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USS Oriskany (CV-34)

USS Oriskany – nicknamed Mighty O, referred to as the O-boat – was one of the few Essex-class aircraft carriers completed after World War II for the United States Navy. The ship was named for the Battle of Oriskany during the Revolutionary War; the history of Oriskany differs from that of her sister ships. Designed as a "long-hulled" Essex-class ship her construction was suspended in 1946, she was commissioned in 1950 after conversion to an updated design called SCB-27, which became the template for modernization of 14 other Essex-class ships. Oriskany was the final Essex-class ship completed, she operated in the Pacific into the 1970s, earning two battle stars for service in the Korean War, five for service in the Vietnam War. In 1966, one of the worst shipboard fires since World War II broke out on Oriskany when a magnesium flare was accidentally ignited. Oriskany's post-service history differs from that of her sister ships. Decommissioned in 1976, she was sold for scrap in 1995, but was repossessed in 1997 because nothing was being done.

In 2004, it was decided to sink her as an artificial reef off the coast of Florida in the Gulf of Mexico. After much environmental review and remediation to remove toxic substances, she was sunk in May 2006, settling in an upright position at a depth accessible to recreational divers; as of 2008, Oriskany is the largest vessel sunk to make a reef. The name "Oriskany" was assigned to CV-18, but that hull was renamed Wasp when the keel was laid in 1942. CV-34 was laid down on 1 May 1944 by the New York Naval Shipyard, launched on 13 October 1945, sponsored by Mrs. Clarence Cannon. Construction was suspended on 22 August 1946, when the ship was 85% complete. Oriskany was redesigned as the prototype for the SCB-27 modernization program beginning on 8 August 1947, torn down to 60% complete. To handle the new generation of carrier aircraft, the flight deck structure was massively reinforced. Stronger elevators, more powerful hydraulic catapults, new arresting gear were installed; the island structure was rebuilt, the anti-aircraft turrets were removed, blisters were added to the hull.

Blistering the hull increases the cross-sectional area of a ship's hull, thereby increasing its buoyancy and stability. It provides increased bunker volume. In the case of Oriskany, this would have been for aviation fuel; these features would have been crucial to a ship that had so much topside weight added after its original design. Oriskany was commissioned in the New York Naval Shipyard on 25 September 1950, Captain Percy H. Lyon in command. Oriskany departed New York on 6 December 1950, for carrier qualification operations off Jacksonville, followed by a Christmas call at Newport, Rhode Island, she resumed operations off Jacksonville through 11 January 1951, when she embarked Carrier Air Group 1 for shakedown out of Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. After major modifications at New York Naval Shipyard from 6 March to 2 April, she embarked Carrier Air Group 4 for training off Jacksonville departed Newport on 15 May 1951, for Mediterranean deployment with the 6th Fleet. Having swept from ports of Italy and France to those of Greece and Turkey, from there to the shores of Tripoli, Oriskany returned to Quonset Point, Rhode Island on 4 October 1951.

She entered Gravesend Bay, New York on 6 November 1951 to offload ammunition and to have her masts removed to allow passage under the East River Bridges to the New York Naval Shipyard. Overhaul included the installation of a new flight deck, steering system, bridge. Work was complete by 15 May 1952, the carrier steamed the next day to take on ammunition at Norfolk, Virginia from 19–22 May, she got underway to join the Pacific Fleet, steaming via Guantanamo Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Cape Horn, Valparaíso, Lima, arriving San Diego, California on 21 July. Following carrier qualifications for Carrier Air Group 19, Oriskany departed San Diego on 15 September 1952, to aid United Nations forces in Korea, she joined Task Force 77 off the Korean Coast on 31 October. Her aircraft struck hard with bombing and strafing attacks against enemy supply lines and coordinated bombing missions with surface gunstrikes along the coast, her pilots damaged a third on 18 November. Strikes continued through 11 February, attacking enemy artillery positions, troop emplacements, supply dumps along the main battlefront.

Following a brief upkeep period in Japan, Oriskany returned to combat on 1 March 1953. On 6 March, three men were killed and 13 were injured when a general-purpose bomb from a F4U Corsair broke loose and detonated, she continued in action until 29 March, called at Hong Kong resumed air strikes on 8 April. She departed the Korean Coast on 22 April, touched at Yokosuka, departed for San Diego on 2 May, arriving there on 18 May. Following readiness training along the California coast, Oriskany departed San Francisco on 14 September to aid the 7th Fleet watching over the uneasy truce in Korea, arriving in Yokosuka on 15 October. Thereafter, she cruised the Sea of Japan, the East China Sea, the area of the Philippines. After providing air support for Marine amphibious assault exercises at Iwo Jima, the carrier returned to San Diego on 22 April 1954, she entered San Francisco Naval Shipyard for overhaul.

