An electrochemical cell is a device capable of either generating electrical energy from chemical reactions or using electrical energy to cause chemical reactions. The electrochemical cells which generate an electric current are called voltaic cells or galvanic cells and those that generate chemical reactions, via electrolysis for example, are called electrolytic cells. A common example of a galvanic cell is a standard 1.5 volt cell meant for consumer use. A battery consists of one or more cells, connected either in parallel, series or series-and-parallel pattern. An electrolytic cell is an electrochemical cell that drives a non-spontaneous redox reaction through the application of electrical energy, they are used to decompose chemical compounds, in a process called electrolysis—the Greek word lysis means to break up. Important examples of electrolysis are the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen, bauxite into aluminium and other chemicals. Electroplating is done using an electrolytic cell.
Electrolysis is a technique. An electrolytic cell has three component parts: two electrodes; the electrolyte is a solution of water or other solvents in which ions are dissolved. Molten salts such as sodium chloride are electrolytes; when driven by an external voltage applied to the electrodes, the ions in the electrolyte are attracted to an electrode with the opposite charge, where charge-transferring reactions can take place. Only with an external electrical potential of correct polarity and sufficient magnitude can an electrolytic cell decompose a stable, or inert chemical compound in the solution; the electrical energy provided can produce a chemical reaction which would not occur spontaneously otherwise. A galvanic cell, or voltaic cell, named after Luigi Galvani, or Alessandro Volta is an electrochemical cell that derives electrical energy from spontaneous redox reactions taking place within the cell, it consists of two different metals connected by a salt bridge, or individual half-cells separated by a porous membrane.
Volta was the inventor of the first electrical battery. In common usage, the word "battery" has come to include a single galvanic cell, but a battery properly consists of multiple cells. A primary cell is a Galvanic battery, designed to be used once and discarded, not recharged with electricity and reused like a secondary cell. In general, the electrochemical reaction occurring in the cell is not reversible, rendering the cell unrechargeable; as a primary cell is used, chemical reactions in the battery use up the chemicals that generate the power. In contrast, in a secondary cell, the reaction can be reversed by running a current into the cell with a battery charger to recharge it, regenerating the chemical reactants. Primary cells are made in a range of standard sizes to power small household appliances such as flashlights and portable radios. Primary batteries make up about 90% of the $50 billion battery market, but secondary batteries have been gaining market share. About 15 billion primary batteries are thrown away worldwide every year all ending up in landfills.
Due to the toxic heavy metals and strong acids or alkalis they contain, batteries are hazardous waste. Most municipalities require separate disposal; the energy needed to manufacture a battery is about 50 times greater than the energy. Due to their high pollutant content compared to their small energy content, the primary battery is considered a wasteful, environmentally unfriendly technology. Due to increasing sales of wireless devices and cordless tools which cannot be economically powered by primary batteries and come with integral rechargeable batteries, the secondary battery industry has high growth and has been replacing the primary battery in high end products. A secondary cell referred to as a rechargeable battery is an electrochemical cell that can be run as both a galvanic cell or as an electrolytic cell; this is used as a convenient way to store electricity, when current flows one way the levels of one or more chemicals build up, while it is discharging they reduce and the resulting electromotive force can do work.
A fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that converts the chemical energy from a fuel into electricity through an electrochemical reaction of hydrogen fuel with oxygen or another oxidizing agent. Fuel cells are different from batteries in requiring a continuous source of fuel and oxygen to sustain the chemical reaction, whereas in a battery the chemical energy comes from chemicals present in the battery. Fuel cells can produce electricity continuously for as long as oxygen are supplied; the first fuel cells were invented in 1838. The first commercial use of fuel cells came more than a century in NASA space programmes to generate power for satellites and space capsules. Since fuel cells have been used in many other applications. Fuel cells are used for primary and backup power for commercial and residential buildings and in remote or inaccessible areas, they are used to power fuel cell vehicles, including forklifts, buses, boats and submarines. There are many types of fuel cells, but they all consist of an anode, a cathode, an electrolyte that allows positively charged hydrogen ions to move between the two sides of the fuel cell.
