, were ordered but cancelled, all five of the twelve-gun Montana-class battleship, BB-67 to BB-71, that were ordered in May 1942, were cancelled by late July 1943. After trials off New York and shakedown and battle practice in the Chesapeake Bay, Missouri departed Norfolk, Virginia on 11 November 1944, transited the Panama Canal on 18 November and steamed to San Francisco for final fitting out as fleet flagship.
She stood out of San Francisco Bay on 14 December and arrived at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii on 24 December 1944. She arrived in Ulithi, West Caroline Islands on 13 January. There she was temporary headquarters ship for Vice Admiral Marc A. Mitscher; the battleship put to sea on 27 January to serve in the screen of the Lexington carrier task group of Mitscher's TF 58, on 16 February the task force's aircraft carriers launched the first naval air strikes against Japan since the famed Doolittle raid, launched from the carrier Hornet in April 1942. Missouri steamed with the carriers to Iwo Jima where her main guns provided direct and continuous support to the invasion landings begun on 19 February. After TF 58 returned to Ulithi on 5 March, Missouri was assigned to the Yorktown carrier task group. On 14 March, Missouri departed Ulithi in the screen of the fast carriers and steamed to the Japanese mainland. During strikes against targets along the coast of the Inland Sea of Japan beginning on 18 March, Missouri shot down four Japanese aircraft.
Raids against airfields and naval bases near the Inland Sea and southwestern Honshū continued. When the carrier Franklin incurred battle damage, the Missouri's carrier task group provided cover for the Franklin's retirement toward Ulithi until 22 March set course for pre-invasion strikes and bombardment of Okinawa. Missouri joined the fast battleships of TF 58 in bombarding the southeast coast of Okinawa on 24 March, an action intended to draw enemy strength from the west coast beaches that would be the actual site of invasion landings. Missouri rejoined the screen of the carriers as Marine and Army units stormed the shores of Okinawa on the morning of 1 April. An attack by Japanese forces was repulsed successfully. On 11 April, a low-flying kamikaze Zero, although fired upon, crashed on Missouri's starboard side, just below her main deck level; the starboard wing of the plane was thrown far forward, starting a gasoline fire at 5 in Gun Mount No. 3. The battleship suffered only superficial damage, the fire was brought under control.
The remains of the pilot were recovered on board the ship just aft of one of the 40 mm gun tubs. Although crewmen wanted to hose the remains over the side, Captain Callaghan decided that the young Japanese pilot had done his job to the best of his ability, with honor, so he should be given a military funeral. The
CJ Daugherty known as Christi Daugherty, is a novelist best known for Night School, a series of bestselling young adult romantic thrillers set in a fictional boarding school called Cimmeria Academy. She began her career as a journalist, writing for publications such as the Dallas Morning News and Time Out. After a brief period working for the British government, she began writing novels in 2010; the first book in the Night School series was published by Little, Brown in the UK in 2012. Endgame, the fifth book in the series, is due out in 2015; the Night School series has been translated into 22 languages. The series has been a bestseller in multiple countries. Night School: Resistance, the fourth book in the series, reached number two on the Spiegel Bestseller list in Germany in May 2014, it was a number one bestseller in Poland. Night School: Fracture, the third book in the series, was number one bestselling children’s book in Israel in May 2014, a top 20 bestseller in France. In July 2019 it was announced that Night School had been optioned for television, with the producer/ director Sarah Spillane attached as showrunner.
Books in series: Night School Night School: Legacy Night School: Fracture Night School: Resistance Night School: Endgame Night School: the Web Series, a web television series based on the Night School books, was launched in December 2014. It was the first British web series based on a young adult book and received widespread media coverage in the UK, it was covered by international publications such as the Daily Dot. Films in series: Night School: the Web Series - Episode 01 "Flashback" Night School: the Web Series - Episode 02 "The Other One" Night School: the Web Series - Episode 03 "Power" Night School: the Web Series - Episode 04 "The Gilmore Girl" Night School: the Web Series - Episode 05 "All the Pretty Killers" Night School: the Web Series - Episode 06 "Bang" The Secret Fire, a young adult fantasy series co-written by CJ Daugherty and the French fantasy author Carina Rozenfeld, was published at the end of 2015 by the Little, Brown imprint, Atom Books. A sequel, The Secret City, was published in 2016.
Books in series: The Secret Fire The Secret City A series of adult crime thrillers featuring crime reporter Harper McClain, written under the author name "Christi Daugherty". Published by Minotaur Books/St. Martin's Press in the U. S. and Harper Collins in the UK. Books in series: The Echo Killing A Beautiful Corpse Revolver Road In April 2019 it was announced that Daugherty would be returning to YA with a new series of thrillers, the first of which will be called Number 10. Set in the same world as Night School, the series will focus on Gray Langtry, the daughter of the British Prime Minister. Books in series: Number 10 CJ Daugherty lives in the south of England with her husband, the filmmaker Jack Jewers
"54-46" is a song by Fred "Toots" Hibbert, recorded by Toots and the Maytals released on the Beverley's label in Jamaica and the Pyramid label in the UK. A follow-up version released a year "54-46 Was My Number", was one of the first reggae songs to receive widespread popularity outside Jamaica, is seen as being one of the defining songs of the genre, it has been anthologised and the titles of several reggae anthologies include "54-46" in their title. The lyrics describe Toots' time in prison after being arrested for possession of marijuana; the song features a similar riddim to "Train to Skaville" by Toots and the Maytals' contemporaries, The Ethiopians. The song was released as a single in 1983 by British reggae band Aswad; this single featured on their 1984 album Rebel Souls. The song was covered by dancehall star Yellowman in his song "Nobody Move, Nobody Get Hurt", it was covered on Long Beach, CA-based 1990s ska-punk band Sublime's 1992 album 40 Oz. to Freedom in a medley with their original song "Ball and Chain", as well as Buju Banton on his album Inna Heights and Fermín Muguruza in his album Brigadistak Sound System.
The ska legend Byron Lee & the Dragonaires covered the song on their 2002 album Shanty Town. An instrumental version of the song can be found on the album Below the Bassline by Ernest Ranglin; the Venetian ska band Ska-J recorded an Italian/Venetian-language cover with Venetian-themed lyrics entitled Santamarta. The introduction of the song was sampled on Foxy Brown's single, "Oh Yeah", released from her third album, Broken Silence; the bass line to the song forms the basis of the 1989 hit "Street Tuff" by Rebel MC & Double Trouble, "The Bridge is Over" by KRS-One. Part of the song was used on the soundtrack to the 2006 film This Is England and since, re-recorded by Kiko Bun for the television series; the song was re-recorded for their album True Love, is played along with Jeff Beck. The song was covered and recorded by Fighting Gravity, a band with ska roots from Richmond, Virginia, it was covered by Earl Stevenson, on his first solo release Ghost. The punk rock band The Clash paid tribute to the Maytals with their song "Jail Guitar Doors" recorded in 1978, which ends with Joe Strummer singing "54-46 was my number, Right now someone else has that number".
It was covered by Vanilla Ice on his 2011 album, W. T. F.. The song appears in the series Narcos: Mexico. On November 29, 2016, Major Lazer and Bad Royale released “My Number”, a track that samples “54-46 That’s My Number” which Pitchfork describes as, “a genre-defining classic from legendary ska/reggae group Toots and the Maytals.” This release contains newly recorded vocals from frontman Toots Hibbert designed for Major Lazer, changing the original lyrics to incorporate the group into the song while keeping the original melody. Complete lyrics