Kleiner Gleichberg

The Kleiner Gleichberg is the lower of the two Gleichberge mountains, east of the village of Römhild in the country of Grabfeld in the county of Hildburghausen in the German state of Thuringia. The Celtic Oppidum Steinsburg is located on the mountain; because of the proximity of its larger brother, the Großer Gleichberg, less than 3 kilometres away and, at 679 m higher, the Kleiner Gleichberg is not dominant. It has a topographic prominence of over 200 metres. A footpath runs from the Steinsburg Museum on the saddle between the two Gleichberge in a straight line to a point near at the summit, before spiralling to the top as it climbs the last few metres. From the rocky plateau on the summit of the Kleiner Gleichberg there are good all round views in winter, of the Thuringian Forest, the more distant Rhön Mountains, the Haßberge Hills, the ruined Straufhain Castle, Coburg Fortress, etc. In summer the view in some directions is restricted by trees in full leaf

Gad Frederik Clement

Gad Frederik Clement known as G. F. Clement, was a Danish painter. After an early encounter with the French Symbolists, he took an interest in the Italian Renaissance period before turning to the more relaxed style of Naturalism in Skagen and Civita d'Antino. Born in Frederiksberg, he was the son of an accountant. After an apprenticeship as a house painter, he studied art under Hans Grønvold at Copenhagen's Technical School before attending the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts where he graduated in 1888, he studied under Laurits Tuxen and Frans Schwartz at Kunstnernes Frie Studieskoler before completing his studies under Kristian Zahrtmann in 1901. In his early years, Clement was influenced by his friend Mogens Ballin who introduced him to modern French Symbolist painting. In 1890, he was introduced to Paul Gauguin and his friends in France, leading him to associate with Johannes Jørgensen, a prominent contributor to the journal Taarnet which promoted Symbolism; the Symbolist style comes out in his Den hellige Frans og de tre hvide jomfruer and in the other works he exhibited at Kunsthal Charlottenborg in 1893.

However, his journeys to Italy from 1890 soon inspired him to take an interest in Italian Renaissance art, prompting him to copy works by Masaccio and Lorenzo di Credi. The clarity and colour of this approach can be seen in his Portræt af en landsbypræst, pastor Vaupell and Fru Bertha Brandstrup. After the turn of the century, Clement moved away from this demanding style, preferring the more relaxed idiom of Naturalism, he began to concentrate on landscapes in Italy where his travels took him to Rome and on several occasions to Civita d'Antino from 1900 to 1904. He became a frequent visitor to the artists' colony in Skagen in the north of Jutland where he and his wife Tupsy were in the company of Laurits Tuxen and Viggo Johansen. From 1920, the couple spent most of their summers in Italy. In addition to landscapes, he painted portraits and figures indoors, his paintings of children reveal a high level of unsentimental understanding of his subjects. In 1902 while in Rome, Clement married the Norwegian painter Tupsy Clement who accompanied him to Skagen each summer from 1908 to 1920 and thereafter to Italy.

His wife survived him after his death in Copenhagen in 1933. One of their daughters, Lillemor Clement, became a well known ceramist in Denmark. Clement was a member of the Academy's board, he received many awards including the gold medal from Munich. Arbejder af Maleren G. F. Clement, Kunstforeningen 1920. List of Clement's works

Cerrigydrudion

Cerrigydrudion, sometimes spelt Cerrig-y-drudion, is a village and community in Conwy, Wales. Until 1974 it was part of the historic county Denbighshire, when it became part of the newly formed county of Clwyd; when the county of Clwyd was abolished in 1996, the village was transferred to the new Conwy County Borough. The village lay on the A5, but a short by-pass now takes the road along the south-western edge of the village. Prior to the by-pass being built, Cerrigydrudion was the highest village on the A5 between London and Holyhead; the community includes the hamlets of Cefn Brith and Pentre-Llyn-Cymmer with the village having a population of around 289. Geographically the area is classed less favourable grassland, it is on the outskirts of Mynydd Hiraethog, the southern half of Llyn Brenig and Alwen Reservoir lie in the community. The oldest feature of the village is the parish church dedicated to Saint Mary Magdalene, it is believed to have existed in 440 AD. It is mentioned in the'Norwich Taxation' of 1254.

