Amphibious warfare is a type of offensive military operation that today uses naval ships to project ground and air power onto a hostile or hostile shore at a designated landing beach. Through history the operations were conducted using ship's boats as the primary method of delivering troops to shore. Since the Gallipoli Campaign, specialised watercraft were designed for landing troops and vehicles, including by landing craft and for insertion of commandos, by fast patrol boats and from mini-submersibles; the term amphibious first emerged in the UK and the USA during the 1930s with introduction of vehicles such as Vickers-Carden-Loyd Light Amphibious Tank or the Landing Vehicle Tracked. Amphibious warfare includes operations defined by their type, purpose and means of execution. In the British Empire at the time these were called combined operations which were defined as "...operations where naval, military or air forces in any combination are co-operating with each other, working independently under their respective commanders, but with a common strategic object."
All armed forces that employ troops with special training and equipment for conducting landings from naval vessels to shore agree to this definition. Since the 20th century an amphibious landing of troops on a beachhead is acknowledged as the most complex of all military maneuvers; the undertaking requires an intricate coordination of numerous military specialties, including air power, naval gunfire, naval transport, logistical planning, specialized equipment, land warfare and extensive training in the nuances of this maneuver for all personnel involved. An amphibious operation is similar to but in many ways different from land and air operations. At its basic, such operations include phases of strategic planning and preparation, operational transit to the intended theatre of operations, pre-landing rehearsal and disembarkation, troop landings, beachhead consolidation and conducting inland ground and air operations. Within the scope of these phases a vital part of success was based on the military logistics, naval gunfire and close air support.
Another factor is the variety and quantity of specialised vehicles and equipment used by the landing force that are designed for the specific needs of this type of operation. Amphibious operations can be classified as tactical or operational raids such as the Dieppe Raid, operational landings in support of a larger land strategy such as the Kerch–Eltigen Operation, a strategic opening of a new Theatre of Operations, for example the Operation Avalanche; the purpose of amphibious operations is always limited by the plan and terrain. Landings on islands less than 5,000 km2 in size are tactical with the limited objectives of neutralising enemy defenders and obtaining a new base of operation; such an operation may be prepared and planned in days or weeks, would employ a naval task force to land less than a division of troops. The intent of operational landings is to exploit the shore as a vulnerability in the enemy's overall position, forcing redeployment of forces, premature use of reserves, aiding a larger allied offensive effort elsewhere.
Such an operation requiring weeks to months of preparation and planning, would use multiple task forces, or a naval fleet to land corps-size forces, including on large islands, for example Operation Chromite. A strategic landing operation requires a major commitment of forces to invade a national territory in the archipelagic, such as the Battle of Leyte, or continental, such as Operation Neptune; such an operation may require multiple naval and air fleets to support the landings, extensive intelligence gathering and planning of over a year. Although most amphibious operations are thought of as beach landings, they can take exploit available shore infrastructure to land troops directly into an urban environment if unopposed. In this case non-specialised ships can offload troops and cargo using organic or facility wharf-side equipment. Tactical landings in the past have utilised small boats, small craft, small ships and civilian vessels converted for the mission to deliver troops to the water's edge.
Preparation and planning the naval landing operation requires the assembly of vessels with sufficient capacity to lift necessary troops employing combat loading. The military intelligence services produce a briefing on the expected opponent which guides the organisation and equipping of the embarked force. First specially designed landing craft were used for the Gallipoli landings, armoured tracked vehicles were available for the Guadalcanal Campaign. Helicopters were first used to support beach landings during Operation Musketeer. Hovercraft have been in use for naval landings by military forces since the 1960s. Recorded amphibious warfare goes back to ancient times; the Sea Peoples menaced the Egyptians from the reign of Akhenaten as captured on the reliefs at Medinet Habu and Karnak. The Hellenic city states resorted to opposed assaults upon each other's shores, which they reflected upon in their plays and other expressions of art; the landing at Marathon by the ancient Persians on 9 September 490 BC, was the largest amphibious until eclipsed by the landings at Battle of Gallipoli.
