USS Ohio (1820)
The second USS Ohio was a ship of the line of the United States Navy. She was designed by Henry Eckford, laid down at Brooklyn Navy Yard in 1817, launched on 30 May 1820, she went in the ensuing years decayed badly. Refitted for service in 1838, Ohio sailed on 16 October 1838 to join the Mediterranean Squadron under Commodore Isaac Hull. Acting as flagship for two years, she protected commerce and suppressed the slave trade off the African coast. Ohio proved to have excellent performance under sail making more than 12 kn. One of her officers stated, "I never supposed such a ship could be built—a ship possessing in so great a degree all the qualifications of a perfect vessel." In 1840, Ohio returned to Boston. From 1841–1846, Ohio served as receiving ship. To meet the needs of the Mexican–American War, Ohio was recommissioned on 7 December 1846, sailed on 4 January 1847 for the Gulf of Mexico, arriving off Veracruz on 22 March. Ohio landed 10 guns on 27 March to help in the siege of Veracruz. Ohio drew too much water for coastal operations in the gulf.
However, 336 of her crew participated in the Tuxpan River Expedition. In 1847, the entire distance from the mouth of the river to the town was covered with thick jungle growth; the enemy had constructed three well-positioned forts on bluffs overlooking bends in the river. On 18 April, Commodore. Matthew Perry arrived off the mouth of the river with 15 vessels. At 22:00, light-draft steamers Scourge and Vixen, each towing a schooner, moved up stream. Bombships Etna and Vesuvius followed while 30 surf boats containing 1,500 men brought up the rear. Approaching the town, the squadron came under hot fire from Fort LaPena. Cmdre. Perry ordered Commander Franklin Buchanan to storm the fort; as the landing party swept ashore, the Mexicans abandoned their position. The other two forts fell with only light casualties sustained by the squadron. Men from Ohio retrieved the guns of brig Truxtun which had foundered in a storm near Tuxpan on 16 September 1846; the town was occupied and all military stores destroyed.
Following Tuxpan, Ohio arrived in New York on 9 May. On 26 June, she sailed to bolster the Pacific Squadron, first carrying the U. S. operating off the east coast of South America until December. In Valparaíso on 21 January 1848, Cmdre. Thomas ap Catesby Jones took her as the flagship of the Pacific Squadron, intending to blockade the western Mexico ports. Ohio arrived at Mazatlán on 6 May, shortly after the Mexican–American War ended. Jones used the fleet to help transport to Monterey, those that had aided the United States in the war, arriving there on 9 October. Ohio sailed to Sausalito, in San Francisco Bay. Ohio spent the next two years in the Pacific protecting commerce and policing the newly acquired California Territory during the chaotic early months of the gold rush. Scurvy struck the crew in the spring of 1849 in San Francisco Bay so Jones sent Ohio to the Sandwich Islands for fresh food. In 1850, she returned to Boston. In 1851, Ohio became a receiving ship and continued this duty until again placed in ordinary in 1875.
Ohio was sold at Boston to J. L. Snow of Rockland, Maine on 27 September 1883, she was burned in Greenport Harbor, New York. The wreck is in about 20 ft of water. Samuel P. Carter - first American officer to be awarded both the rank of Rear Admiral and Major General This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships; the entry can be found here. Howard Chapelle, The History of the American Sailing Navy: the Ships and their Development Log book of the USS Ohio Gene A. Smith, Thomas ap Catesby Jones, Commodore of Manifest Destiny ISBN 1-55750-848-8 Info on location of wreck Historic pictures and model of vessel
The SS Ohio was an oil tanker built for the Texas Oil Company. The ship was launched on 20 April 1940 at the Sun Shipbuilding & Drydock Co. in Chester, Pennsylvania. She was requisitioned by the Allied forces to re-supply the island fortress of Malta during the Second World War; the tanker played a fundamental role in Operation Pedestal, one of the fiercest and most contested of the Malta convoys, in August 1942. Although Ohio reached Malta she was so badly damaged that she had to be scuttled in order to offload her cargo, never sailed again; the tanker is fondly remembered in Malta, where to this day she is considered to be the savior of the beleaguered island. Hull 190, as Ohio was identified before her launch, was a skilful compromise, promising broad cargo-carrying capacity to the merchant and speed and stability to the mariner. Above the waterline, the construction echoed the outward curve of a schooner's bow, bearing the influence of the old American clipper ship design; the design of Hull 190 was influenced by the menace of a rearming Germany and a Japanese Empire bent on military expansion.