The village is the largest in the area known as Uwchaled which includes Llangwm, Pentre-llyn-cymer, Glasfryn, Cefn Brith, Llanfihangel Glyn Myfyr and Cwm Penanner. Llangwm and Pentrefoelas are stand-alone parishes whilst the remainder fall within the parish of Cerrigydrudion. However, there are multiple Nonconformist chapels throughout the area of Uwchaled, located in many of the minor villages and hamlets; the village was mentioned in the writings of several noted travellers including Edward Lhuyd and George Borrow. It attained a certain significance in the 18th century when Thomas Telford built the A5 turnpike Toll road between London and Holyhead; this would be the main route to Ireland. The road passed through the village. In the farmhouse of Ceirnioge Mawr, where the stagecoach and Mail coach horses were changed, there is a plaque marking the fact that Queen Victoria stopped there en route to Ireland; the current population of the community stands at 692 residents. The community remains one of the heartlands of the Welsh language and in the last census in 2001, 80% stated they had some knowledge of the language and over 76% stated that they used spoken Welsh in their normal every-day life.

Remnants of human habitation have been found in the area dating back to the Mesolithic era. Many of these were found in the area of Llyn Brenig, a manmade reservoir to the north of the village; the reservoir was built between 1973 and 1976 and was one of the major British engineering projects of that era. Today it is the most important tourist attraction in the area and provides competition class fly fishing facilities for many visitors. One of the most famous sons of the parish is Jac Glan-y-Gors, a leading Radical at the end of the 18th century, his ideas were published in Toriad y Dydd. Cerrigydruidion Golf Club was founded in 1898; the club and course disappeared at the time of WW2. Heading out of Cerrigydrudion up a minor road off the B5105 is an iron age hill fort called Caer Caradog; this fort dates to pre Roman times and although the origin of the fort's name is unclear, as Caradog can be latinised as Caratacus, it refers to the 1st century warrior Caratacus who fought against the Romans.

A novel published in 2018 called Swords and Slavery describes a battle between Celts and Romans at this fort The Cerrigydrudion area possesses an oceanic climate similar to all of the United Kingdom. Due to its upland setting, it tends to be cooler than coastal areas of Wales throughout the year, heavy snowfall can occur during winter months; the nearest MetOffice weather station at Alwen, about 2.5 miles to the North, holds the Welsh record for the coldest day for the months of June and October The biggest employer in the parish remains agriculture although tourism related work is becoming common. Apart from the church the village has two active Nonconformist chapels; these are Jerusalem, dedicated to the Methodist Calvinist group, Moriah which follows the Congregational path. A third chapel, part of the Wesleyan tradition, was closed in 2002; the village has one public house, The White Lion this was owned in the 1970s by the famous Welsh entertainer Ronnie Williams who formed half of the duo Ryan and Ronnie.

It once received as a guest the British Prime Minister David Lloyd George when he was unable to return home due to heavy snowfall. Across the road from The White Lion is The Queens Head, which closed in the 1990s. Other facilities include a cafe on the A5 main road called Ty Tan Llan Cafe, public toilets, library, A grocer shop and post office called Siop Uwchaled Nearby is the older Alwen Reservoir, built between 1909 and 1921 to provide drinking water for the English town of Birkenhead. At its conception the engineer who designed the dam, George Deacon planned Llyn Brenig, built over half a century later. One of the most popular social gatherings in the village occurs on the first Saturday in September when the local Agricultural Show takes place; this is one of the most successful non-county shows in Wales. The area has received some notoriety amongst music fans since Julian Cope's 2007 release A Child Is Born In Cerrig Y Drudion. Cerrigydrudion Community Council Website A Vision of Britain Through Time British Listed Buildings Clwyd Churches Eastern Conwy Churches Survey Genuki Geograph Office for National Statistics Welcome to Cerrigydrudion