At the anode a catalyst causes the fuel to undergo oxidation reactions that generate protons (positivel
An opposed-piston engine is a reciprocating internal combustion engine in which each cylinder has a piston at both ends, no cylinder head. In 1882 James Atkinson developed a variant of the four stroke Otto cycle; the first implementation of this was arranged as an opposed piston engine, the Atkinson differential engine. Opposed piston engines using the two stroke cycle are known to have been made by Oechelhäuser as early as 1898, when a 600 hp 2-stroke gas engine was installed at the Hoerde ironworks; these engines were made by Deutsche Kraftgas Gesellschaft from 1899, by other companies under licence including William Beardmore & Sons Ltd in the UK. Smaller versions of opposed piston engines suitable for motor vehicles begin with the French company Gobron-Brillié around 1900. In April 1904 a Gobron-Brillié car driven by Louis Rigolly and powered by the opposed piston engine was the first car to exceed 150km/h with a "World's Record Speed" of 152.5km/h and on 17 July, again driven by Rigolly, the first to exceed 100 mph for the flying kilometre.
The first diesel engine with opposed pistons was a prototype built at the Kolomna plant in Russia. The designer, Raymond A. Koreyvo, patented the engine in France, on November 6, 1907 displayed the engine at international exhibitions. After these demonstrations similar engines were produced by other companies. Koreyvo filed a claim against these companies, rejected by the Kolomna plant as the managing director did not want any quarrels with influential foreigners. In the USSR, the opposed piston engine was used only after meetings with German aircraft makers, relating to the Jumo 205 opposed piston diesel engine. In the USSR locomotive diesel engines adapted American Fairbanks-Morse designs; these engines were used in military boats, set out under the world war two Lend-Lease contracts. As illustrated by Junkers Jumo 204 and Napier Deltic design history, the main expected advantages are to get rid of a heavy cylinder head, as the opposing piston filled this role. Cylinder head and valvetrain systems are among the most complex and costly elements of conventional engines, primary contributors to heat and friction losses.. to allow for two stroke, uniflow design: both pistons share a single inlet and outlet, with one piston commanding the inlet and the other commanding the outlet.
This was expected to result in reduced weight and increased efficiency. Moreover, the design allows for flatter packaging. On the drawback side, the power from the two opposing pistons has to be geared together, adding weight and complexity when compared to more classical engines where pistons are geared together by their common crankshaft. Uniflow can be achieved in more classical, designs. In summation, this leaves the drawback of opposing side power gearing versus the advantage of getting rid of a cylinder head. Opposed piston engines should not be confused with flat engines, which are horizontally opposed with one piston per cylinder, have cylinder heads; some variations of the opposed piston or OP designs use a single crankshaft. The Gobron-Brillié, Doxford ship engines used a crankshaft at one end of the cylinders and a crosshead for the opposing piston; the crank throws for each end were unequal giving a shorter motion for the end having the higher reciprocating weight in order to help balance.
The Commer TS3 3-cylinder truck engines have a single crankshaft beneath the centre of the cylinders with both pistons connected by levers. This type of engine configuration dates at least back as far as 1914, as a 2-stroke petrol engine referred to as the "Simpson's balanced two-stroke" was described in The Motor Cycle magazine of this date; this design used crankcase compression, used one piston to uncover the transfer port, another to open the exhaust port allowing the fresh charge to flow from one end of the cylinder to the other, thereby avoiding the need for deflector crowns for pistons used in most 2-strokes at that time. The levers operating the pistons allowed for a large piston travel with smaller crank throw. A more common layout uses two crankshafts, with the crankshafts geared together, or three geared crankshafts in the Napier Deltic diesel engines; the Deltic uses three crankshafts, one at each corner, to form the three banks of double-ended cylinders arranged in an equilateral triangle.
These were used to power fast patrol boats. Both types are now obsolete, although the Royal Navy still maintains some Deltic-powered Hunt-class mine countermeasure vessels; the first opposed-piston diesel engines were developed in the beginning of the 20th century. In 1907, Russian Raymond Koreyvo, the engineer of Kolomna Works, built an opposed-piston two-stroke diesel with two crankshafts connected by gearing. Although Koreyvo patented his engine in France in November 1907, the management would not go on to manufacture opposed-piston engines; the first Junkers engines had one crankshaft, the upper pistons having long connecting rods outside the cylinder. These engines were the forerunner of the Doxford marine engine, this layout was used for two- and three-cylinder car engines from around 1900–1922 by Gobron-Brillié. There is a resurgence of this design in a boxer configuration as a small aircraft Diesel engine, for other applications, called the "OPOC" engine by Advanced Propulsion Technologies, Inc. of California.
