The UGM-27 Polaris missile was a two-stage solid-fueled nuclear-armed submarine-launched ballistic missile. The United States Navy's first SLBM, it served from 1961 to 1996; the Polaris project was created to replace the solid-fueled Jupiter S project, approved in 1956 to replace the liquid-fueled SM-78 and PGM-19 Jupiter missiles. In December 1956, the United States Navy awarded Polaris development contracts to Lockheed Corporation and Aerojet Rocketdyne; the Polaris missile was designed to be used for second strike countervalue as part of the Navy's contribution to the United States arsenal of nuclear weapons, replacing the Regulus cruise missile. Known as a Fleet Ballistic Missile, the Polaris was first launched from the Cape Canaveral, missile test base on January 7, 1960. Following the Polaris Sales Agreement in 1963, Polaris missiles were carried on British Royal Navy submarines between 1968 and the mid-1990s. Plans to equip the Italian Navy with the missile ended in the mid-60s, after several successful test launches carried out onboard the Italian cruiser Giuseppe Garibaldi.
Despite the successful launching tests, the plan was abandoned due to the completion of initial SSBN vessels. Nonetheless, the Italian government set out to develop an indigenous missile called Alfa; the program was successful, but was halted by Italy's ratification of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and the failure of the NATO Multilateral Force. The Polaris missile was replaced on 31 of the 41 original SSBNs in the U. S. Navy by the MIRV-capable Poseidon missile beginning in 1972. During the 1980s, these missiles were replaced on 12 of these submarines by the Trident I missile; the 10 George Washington- and Ethan Allen-class SSBNs retained Polaris A-3 until 1980 because their missile tubes were not large enough to accommodate Poseidon. With USS Ohio beginning sea trials in 1980, these submarines were disarmed and redesignated as attack submarines to avoid exceeding the SALT II strategic arms treaty limits; the Polaris missile program's complexity led to the development of new project management techniques, including the Program Evaluation and Review Technique to replace the simpler Gantt chart methodology.
At the start of the Second World War, nearly every major world military force, involved in the war had at least developed rough ideas of a rocket program. It is important to note that at this time the distinction between rockets and missiles was this: rockets traveled over a fixed trajectory and missiles could be guided to their destination. Rockets of all shapes and sizes were being implemented in battlefields around the globe; the Soviet Union deployed rockets such as the Katyusha, which were fired from a mobile launcher in waves of up to nearly 50 small, unguided rockets, the Japanese were implementing rockets that would be used on the front lines. Rockets such as the Katyusha could fire at targets within three miles, while the first Japanese rockets were only valuable for targets less than five-hundred feet away; the initial version of the Japanese kamikaze planes were powered by rockets. These wooden suicide planes did not provide the Japanese forces with a reliable weapon, by 1945 the kamikaze gliders were being used in combat, no matter how ineffective they may have been.
British forces, had begun developments on anti-aircraft rockets of their own, which proved effective as early as 1941. Soon after the attacks on Pearl Harbor, the United States joined arms in the race for rockets borrowing much of its initial products from the British armed forces; the United States rocket program began testing both rockets and missiles, by 1945, the Army was investing $150 million a year, while the Navy was spending $1.2 billion. Despite these efforts from the major contributing forces in the war, German scientists excelled at mastering the largest and most advanced weapons. One of which, the German V-2 rocket, would become the blueprint for all of the serious global missile programs to come; as the United States Army continued to make steady advancements in its rocket and missile programs it became apparent that if the program wished to keep up with its own rapid growth, as well as with the rest of the world, it would need more space than what was available. On October 28, 1949, Alabama, was chosen based on its promising location and easy access to resources to be the new home to the American program.
By the end of 1950, the Redstone Arsenal was operational and took on the new designation as the Ordnance Guided Missile Center. The Polaris missile replaced an earlier plan to create a submarine-based missile force based on a derivative of the U. S. Army Jupiter Intermediate-range ballistic missile. Chief of Naval Operations Admiral Arleigh Burke appointed Rear Admiral W. F. "Red" Raborn as head of a Special Project Office to develop Jupiter for the Navy in late 1955. The Jupiter missile's large diameter was a product of the need to keep the length short enough to fit in a reasonably-sized submarine. At the seminal Project Nobska conference in 1956, with Admiral Burke present, nuclear physicist Edward Teller stated that a physically small one-megaton warhead could be produced for Polaris within a few years, this prompted Burke to leave the Jupiter program and concentrate on Polaris in December of that year. Polaris was spearheaded by the Special Project Office's Missile Branch under Rear Admiral Roderick Osgood Middleton, is still under the Special Project Office.