Pierre-Joseph Tiolier

Pierre-Joseph Tiolier was a French engraver, appointed the 15th Engraver-General of France. Pierre-Joseph Tiolier was born of French parents in London, England on 17 March 1763, the youngest of at least fourteen children, his family originated in Auvergne and included lawyers, doctors and civil servants. His father, Joseph Tiolier of Cournon, Auvergne was established as a master confectioner in Lons-le-Saunier in 1840. Pierre-Joseph Tiolier was taught by Pierre-Simon-Benjamin Duvivier. Tiolier was appointed controller of coins at the Paris Mint on 24 Frimaire year IV, he was named Engraver-General of France by Napoleon, the First Consul, on 11 Germinal year XI. In 1816 he resigned his position in favor of Nicolas-Pierre Tiolier. In 1817 he was commissioned by the scientist James Smithson to make a bust medallion, which showed Smithson in profile. Pierre-Joseph Tiolier died in 1819. Coins include: 5 Francs Bonaparte First consul 5 Francs Napoléon Emperor of the French Empire 5 Francs Louis XVIII of France

List of major cities in U.S. lacking inter-city rail service

Several major cities and regional business centers in the continental United States lack Amtrak or some form of inter-city passenger rail service. Four of these metropolitan areas boast more than one million residents. However, some of these cities may be served by Thruway Motorcoach. Other than the service provided by the Alaska Railroad, there is no U. S. based long-distance passenger rail service outside of 46 of the contiguous states and the Canadian provinces of British Columbia and Quebec. There is no inter-city passenger rail service to the states of South Wyoming. For purposes of this list, a city is considered served if it is within 30 miles of an Amtrak or other inter-city passenger rail station. Unless otherwise noted, the provider of the last passenger service noted in each of the following cities was Amtrak. A partial list of the cities with a population of over 100,000 that are not served by some form of inter-city rail service is as follows: In addition, the following cities are not directly served by inter-city rail service, but have a rail station within 30 miles of the city.

Other cities are not served directly due to inconvenient water barriers: San Francisco Peninsula – The San Francisco Bay separates the peninsula from the rest of the national rail network. Passenger service ended in 1971, when the Del Monte was discontinued and the Coast Daylight was rerouted to Oakland with the formation of Amtrak; that service was rerouted to continue north to Portland and renamed the Coast Starlight. The BART commuter heavy rail system operates a trans-bay tube underneath the bay with connections in Richmond, and. Caltrain connects the length of the bay shore to Amtrak at San Jose. However, since the late 1990s, Amtrak has worked on plans to resume the Coast Daylight from San Francisco to Los Angeles. San Francisco, California - Trains stop across San Francisco Bay in Oakland and Emeryville. Whereas trains once went from Oakland to San Francisco, they had been replaced by auto traffic by the 1950s. Proposals to add a San Francisco stop to the San Jose-Sacramento Capitol Corridor are being considered.

Daly City, California - Bypassed after completion of the Bayshore Cutoff in 1907. BART tracks were laid in the former rail right of way, but the city has never been reconnected to the national network. San Mateo, California - nearest connection to the northeast in Hayward, California. St. Petersburg, Florida - trains stop across Tampa Bay in Tampa. Trains had crossed the bay into St. Petersburg; the city lost direct service across the bay when CSX lacked adequate funds to maintain the bridge across the bay. There is Thruway Bus Service at 110th Avenue north of City Limits off US19 to Tampa Union Station. Otherwise the only other method of transportation is taxi; the TECO Line Streetcar System and HART buses both do not connect with the two areas, although express bus service exists between PSTA and HART. Amtrak provides no service to Mexico. From 1973 to 1981 Amtrak operated the Inter-American, which allowed for transfers between Laredo and Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas for connecting service with the Ferrocarriles Nacionales de México.

The closest Amtrak service to Mexico may be found at stations along the western portion of the Sunset Limited and southwestern portion of the Texas Eagle in Texas, New Mexico and California. Phoenix, Arizona is served via Thruway Motorcoach from the Southwest Chief at Arizona; the Sunset Limited stops three times a week at Maricopa 30 miles south of the city. Phoenix lost direct service in June 1996 after Southern Pacific threatened to abandon the line from Yuma. Amtrak has studied rail lines canceled that could renew service to some cities. Cities involved include Boise, Tallahassee, the Quad Cities and Wichita. Proposals for high-speed rail could restore service for several cities. Other services Amtrak could restore include the Pioneer, the Black Hawk, the North Coast Hiawatha, the New Orleans-Orlando segment of the Sunset Limited. List of Amtrak routes List of Amtrak stations List of busiest Amtrak stations Craig. Amtrak in the Heartland. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-34705-3.

Article on the missing markets that America's rail service doesn't serve Chart showing U. S. population centers and Amtrak service