Engines, such as the Junkers Jumo 205 diesel aircraft engine and today's Achates Power engine, use two crankshafts, one at either end of a single bank of cylinders. There are efforts to reintroduce the opposed-piston d
A diesel–electric transmission, or diesel–electric powertrain, is used by a number of vehicle and ship types for providing locomotion. A diesel–electric transmission system includes a diesel engine connected to an electrical generator, creating electricity that powers electric traction motors. No clutch is required. Before diesel engines came into widespread use, a similar system, using a petrol engine and called petrol–electric or gas–electric, was sometimes used. Diesel–electric transmission is used on railways by diesel electric locomotives and diesel electric multiple units, as electric motors are able to supply full torque at 0 RPM. Diesel–electric systems are used in submarines and surface ships and some land vehicles. In some high-efficiency applications, electrical energy may be stored in rechargeable batteries, in which case these vehicles can be considered as a class of hybrid electric vehicle; the first diesel motorship was the first diesel–electric ship, the Russian tanker Vandal from Branobel, launched in 1903.
Steam turbine–electric propulsion has been in use since the 1920s, using diesel–electric powerplants in surface ships has increased lately. The Finnish coastal defence ships Ilmarinen and Väinämöinen laid down in 1928–1929, were among the first surface ships to use diesel–electric transmission; the technology was used in diesel powered icebreakers. In World War II the United States built diesel–electric surface warships. Due to machinery shortages destroyer escorts of the Evarts and Cannon classes were diesel–electric, with half their designed horsepower; the Wind-class icebreakers, on the other hand, were designed for diesel–electric propulsion because of its flexibility and resistance to damage. Some modern diesel–electric ships, including cruise ships and icebreakers, use electric motors in pods called azimuth thrusters underneath to allow for 360° rotation, making the ships far more maneuverable. An example of this is Symphony of the Seas, the largest passenger ship as of 2019. Gas turbines are used for electrical power generation and some ships use a combination: Queen Mary 2 has a set of diesel engines in the bottom of the ship plus two gas turbines mounted near the main funnel.
This provides a simple way to use the high-speed, low-torque output of a turbine to drive a low-speed propeller, without the need for excessive reduction gearing. Early submarines used a direct mechanical connection between the engine and propeller, switching between diesel engines for surface running and electric motors for submerged propulsion; this was a "parallel" type of hybrid, since the motor and engine were coupled to the same shaft. On the surface, the motor was used as a generator to recharge the batteries and supply other electric loads; the engine would be disconnected for submerged operation, with batteries powering the electric motor and supplying all other power as well. True diesel–electric transmissions for submarines were first proposed by the United States Navy's Bureau of Engineering in 1928—instead of driving the propeller directly while running on the surface, the submarine's diesel would instead drive a generator that could either charge the submarine's batteries or drive the electric motor.
This meant that motor speed was independent of the diesel engine's speed, the diesel could run at an optimum and non-critical speed, while one or more of the diesel engines could be shut down for maintenance while the submarine continued to run using battery power. The concept was pioneered in 1929 in the S-class submarines S-3, S-6, S-7 to test the concept; the first production submarines with this system were the Porpoise-class, it was used on most subsequent US diesel submarines through the 1960s. The only other navy to adopt the system before 1945 was the British Royal Navy in the U-class submarines, although some submarines of the Imperial Japanese Navy used separate diesel generators for low-speed running. In a diesel–electric transmission arrangement, as used on 1930s and US Navy, German and other nations' diesel submarines, the propellers are driven directly or through reduction gears by an electric motor, while two or more diesel generators provide electric energy for charging the batteries and driving the electric motors.
This mechanically isolates the noisy engine compartment from the outer pressure hull and reduces the acoustic signature of the submarine when surfaced. Some nuclear submarines use a similar turbo-electric propulsion system, with propulsion turbo generators driven by reactor plant steam. During World War I, there was a strategic need for rail engines without plumes of smoke above them. Diesel technology was not yet sufficiently developed but a few precursor attempts were made for petrol–electric transmissions by the French and British. About 300 of these locomotives, only 96 being standard gauge, were in use at various points in the conflict. Before the war, the GE 57-ton gas-electric boxcab had been produced in the USA. In the 1920s, diesel–electric technology first saw limited use in switchers, locomotives used for moving trains around in railroad yards and assembling and disassembling them. An early company offering "Oil-Electric" locomotives was the American Locomotive Company; the ALCO HH series of diesel–electric switcher entered series production in 1931.