In 1565, the island of Malta was invaded by the Ottoman Turks during the Great Siege of Malta, forcing its defenders to retreat to the fortified cities. A strategic choke point in the Mediterranean Sea, its loss would have been so menacing for the Western European kingdoms that forces were urgently raised in order to relieve the island, but it took four months to train and move a 5,500-man amphibious force to lift the siege. Philip II, King of Spain de
United States Navy Reserve
The United States Navy Reserve, known as the United States Naval Reserve from 1915 to 2005, is the Reserve Component of the United States Navy. Members of the Navy Reserve, called reservists, are enrolled in the Selected Reserve, the Individual Ready Reserve, the Full Time Support, or the Retired Reserve program; the mission of the Navy Reserve is to provide strategic depth and deliver operational capabilities to the Navy and Marine Corps team, Joint forces, in the full range of military operations from peace to war. The Reserve consists of 108,718 officers and enlisted personnel who serve in every state and territory as well as overseas as of September 2012; the largest cohort, the SELRES, have traditionally drilled one weekend a month and two weeks of annual training during the year, receiving base pay and certain special pays when performing Inactive Duty Training, full pay and allowances while on active duty for Annual Training, Active Duty for Training, Active Duty for Operational Support, Active Duty for Special Work, or under Mobilization orders or otherwise recalled to full active duty.
Every state, as well as Guam and Puerto Rico, has at least one Navy Operational Support Center, staffed by Full Time Support personnel, where the SELRES sailors come to do their weekend drills. The size of these centers varies depending on the number of assigned reservists, they are intended to handle administrative functions and classroom style training. However, some NOSCs have more extensive training facilities, including damage control trainers and small boat units; some NOSCs are co-located on existing military facilities, but most are "outside-the-wire", stand alone facilities that are the only U. S. Navy representation in their communities or the entire state; because of this, NOSCs outside the fleet concentration areas are heavily tasked to provide personnel, both FTS staff and SELRES, for participation in Funeral Honors Details. This service provided to the local community is one of the NOSC's top two priority missions; those SELRES assigned to front-line operational units, such as Naval Aviators, Naval Flight Officers, Naval Flight Surgeons and enlisted personnel assigned to Navy Reserve or Active-Reserve Integrated aviation squadrons and wings, or personnel assigned to major combatant command and other major staff positions, are funded for far more duty than the weekend per month/two weeks per year construct well in excess of 100 man-days per year.
SELRES have performed additional duty in times of war or national crisis being recalled to full-time active duty for one, two or three or more years and deploying to overseas locations or aboard warships, as has been seen during Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom. FTS known as TAR, serve in uniform all year round and provide administrative support to SELRES and operational support for the Navy, they are full-time career active duty personnel, but reside in the Reserve Component, perform a role similar to Active Guard and Reserve, Air Reserve Technician and Army Reserve Technician in the Air Force Reserve Command, the Air National Guard, the U. S. Army Reserve, the Army National Guard; the Individual Ready Reserve do not drill or train but can be recalled to service in a full mobilization. Some IRR personnel who are not assigned to SELRES billets senior commissioned officers in the ranks of commander or captain for whom SELRES billets are limited, will serve in Volunteer Training Units or will be support assigned to established active duty or reserve commands while in a VTU status.
These personnel are not eligible for Annual Training with pay. However, they remain eligible for other forms of active duty with mobilization; the largest source of IRR Officers in the Navy Reserve are commissioned from the United States Merchant Marine Academy and comprise more than 75% of the Navy's Strategic Sealift Officer Community, focused on strategic sealift and sea-based logistics. Reservists are called to active duty, or mobilized, as needed and are required to sign paperwork acknowledging this possibility upon enrollment in the reserve program. After the September 11 attacks of 2001, Reservists were mobilized to support combat operations; the War on Terrorism has seen the activation of a Reserve squadron, the VFA-201 Hunters, flying F/A-18 Hornet aircraft, which deployed on board the USS Theodore Roosevelt. Additionally, more than 52,000 Navy Reservists have been mobilized and deployed to serve in Iraq and Afghanistan, including more than 8,000 who have done a second combat tour, they have served alongside Army, Air Force, Coast Guard and service personnel from other countries, performing such missions as countering deadly improvised explosive devices, constructing military bases, escorting ground convoys, operating hospitals, performing intelligence analysis, guarding prisoners, doing customs inspections for units returning from deployments.