The approach of war had influenced this design, the unofficial conversations between military and oil chiefs resulted in a ship of 9,264 gross register tons, 515 feet in overall length, capable of carrying 170,000 barrels of fuel oil and with a larger capacity than any other tanker built. The ship was completed in the unusually short time of fifteen days; the Westinghouse turbine engines developed 9,000 driveshaft horsepower at ninety revolutions per minute, which allowed a maximum sixteen knots. Ohio was considered the fastest tanker of her era, her method of construction was controversial. For some years, the issue of welding versus riveting had been raging on both sides of the Atlantic. Hull 190 was built using the new-fashioned welded method, with hopes it would prove once and for all its reliability; the ship had a composite framing system with two longitudinally continuous bulkheads, which divided the ship into twenty-one cargo tanks. The ship was launched the day after that scheduled, prompting superstitious fear in the welders, steel-cutters and other craftsmen who had assembled to watch her launch.
Hull 190 was christened in a ceremony presided over by the mother of William Starling Sullivant Rodgers, president of the Texas Oil Company, Florence E. Rodgers, grasping the ceremonial bottle of champagne in her hand, pronounced the words: I name this good ship Ohio. May God go with all who sail in her. Good luck… The ship slid down No. 2 slipway, entering the waters of the Delaware River. The existence of Ohio would, in her initial years, be uneventful and ordinary, plying between Port Arthur and various other American harbors, she set a speed record from Bayonne to Port Arthur, covering 1,882 miles in four days and twelve hours, an average of more than seventeen knots. In 1942, Britain was waging war in the Mediterranean against the German Afrika Korps and Italian forces in North Africa. Crucial to this theatre of operations was the island of Malta, sitting in the middle of Axis supply lines and, if supplied with sufficient munitions and fuel, capable of causing severe shortages to the German and Italian armies in North Africa.
Munitions and aircraft were available—during a brief lull in the Axis attacks, for example, the island's defenses were reinforced by thirty eight Spitfire Mk V aircraft flown in from HMS Furious—but these, along with food and fuel, remained in critically short supply. Successive attempts at resupplying the island had failed. One of the ships lost during "Harpoon" was Ohio's sister ship SS Kentucky, crippled by a German air attack and abandoned; the tanker was finished off by the Italian cruisers Raimondo Montecuccoli and Eugenio di Savoia and two destroyers. On 18 June, following the failures of "Harpoon" and "Vigorous", the Commander in Chief of the Mediterranean Fleet cabled the British Prime Minister Winston Churchill to express his doubts about attempting another convoy. Three days Ohio steamed into the mouth of the Clyde, under the command of Sverre Petersen, a former Master in Sail from Oslo, in Norway. In early May 1942, a radio message had reached Captain Petersen which diverted the ship to Galveston in Texas, ordered the tanker to proceed to Britain.
Before leaving, Ohio was fitted with one 5-inch gun on her stern, a 3-inch AA gun in the bows. She moved to Sinclair Terminal, Houston in Texas, where the ship loaded a full cargo of 103,576 barrels of petrol sailing on 25 May. Ohio discharged her cargo at Bowling-on-the-Clyde steamed out into the tideway and anchored, awaiting orders. Here, the captain received a letter from Lord Leathers, the head of the British Ministry of War Transport, bidding the master a personal welcome and "...your safe arrival in the Clyde with the first cargo of oil carried in a United States tanker." However, the euphoria that such a message brought to the crew soon turned into anger. A telegram was received the same day by the head office of Texaco, from the War Shipping Administration, announcing that Ohio was being requisitioned "pursuant to the law"; the immediate reaction was a cabled message from Mr. T. E. Buchanan, General Manager of Texaco's Marine Department to the firm's London agent, that on no account was Ohio to leave her discharging port of Bowling-on-the-Clyde.