In the 1930s, the system was adapted for the fastest trains of their day. Diesel–electric powerplants became popular
In electricity generation, a generator is a device that converts motive power into electrical power for use in an external circuit. Sources of mechanical energy include steam turbines, gas turbines, water turbines, internal combustion engines and hand cranks; the first electromagnetic generator, the Faraday disk, was invented in 1831 by British scientist Michael Faraday. Generators provide nearly all of the power for electric power grids; the reverse conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy is done by an electric motor, motors and generators have many similarities. Many motors can be mechanically driven to generate electricity and make acceptable manual generators. Electromagnetic generators fall into one of two broad categories and alternators. Dynamos generate pulsing direct current through the use of a commutator. Alternators generate alternating current. Mechanically a generator consists of a rotating part and a stationary part: Rotor The rotating part of an electrical machine.
Stator The stationary part of an electrical machine, which surrounds the rotor. One of these parts generates a magnetic field, the other has a wire winding in which the changing field induces an electric current: Field winding or field magnets The magnetic field producing component of an electrical machine; the magnetic field of the dynamo or alternator can be provided by either wire windings called field coils or permanent magnets. Electrically-excited generators include an excitation system to produce the field flux. A generator using permanent magnets is sometimes called a magneto, or permanent magnet synchronous generators. Armature The power-producing component of an electrical machine. In a generator, alternator, or dynamo, the armature windings generate the electric current, which provides power to an external circuit; the armature can be on either the rotor or the stator, depending on the design, with the field coil or magnet on the other part. Before the connection between magnetism and electricity was discovered, electrostatic generators were invented.
They operated on electrostatic principles, by using moving electrically charged belts and disks that carried charge to a high potential electrode. The charge was generated using either of two mechanisms: electrostatic induction or the triboelectric effect; such generators generated high voltage and low current. Because of their inefficiency and the difficulty of insulating machines that produced high voltages, electrostatic generators had low power ratings, were never used for generation of commercially significant quantities of electric power, their only practical applications were to power early X-ray tubes, in some atomic particle accelerators. The operating principle of electromagnetic generators was discovered in the years of 1831–1832 by Michael Faraday; the principle called Faraday's law, is that an electromotive force is generated in an electrical conductor which encircles a varying magnetic flux. He built the first electromagnetic generator, called the Faraday disk, it produced a small DC voltage.
This design was inefficient, due to self-cancelling counterflows of current in regions of the disk that were not under the influence of the magnetic field. While current was induced directly underneath the magnet, the current would circulate backwards in regions that were outside the influence of the magnetic field; this counterflow limited the power output to the pickup wires, induced waste heating of the copper disc. Homopolar generators would solve this problem by using an array of magnets arranged around the disc perimeter to maintain a steady field effect in one current-flow direction. Another disadvantage was that the output voltage was low, due to the single current path through the magnetic flux. Experimenters found that using multiple turns of wire in a coil could produce higher, more useful voltages. Since the output voltage is proportional to the number of turns, generators could be designed to produce any desired voltage by varying the number of turns. Wire windings became a basic feature of all subsequent generator designs.
Independently of Faraday, the Hungarian Ányos Jedlik started experimenting in 1827 with the electromagnetic rotating devices which he called electromagnetic self-rotors. In the prototype of the single-pole electric starter both the stationary and the revolving parts were electromagnetic, it was the discovery of the principle of dynamo self-excitation, which replaced permanent magnet designs. He may have formulated the concept of the dynamo in 1861 but didn't patent it as he thought he wasn't the first to realize this. A coil of wire rotating in a magnetic field produces a current which changes direction with each 180° rotation, an alternating current; however many early uses of electricity required direct current. In the first practical electric generators, called dynamos, the AC was converted into DC with a commutator, a set of rotating switch contacts on the armature shaft; the commutator reversed the connection of the armature winding to the circuit every 180° rotation of the shaft, creating a pulsing DC current.