Reflecting the importance of Reservists in the naval history of the United States, the first citizen sailors put to sea before the Continental Congress created the Continental Navy, forerunner of today’s U. S. Navy. On 12 June 1775, inspired to act after hearing the news of Minutemen and British regulars battling on the fields of Lexington and Concord, citizens of the seaside town of Machias, commandeered the schooner
Fort Wint was part of the harbor defenses of Manila and Subic Bays built by the Philippine Department of the United States Army between 1907 and 1920 in response to recommendations of the Taft Board prior to the non-fortification clause of the Washington Naval Treaty. Fort Wint was located on Grande Island at the entrance of Subic Bay 35 miles north of Manila Bay; the fort was named for Brigadier General Theodore J. Wint; as specified in the National Defense Act of 1935, this was one of the locations where coastal artillery training was conducted. A battery of the 60th Coast Artillery was stationed here. Now owned by Jimmy and Jocelyn McCormick. Fort Wint was armed with fourteen Taft-Endicott period coast artillery pieces mounted in five batteries. Battery Warwick contained the fort's most powerful weaponry, two 10-inch M1895 disappearing guns on Buffington-Crozier carriages. Batteries Hall and Woodruff each mounted two 6-inch M1905 guns on disappearing carriages. Batteries Flake and Jewell were armed with 3-inch M1903 guns on pedestal mounts.
As with other forts of the same period, the weaponry of Fort Wint was obsolete at the outbreak of hostilities with Japan in 1941. In July 1941 minefields were laid at the entrance to Subic Bay; these included an Army controlled minefield operated from Fort Wint as well as naval mines, with the controlled Army mines in the ship channel, naval mines to the sides of the channel. In December 1941 the bay entrance was ordered closed by Navy mines. In the first week of January 1942, as Allied forces withdrew to the Bataan peninsula, Fort Wint was ordered abandoned and its crews reassigned to other American positions in Manila Bay; this was due to a mistake by the commander of the Northern Luzon Force. The fort played no part in the subsequent siege of the island forts. Fort Wint was recaptured by U. S. forces in March 1945. The fort suffered substantial damage during the campaign to retake the Philippines. Grande Island and the remains of Fort Wint were incorporated into the U. S. Naval Base Subic Bay.
The two 10-inch disappearing guns of Battery Warwick were dismantled by the United States Navy in the 1960s and shipped to Fort Casey in Washington state for renovation and display. The four 3-inch guns of Batteries Flake and Jewell were removed and divided between Forts Flagler and Casey in Washington state where they remain on display; the 6-inch guns of Battery Hall remain in place. Grand Island was operated for many decades after WW II by Subic Bay US Navy Special Services as an on base resort for US Military and Civilians stationed throughout the Philippines, it was accessible via a small landing craft type boat shuttle service at the pier adjacent to the Alava Carrier Pier in front of the HQ building at Naval Station Subic Bay. During Operation New Life, in 1975, thousands of Vietnamese refugees were sheltered and processed on Grande Island after the fall of Vietnam to North Vietnam. After that rescue mission, which lasted about six months, Grande Island was rehabilitated and was restored to its Special Services resort configuration until 1991.
At that time the lease on US military bases expired, the US bases were closed about the same time they were damaged by the eruption of Mount Pinatubo volcano. Grande Island was restored as a resort after repairs following damage from the Mount Pinatubo volcano eruption, it was restored by the civilian Philippine Subic Bay Free Port Zone Authority following the closure of the Subic Naval Base in 1992. U. S. Naval Base Subic Bay Geography of the Philippines List of islands of the Philippines Military History of the Philippines Military History of the United States Seacoast defense in the United States United States Army Coast Artillery Corps Bogart, Charles, "Subic Bay and Fort Wint - The Keys to Manila", Corregidor Historical Society. Lewis, Emanuel Raymond. Seacoast Fortifications of the United States. Annapolis: Leeward Publications. ISBN 978-0-929521-11-4. McGovern, Terrance. American Defenses of Corregidor and Manila Bay 1898-1945. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-84176-427-2. Potter, E. B.. Sea Power. Prentice-Hall.