A period of indecision and debates between the highest American authorities and their British c
The Montana-class battleships were planned as successors of the Iowa class for the United States Navy, to be slower but larger, better armored, with superior firepower. Five were approved for construction during World War II, but changes in wartime building priorities resulted in their cancellation in favor of the Essex-class aircraft carrier and Iowa class before any Montana class keels were laid. Intended armament would have been twelve 16-inch Mark 7 guns in four 3-gun turrets, up from the Iowas' three 3-gun 16s. Unlike the three preceding classes of battleships, the Montana class was designed without any restrictions from treaty limitations. With an increased anti-aircraft capability and thicker armor in all areas, the Montanas would have been the largest, best-protected, most armed U. S. battleships the only class to rival the Empire of Japan's immense Yamato-class battleships. Preliminary design work for the Montana class began before the US entry into World War II; the first two vessels were approved by Congress in 1939 following the passage of the Second Vinson Act.
The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor delayed construction of the Montana class. The success of carrier combat at the Battle of the Coral Sea and, to a greater extent, the Battle of Midway, diminished the value of the battleship; the US Navy chose to cancel the Montana class in favor of more urgently needed aircraft carriers and anti-submarine vessels. Because the Iowas were far along enough in construction and urgently needed to operate alongside the new Essex-class aircraft carriers, their orders were retained, making them the last U. S. Navy battleships to be commissioned; as the political situation in Europe and Asia worsened in the prelude to World War II, Carl Vinson, the chairman of the House Committee on Naval Affairs, instituted the Vinson Naval Plan, which aimed to get the Navy into fighting shape after the cutbacks imposed by the Great Depression and pair of London Naval Treaties of the 1930s. As part of the overall plan Congress passed the Second Vinson Act in 1938, promptly signed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt and cleared the way for construction of the four South Dakota-class fast battleships and the first two Iowa-class fast battleships.
Four additional battleships were approved for construction in 1940, with the last two intended to be the first ships of the Montana class. By 1942, it was apparent to the US Navy high command that they needed as many fast battleships as possible, hull numbers BB-65 and BB-66 were allocated to planned Iowa-class fast battleships Illinois and Kentucky; the Navy had been considering large battleship design schemes since 1938 to counter the threat posed by potential battleships of the Imperial Japanese Navy, which had refused to sign the Second London Naval Treaty and furthermore refused to provide details about their Yamato-class battleships. Although the Navy knew little about the Yamato class, some rumors regarding the new Japanese battleships placed main gun battery caliber at 18 inches; the potential of naval treaty violations by the new Japanese battleships resulted in the remaining treaty powers, United States and France, invoking the "Escalator Clause" of the Second London Naval Treaty in June 1938, which raised the maximum standard displacement limit from 35,000 long tons to 45,000 long tons.
The increased displacement limit allowed the Navy to begin evaluating 45,000-ton battleship designs, including "slow" 27-knot schemes that increased firepower and protection over previous designs and "fast" 33-knot schemes. The "fast" design evolved into the Iowa class while the "slow" design, with main armament battery settled on twelve 16-inch guns and evolution into a 60,500-ton design, was assigned the name Montana and cleared for construction by the United States Congress under the Two-Ocean Navy Act in 1940; these ships, the last battleships to be ordered by the Navy, were to be designated BB-65 through BB-69. Completion of the Montana class, the last two Iowa-class battleships, was intended to give the US Navy a considerable advantage over any other nation, or probable combination of nations, with a total of 17 new battleships by the late 1940s; the Montanas would have been the only American ships to rival Japan's massive Yamato and her sister Musashi in size and raw firepower, though the Kriegsmarine H-42 through H-44 design concepts would have exceeded both the Montana and Yamato classes in size.
Preliminary planning for the Montana-class battleships took place in 1939, when the aircraft carrier was still considered strategically less important than the battleship. The initial schemes for what would become the Montana class were continuations of various 1938 design studies for a 45,000-ton "slow" battleship alternative to the "fast" battleship design that would become the Iowa class; the "slow" battleship design proposals had maximum speed of 27–28 knots and considered various main gun battery options, including 16-inch /45 cal, 16-inch/50 cal, 16-inch/56 cal, 18-inch /48 cal guns. The initial design schemes for the Montana class were given the "BB65" prefix. In July 1939, a series of 45,000-ton BB65 design schemes were evaluated, but in 1940, with the start of World War II and the aba