One of the first dynamos was built by Hippolyte Pixii in 1832. The dynamo was the first electrical generator capable of delivering power for industry; the Woolrich Electrical Generator of 1844, now in Thinktank, Birmingham Science Museum, is the earliest electrical generator used in an industrial process. It was used by the firm of Elkingtons for commercial electroplating; the modern dynamo, fit for use in industrial applications, was invented independently by Sir Charles
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions. Both bomb types release large quantities of energy from small amounts of matter; the first test of a fission bomb released an amount of energy equal to 20,000 tons of TNT. The first thermonuclear bomb test released energy equal to 10 million tons of TNT. A thermonuclear weapon weighing little more than 2,400 pounds can release energy equal to more than 1.2 million tons of TNT. A nuclear device no larger than traditional bombs can devastate an entire city by blast and radiation. Since they are weapons of mass destruction, the proliferation of nuclear weapons is a focus of international relations policy. Nuclear weapons have been used twice in war, both times by the United States against Japan near the end of World War II. On August 6, 1945, the U. S. Army Air Forces detonated a uranium gun-type fission bomb nicknamed "Little Boy" over the Japanese city of Hiroshima.
S. Army Air Forces detonated a plutonium implosion-type fission bomb nicknamed "Fat Man" over the Japanese city of Nagasaki; these bombings caused injuries that resulted in the deaths of 200,000 civilians and military personnel. The ethics of these bombings and their role in Japan's surrender are subjects of debate. Since the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, nuclear weapons have been detonated over two thousand times for testing and demonstration. Only a few nations are suspected of seeking them; the only countries known to have detonated nuclear weapons—and acknowledge possessing them—are the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, China, India and North Korea. Israel is believed to possess nuclear weapons, though, in a policy of deliberate ambiguity, it does not acknowledge having them. Germany, Turkey and the Netherlands are nuclear weapons sharing states. South Africa is the only country to have independently developed and renounced and dismantled its nuclear weapons.
The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons aims to reduce the spread of nuclear weapons, but its effectiveness has been questioned, political tensions remained high in the 1970s and 1980s. Modernisation of weapons continues to this day. There are two basic types of nuclear weapons: those that derive the majority of their energy from nuclear fission reactions alone, those that use fission reactions to begin nuclear fusion reactions that produce a large amount of the total energy output. All existing nuclear weapons derive some of their explosive energy from nuclear fission reactions. Weapons whose explosive output is from fission reactions are referred to as atomic bombs or atom bombs; this has long been noted as something of a misnomer, as their energy comes from the nucleus of the atom, just as it does with fusion weapons. In fission weapons, a mass of fissile material is forced into supercriticality—allowing an exponential growth of nuclear chain reactions—either by shooting one piece of sub-critical material into another or by compression of a sub-critical sphere or cylinder of fissile material using chemically-fueled explosive lenses.
The latter approach, the "implosion" method, is more sophisticated than the former. A major challenge in all nuclear weapon designs is to ensure that a significant fraction of the fuel is consumed before the weapon destroys itself; the amount of energy released by fission bombs can range from the equivalent of just under a ton to upwards of 500,000 tons of TNT. All fission reactions generate the remains of the split atomic nuclei. Many fission products are either radioactive or moderately radioactive, as such, they are a serious form of radioactive contamination. Fission products are the principal radioactive component of nuclear fallout. Another source of radioactivity is the burst of free neutrons produced by the weapon; when they collide with other nuclei in surrounding material, the neutrons transmute those nuclei into other isotopes, altering their stability and making them radioactive. The most used fissile materials for nuclear weapons applications have been uranium-235 and plutonium-239.
Less used has been uranium-233. Neptunium-237 and some isotopes of americium may be usable for nuclear explosives as well, but it is not clear that this has been implemented, their plausible use in nuclear weapons is a matter of dispute; the other basic type of nuclear weapon produces a large proportion of its energy in nuclear fusion reactions. Such fusion weapons are referred to as thermonuclear weapons or more colloquially as hydrogen bombs, as they rely on fusion reactions between isotopes of hydrogen. All such weapons derive a significant portion of their energy from fission reactions used to "trigger" fusion reactions, fusion reactions can themselves trigger additional fission reactions. Only six countries—United States, United Kingdom, China and India—have conducted thermonuclear weapon tests. North Korea claims to have tested a fusion weapon as of January 2016. Thermonuclear weapons a
An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. Most electric motors operate through the interaction between the motor's magnetic field and electric current in a wire winding to generate force in the form of rotation of a shaft. Electric motors can be powered by direct current sources, such as from batteries, motor vehicles or rectifiers, or by alternating current sources, such as a power grid, inverters or electrical generators. An electric generator is mechanically identical to an electric motor, but operates in the reverse direction, converting mechanical energy into electrical energy. Electric motors may be classified by considerations such as power source type, internal construction and type of motion output. In addition to AC versus DC types, motors may be brushed or brushless, may be of various phase, may be either air-cooled or liquid-cooled. General-purpose motors with standard dimensions and characteristics provide convenient mechanical power for industrial use.