Powers, William M. PHC USN. "Comment and Discussion". United States Naval Institute Proceedings. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list Grande Island Resort, Philippines Forts in the Philippines at American Forts Network Corregidor.org
Staten Island is one of the five boroughs of New York City, in the U. S. state of New York. Located in the southwest portion of the city, the borough is separated from New Jersey by the Arthur Kill and the Kill Van Kull and from the rest of New York by New York Bay. With an estimated population of 479,458 in 2017, Staten Island is the least populated of the boroughs but is the third-largest in land area at 58.5 sq mi. The borough contains the southern-most point in the state, South Point; the borough is coextensive with Richmond County and until 1975 was referred to as the Borough of Richmond. Staten Island has sometimes been called "the forgotten borough" by inhabitants who feel neglected by the city government; the North Shore—especially the neighborhoods of St. George, Tompkinsville and Stapleton—is the most urban part of the island; the East Shore is home to the 2.5-mile F. D. R. Boardwalk, the fourth-longest boardwalk in the world; the South Shore, site of the 17th-century Dutch and French Huguenot settlement, developed beginning in the 1960s and 1970s and is now suburban in character.
The West Shore is the most industrial part of the island. Motor traffic can reach the borough from Brooklyn via the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge and from New Jersey via the Outerbridge Crossing, Goethals Bridge and Bayonne Bridge. Staten Island has Metropolitan Transportation Authority bus lines and an MTA rapid transit line, the Staten Island Railway, which runs from the ferry terminal at St. George to Tottenville. Staten Island is the only borough, not connected to the New York City Subway system; the free Staten Island Ferry connects the borough across New York Harbor to Manhattan and is a popular tourist attraction, providing views of the Statue of Liberty, Ellis Island and Lower Manhattan. Staten Island had the Fresh Kills Landfill, the world's largest landfill before closing in 2001, although it was temporarily reopened that year to receive debris from the September 11 attacks; the landfill is being redeveloped as an area devoted to restoring habitat. As in much of North America, human habitation appeared in the island rapidly after the Wisconsin glaciation.
Archaeologists have recovered tool evidence of Clovis culture activity dating from about 14,000 years ago. This evidence was first discovered in 1917 in the Charleston section of the island. Various Clovis artifacts have been discovered since on property owned by Mobil Oil; the island was abandoned possibly because of the extirpation of large mammals on the island. Evidence of the first permanent Native American settlements and agriculture are thought to date from about 5,000 years ago, although early archaic habitation evidence has been found in multiple locations on the island. Rossville points are distinct arrowheads that define a Native American cultural period that runs from the Archaic period to the Early Woodland period, dating from about 1500 to 100 BC, they are named for the Rossville section of Staten Island, where they were first found near the old Rossville Post Office building. At the time of European contact, the island was inhabited by the Raritan band of the Unami division of the Lenape.
In Lenape, one of the Algonquian languages, Staten Island was called Aquehonga Manacknong, meaning "as far as the place of the bad woods", or Eghquhous, meaning "the bad woods". The area was part of the Lenape homeland known as Lenapehoking; the Lenape were called the "Delaware" by the English colonists because they inhabited both shores of what the English named the Delaware River. The island was laced with Native American foot trails, one of which followed the south side of the ridge near the course of present-day Richmond Road and Amboy Road; the Lenape moved seasonally, using slash and burn agriculture. Shellfish was a staple of their diet, including the Eastern oyster abundant in the waterways throughout the present-day New York City region. Evidence of their habitation can still be seen in shell middens along the shore in the Tottenville section, where oyster shells larger than 12 inches are sometimes found. Burial Ridge, a Lenape burial ground on a bluff overlooking Raritan Bay in Tottenville, is the largest pre-European burial ground in New York City.
Bodies have been reported unearthed at Burial Ridge from 1858 onward. After conducting independent research, which included unearthing bodies interred at the site and archaeologist George H. Pepper was contracted in 1895 to conduct paid archaeological research at Burial Ridge by the American Museum of Natural History; the burial ground today lies within Conference House Park. The first recorded European contact on the island was in 1520 by Italian explorer Giovanni de Verrazzano who sailed through The Narrows on the ship La Dauphine and anchored for one night. In 1609, English explorer Henry Hudson sailed into Upper New York Bay on his ship the Half Moon; the Dutch named the island Staaten Eylandt in honor of the Dutch parliament, still known as the Staten-Generaal. The first permanent Dutch settlement of the New Netherland colony was made on Governor's Island in 1624, which they had used as a trading camp for more than a decade before. In 1626, the colony transferred to the island of Manhattan, designated as the capital of New Netherland.
The Dutch did not establish a permanent settlement on Staaten Eylandt for many decades. From 1639 to 1655, Cornelis Melyn
Attack on Pearl Harbor
The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service upon the United States against the naval base at Pearl Harbor in Honolulu, Hawaii on Sunday morning, December 7, 1941. The attack led to the United States' formal entry into World War II the next day; the Japanese military leadership referred to the attack as the Hawaii Operation and Operation AI, as Operation Z during its planning. Japan intended the attack as a preventive action to keep the United States Pacific Fleet from interfering with its planned military actions in Southeast Asia against overseas territories of the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, the United States. Over the course of seven hours there were coordinated Japanese attacks on the U. S.-held Philippines and Wake Island and on the British Empire in Malaya and Hong Kong. Additionally, from the Japanese viewpoint, it was seen as a preemptive strike; the attack commenced at 7:48 a.m. Hawaiian Time; the base was attacked by 353 Imperial Japanese aircraft in two waves, launched from six aircraft carriers.
All eight U. S. Navy battleships were damaged, with four sunk. All but USS Arizona were raised, six were returned to service and went on to fight in the war; the Japanese sank or damaged three cruisers, three destroyers, an anti-aircraft training ship, one minelayer. 188 U. S. aircraft were destroyed. Important base installations such as the power station, dry dock, shipyard and fuel and torpedo storage facilities, as well as the submarine piers and headquarters building, were not attacked. Japanese losses were light: 29 aircraft and five midget submarines lost, 64 servicemen killed. One Japanese sailor, Kazuo Sakamaki, was captured. Japan declared war on the United States on December 8. According to historians David M. Kennedy and Lizabeth Cohen: The sneak attack aroused and united America as nothing else could have done. To the day of the blowup, a strong majority of Americans still wanted to keep out of war, but the bombs that pulverized Pearl Harbor blasted the isolationists into silence. The only thing left to do, growled isolationist Senator Wheeler, was to'lick hell out of them.'
The following day, December 8, Congress declared war on Japan. On December 11, Germany and Italy each declared war on the U. S; the U. S. responded with a declaration of war against Italy. There were numerous historical precedents for the unannounced military action by Japan, but the lack of any formal warning while peace negotiations were still ongoing, led President Franklin D. Roosevelt to proclaim December 7, 1941, "a date which will live in infamy"; because the attack happened without a declaration of war and without explicit warning, the attack on Pearl Harbor was judged in the Tokyo Trials to be a war crime. War between Japan and the United States had been a possibility that each nation had been aware of, planned for, since the 1920s; the relationship between the two countries was cordial enough. Tensions did not grow until Japan's invasion of Manchuria in 1931. Over the next decade, Japan expanded into China, leading to the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937. Japan spent considerable effort trying to isolate China, endeavored to secure enough independent resources to attain victory on the mainland.