The largest electric motors are used for ship propulsion, pipeline compression and pumped-storage applications with ratings reaching 100 megawatts. Electric motors are found in industrial fans and pumps, machine tools, household appliances, power tools and disk drives. Small motors may be found in electric watches. In certain applications, such as in regenerative braking with traction motors, electric motors can be used in reverse as generators to recover energy that might otherwise be lost as heat and friction. Electric motors produce linear or rotary force and can be distinguished from devices such as magnetic solenoids and loudspeakers that convert electricity into motion but do not generate usable mechanical force, which are referred to as actuators and transducers; the first electric motors were simple electrostatic devices described in experiments by Scottish monk Andrew Gordon and American experimenter Benjamin Franklin in the 1740s. The theoretical principle behind them, Coulomb's law, was discovered but not published, by Henry Cavendish in 1771.
This law was discovered independently by Charles-Augustin de Coulomb in 1785, who published it so that it is now known with his name. The invention of the electrochemical battery by Alessandro Volta in 1799 made possible the production of persistent electric currents. After the discovery of the interaction between such a current and a magnetic field, namely the electromagnetic interaction by Hans Christian Ørsted in 1820 much progress was soon made, it only took a few weeks for André-Marie Ampère to develop the first formulation of the electromagnetic interaction and present the Ampère's force law, that described the production of mechanical force by the interaction of an electric current and a magnetic field. The first demonstration of the effect with a rotary motion was given by Michael Faraday in 1821. A free-hanging wire was dipped into a pool of mercury; when a current was passed through the wire, the wire rotated around the magnet, showing that the current gave rise to a close circular magnetic field around the wire.
This motor is demonstrated in physics experiments, substituting brine for mercury. Barlow's wheel was an early refinement to this Faraday demonstration, although these and similar homopolar motors remained unsuited to practical application until late in the century. In 1827, Hungarian physicist Ányos Jedlik started experimenting with electromagnetic coils. After Jedlik solved the technical problems of continuous rotation with the invention of the commutator, he called his early devices "electromagnetic self-rotors". Although they were used only for teaching, in 1828 Jedlik demonstrated the first device to contain the three main components of practical DC motors: the stator and commutator; the device employed no permanent magnets, as the magnetic fields of both the stationary and revolving components were produced by the currents flowing through their windings. After many other more or less successful attempts with weak rotating and reciprocating apparatus Prussian Moritz von Jacobi created the first real rotating electric motor in May 1834.
It developed remarkable mechanical output power. His motor set a world record, which Jacobi improved four years in September 1838, his second motor was powerful enough to drive a boat with 14 people across a wide river. It was in 1839/40 that other developers managed to build motors with similar and higher performance; the first commutator DC electric motor capable of turning machinery was invented by British scientist William Sturgeon in 1832. Following Sturgeon's work, a commutator-type direct-current electric motor was built by American inventor Thomas Davenport, which he patented in 1837; the motors ran at up to 600 revolutions per minute, powered machine tools and a printing press. Due to the high cost of primary battery power, the motors were commercially unsuccessful and bankrupted Davenport. Several inventors followed Sturgeon in the development of DC motors, but all encountered the same battery cost issues; as no electricity distribution system was available at the time, no practical commercial market emerged for these motors.
In 1855, Jedlik built a device using similar principles to those used in his electromagnetic self-rotors, capable of useful work. He built a model electric vehicle that same year. A major turning point came in 1864; this featured symmetrically-grouped coils closed upon themselves and connected to the bars of a commutator, the brushes of which delivered non-fluctuating current. The first c
Fairbanks Morse and Company was an American manufacturing company in the late 19th and early 20th century. A weighing scale manufacturer, it diversified into pumps, windmills, coffee grinders, farm tractors, feed mills and industrial supplies until it was merged in 1958, it used the trade name Fairbanks-Morse. There are three separate corporate entities that could be considered successors to the company, none of which represent a complete and direct descendant of the original company. All claim the heritage of Fairbanks Morse and Company: Fairbanks Scales is a owned company in Kansas City, that manufactures scales. Fairbanks Morse Engine, a subsidiary of EnPro Industries, is a company based in Beloit, that manufactures and services engines. Fairbanks Morse Pumps is a part of Pentair Water in Kansas City and manufactures pumps. Fairbanks Morse and Company began in 1823 when inventor Thaddeus Fairbanks opened an ironworks in St. Johnsbury, Vermont, to manufacture two of his patented inventions: a cast iron plow and a heating stove.