The "Southern Operation" was designed to assist these efforts. Starting in December 1937, events such as the Japanese attack on USS Panay, the Allison incident, the Nanking Massacre swung Western public opinion against Japan. Fearing Japanese expansion, the United States, United Kingdom, France assisted China with its loans for war supply contracts. In 1940, Japan invaded French Indochina, attempting to stymie the flow of supplies reaching China; the United States halted shipments of airplanes, machine tools, aviation gasoline to Japan, which the latter perceived as an unfriendly act. The United States did not stop oil exports, however because of the prevailing sentiment in Washington: given Japanese dependence on American oil, such an action was to be considered an extreme provocation. In mid-1940, President Franklin D. Roosevelt moved the Pacific Fleet from San Diego to Hawaii, he ordered a military buildup in the Philippines, taking both actions in the hope of discouraging Japanese aggression in the Far East.
Because the Japanese high command was certain any attack on the United Kingdom's Southeast Asian colonies, including Singapore, would bring the U. S. into the war, a devastating preventive strike appeared to be the only way to prevent American naval interference. An invasion of the Philippines was considered necessary by Japanese war planners; the U. S. War Plan Orange had envisioned defending the Philippines with an elite force of 40,000 men. By 1941, U. S. planners expected to abandon the Philippines at the outbreak of war. Late that year, Admiral Thomas C. Hart, commander of the Asiatic Fleet, was given orders to that effect; the U. S. ceased oil exports to Japan in July 1941, following the seizure of French Indochina after the Fall of France, in part because of new American restrictions on domestic oil consumption. Because of this decision, Japan proceeded with plans to take the oil-rich Dutch East Indies. On August 17, Roosevelt warned Japan that America was prepared to take opposing steps if "neighboring countries" were attacked.
The Japanese wer
Zamboanga City the City of Zamboanga, is a 1st class urbanized city in the Zamboanga Peninsula of the Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 861,799 people, it is the 6th 3rd largest city by land area in the Philippines. It is the industrial center of the Zamboanga Peninsula Region. On October 12, 1936, Zamboanga became a chartered city under Commonwealth Act No. 39. It was inaugurated on February 26, 1937. Zamboanga City is an independent, chartered city and was designated urbanized on November 22, 1983. Although geographically separated, an independent and chartered city, Zamboanga City is grouped with the province of Zamboanga del Sur for statistical purposes, yet governed independently from it. Zamboanga City was founded in the late 12th or early 13th century as a settlement by the Subanen people. Zamboanga peninsula was the homelands of the ancestors of the Yakan, the Balanguingui, other related Sama-Bajau peoples; the area was inhabited by the Subanen people and was the site of trade among the Chinese and different native ethnic groups around the area.
During the 13th century, the Tausūg people started migrating to Zamboanga and the Sulu archipelago from their homelands in northeastern Mindanao. They became the dominant ethnic group after they were Islamized in the 14th century and established the Sultanate of Sulu in the 15th century. A majority of the Yakan, the Balanguingui, the Sama-Bajau were Islamized, though most of the Subanen remained animist; the city used to be known as Samboangan in historical records. Samboangan is a Sinama term for "mooring place", from the root word samboang; the name was Hispanicized and named as Zamboanga. This is contested by folk etymologies which instead attribute the name to the Indonesian word jambangan with claims that all ethnic groups in Zamboanga were "Malays". However, this name has never been attested in any historical records prior to the 1960s. Spanish explorers arrived in the Philippine archipelago in 1521. In 1569 Zamboanga was chosen as the site of the Spanish garrison on La Caldera. Zamboanga City was one of the main strongholds in Mindanao, supporting colonizing efforts in the south of the island and making way for Christian settlements.
It served as a military outpost, protecting the island against foreign invaders and Moro pirates. In 1599, the Zamboanga fort was closed and transferred to Cebú due to great concerns about attack by the English on that island, which did not occur. After having abandoned the city, the Spaniards as well as some Latin-American mercenaries from Peru and Mexico, joined forces with troops from Pampanga and Visayan soldiers and reached the shore of Zamboanga to bring peace to the island against Moro pirates. In 1635, Spanish officers and soldiers, along with Visayan laborers, settled in the area and construction began on Fort San José to protect the inhabitants of the area from Moro piracy. Zamboanga became the main headquarters of the Spaniards on June 23, 1635 upon approval of King Philip IV of Spain, the Spanish founded the city. Thousands of Spanish troops headed by a governor general from Spain took the approval to build the first Zamboanga fortress in Zamboanga to forestall enemies in Mindanao like Moro pirates and other foreign invaders.
The Zamboanga fortress became the main focus of a number of battles between Moros and Spaniards while the Spanish ruled the region from 16th to 18th centuries. Spain was forced to abandon Zamboanga temporarily and withdraw its soldiers to Manila in 1662 after the Chinese under Koxinga threatened to invade the Spanish Philippines; the Spanish returned to Zamboanga in 1718 and rebuilding of the fort began the following year. The fort would serve as defence for the Christian settlement against Moro pirates and foreign invaders for the next years. While the region was dominated by Catholicism, Muslims kept up a protracted struggle against the ruling Spaniards in the country into the 18th century. In January 1798 a British naval squadron conducted a Raid on Zamboanga but was driven off by the city's defensive fortifications. In 1831, the custom house in Zamboanga was established as a port, it became the main port for direct communication, trading some goods and other services to most of Europe, Southeast Asia and Latin America.
The Americans arrived in the Philippines, headed by General Weyler with thousands of troops to defeat the Spaniards who ruled it more than three centuries. The Spanish government sent more than 80,000 Spanish troops to the Philippines; the Spanish government and peacefully surrendered the islands to the United States in the 1890s. Before the end of the 19th century, the Republic of Zamboanga was established right after when the Zamboangueño revolutionary forces defeated the last Spanish Government in Zamboanga and when Fort Pilar was turned over to General Vicente Álvarez, the first genuinely elected president who ruled the República de Zamboanga from 18 May 1899 until November 1899; the Republic of Zamboanga continued to exist until 1903 with Isidoro Midel as the 2nd President under a puppet government of the United States of America, and, succeeded by Mariano Arquiza. Upon the firm establishment of American colonization and dissolution of the Republic in 1903, Zamboanga City, as a municipality, was placed as the capital of the Moro Province, a semi-
Turbo-electric transmission uses electric generators to convert the mechanical energy of a turbine into electric energy and electric motors to convert it back into mechanical energy to power the driveshafts. Turbo-electric drives are used in some rail ships. An advantage of turbo-electric transmission is that it allows the adaptation of high-speed turning turbines to the turning propellers or wheels without the need of a heavy and complex gearbox, it has the advantage of being able to provide electricity for the ship or train's other electrical systems, such as lighting, computers and communications equipment. Colorado-class USS New Mexico Tennessee-class USS Langley Lexington-class Buckley-class Rudderow-class Admiral W. S. Benson-class transports Gilliam-class attack transports USS Glenard P. Lipscomb USS Tullibee Triomphant-class submarines Columbia-class submarines Suamico-class oilers Tampa-class cutters USCGC Haida, USCGC Modoc, USCGC Mojave and USCGC Tampa. California and Virginia Canberra – the most powerful steam turbo-electric units in a passenger ship, 42,500 shp per shaft, 2 shafts RMS Mooltan Morro Castle and Oriente Normandie – most powerful steam turbo-electric passenger ship 40,000 shp per shaft, 4 shafts Potsdam and Scharnhorst President Cleveland and President Wilson President Hoover and President Coolidge RMS Queen Mary 2 – powered by General Electric gas turbines as well as her diesel generators to generate the current for her four Rolls-Royce electric podded azimuth thrusters Santa Clara Strath-class ocean liners RMS Strathnaver and RMS Strathaird RMS Viceroy of India Cuba, converted to turbo-electric transmission in 1920 Princess Marguerite and Princess Patricia TEV Wahine TEV Rangatira – the World's last steam-powered turbo-electric merchant ship.
"Turboelectric drive in American Capital Ships". The Naval Technical Board. NavWeaps. Draper, John L. "The Paddle Wheel to Electric Drive". Popular Mechanics: 898–902. — detailed article with drawing and charts on turbo-electric drive for ships and the advantages