In 1829 he started a hemp dressing business. Though unsuccessful in fabricating for fiber factories, another invention by Thaddeus, the platform scale, formed the basis for a great enterprise; that device was patented in June 1832, a generation the E. & T. Fairbanks & Company was selling thousands of scales, first in the United States in Europe, South America and Imperial China. Scales were integral to business as railway shippers charged by weight. Fairbanks scales won 63 medals over the years in international competition, it became the leading manufacturer in the US, the best-known company the world over until Henry Ford and the Ford Corporation assumed this title in the 1920s. In Wisconsin, a former missionary named Leonard Wheeler designed a durable windmill for pumping water, the Eclipse windmill. Wheeler set up shop in Beloit just after the Civil War. Soon half a million windmills dotted the landscape throughout the West and as far away as Australia. At about the same time, a Fairbanks & Company employee, Charles Hosmer Morse, opened a Fairbanks office in Chicago, from which he expanded the company's territory of operation and widened its product line.
As part of this expansion, Morse brought Wheeler and his Eclipse Windmill pumps into business with the Fairbanks company. Morse became a partner in the Fairbanks Company and by the end of the nineteenth century, it was known as Fairbanks Morse & Company and was headquartered in Chicago. Canadian and American cities had branch dealerships, with Fairbanks first coming to Montreal, Canada, in 1876 and opening a factory there. In the late nineteenth century, business expanded in the Western United States, as did the company's catalog, it grew to include typewriters, hand trucks, railway velocipedes, tractors and a variety of warehouse and bulk shipping tools. The company became an industrial supplier distributing complete "turn-key" systems: tools, gauges, parts and pipe, its 1910 catalog contained over 800 pages. The Fairbanks Morse Company began producing oil and naptha engines in the 1890s with the purchase of the Charter line of engines. Fairbanks Morse gas engine became a success with farmers.
Irrigation, electricity generation, oilfield work benefited from these engines. Small lighting plants built by the company were popular. Fairbanks Morse powerplants evolved by burning kerosene in 1893, coal gas in 1905 to semi-diesel engines in 1913 and to full diesel engines in 1924. In 1914 the company began production of the Model Z single-cylinder engine in one-, three- and six-horsepower sizes; the Z was soon made in sizes up to 20 horsepower. Over a half million units were produced in the following 30 years; the model Z found favor with farmers, the Model N was popular in stationary industrial applications. The Company had brief forays into building automobiles, corn shellers, cranes, televisions and refrigerators, but output was small in these fields. After the expiration of Rudolf Diesel's American license in 1912, Fairbanks Morse entered the large engine business; the company's larger Model Y semi-diesel became a standard workhorse, sugar, rice and mine mills used the engine. The model Y was available in sizes from one through 10 to 200 horsepower.
The Y-VA engine was the first high-compression, cold-start, full diesel developed by Fairbanks Morse without the acquisition of any foreign patent. This machine was developed in Beloit and introduced in 1924; the company expanded its line to the marine CO engine as well as the mill model E, a modernized Y diesel. During World War I, a large order of 60 30-horsepower CO marine engines were installed in British decoy fishing ships to lure German submarines within range of their 6" naval guns. From this, Fairbanks-Morse became a major engine manufacturer and developed plants for railway and marine applications; the development of the diesel locomotive and ship in the 1930s fostered the expansion of the company. Prior to World War II Fairbanks-Morse developed a marine engine using an unusual opposed piston design, similar in arrangement to a series of German Junkers aircraft diesels; the most common variant for submarines through the 1990s was the 38D 8-1/8 engine, ranging from 4 to 12 cylinders.
This engine was delivered to the U. S. Navy in large numbers for use in fleet submarines, which used 9- or 10-cylinder versions as main engines in World War II; when the innovative but faulty "pancake" engine