Admiral Burke was instrumental in determining the size of the Polaris submarine force, suggesting that 40-45 submarines with 16 missiles each would be sufficient. The number of Polaris submarines was fixed
Patrick Henry was an American attorney and orator best known for his declaration to the Second Virginia Convention: "Give me liberty, or give me death!" A Founding Father, he served as the first and sixth post-colonial Governor of Virginia, from 1776 to 1779 and from 1784 to 1786. Henry was born in Hanover County and was for the most part educated at home. After an unsuccessful venture running a store, assisting his father-in-law at Hanover Tavern, Henry became a lawyer through self-study. Beginning his practice in 1760, he soon became prominent through his victory in the Parson's Cause against the Anglican clergy. Henry was elected to the Virginia House of Burgesses, where he became notable for his inflammatory rhetoric against the Stamp Act of 1765. In 1774 and 1775, Henry served as a delegate to the First and Second Continental Congresses, but did not prove influential, he gained further popularity among the people of Virginia, both through his oratory at the convention and by marching troops towards the colonial capital of Williamsburg after the Gunpowder Incident until the munitions seized by the royal government were paid for.
Henry urged independence, when the Fifth Virginia Convention endorsed this in 1776, served on the committee charged with drafting the Virginia Declaration of Rights and the original Virginia Constitution. Henry was promptly elected governor under the new charter, served a total of five one-year terms. After leaving the governorship in 1779, Henry served in the Virginia House of Delegates until he began his last two terms as governor in 1784; the actions of the national government under the Articles of Confederation made Henry fear a strong federal government and he declined appointment as a delegate to the 1787 Constitutional Convention. He opposed the ratification of the Constitution, a fight which has marred his historical image, he returned to the practice of law in his final years, declining several offices under the federal government. A slaveholder throughout his adult life, he hoped to see the institution end, but had no plan for that beyond ending the importation of slaves. Henry is remembered for his oratory, as an enthusiastic promoter of the fight for independence.
Henry was born on the family farm, Studley, in Hanover County in the Colony of Virginia, on May 29, 1736. His father was John Henry, an immigrant from Aberdeenshire, who had attended King's College, University of Aberdeen, there before emigrating to Virginia in the 1720s. Settling in Hanover County in about 1732, John Henry married Sarah Winston Syme, a wealthy widow from a prominent local family of English ancestry. Patrick Henry shared his name with his uncle, an Anglican minister, until the elder Patrick's death in 1777 went as Patrick Henry Jr. Henry attended a local school until about the age of 10. There was no academy in Hanover County, he was tutored at home by his father; the young Henry engaged in the typical recreations of the times, such as music and dancing, was fond of hunting. Since the family's lands and slaves would for the most part pass to his older half-brother John Syme Jr. Henry needed to make his own way in the world. At the age of 15, he became a clerk for a local merchant, a year opened a store with his older brother William.
The store was not successful. The religious revival known as the Great Awakening reached Virginia, his father was staunchly Anglican, but his mother took him to hear Presbyterian preachers. Although Henry remained a lifelong Anglican communicant, ministers such as Samuel Davies taught him that it is not enough to save one's own soul, but one should help to save society, he learned that oratory should reach the heart, not just persuade based on reason. His oratorical technique would follow that of these preachers, seeking to reach the people by speaking to them in their own language. Religion would play a key part in Henry's life, he was uncomfortable with the role of the Anglican Church as the established religion in Virginia, fought for religious liberty throughout his career. Henry wrote to a group of Baptists who had sent a letter of congratulations following Henry's 1776 election as governor, "My earnest wish is, that Christian charity and love may unite all different persuasions as brethren."
He criticized his state of Virginia, feeling that slavery and lack of religious toleration had retarded its development. He told the Virginia Ratifying Convention in 1788, "That religion or the duty which we owe to our Creator, the manner of discharging it, can be directed only by reason and conviction, not by force or violence, therefore all men have an equal and unalienable right to the free exercise of religion according to the dictates of conscience, that no particular religious sect or society ought to be favored or established by law in preference to others." In 1754, Henry married Sarah Shelton in the parlor of her family house, Rural Plains. As a wedding gift, her father gave the couple six slaves and the 300-acre Pine Slash Farm near Mechanicsville. Pine Slash was exhausted from earlier cultivations, Henry worked with the slaves to clear fresh fields; the latter half of the 1750s were years of drought in Virginia, after the main house burned down, Henry gave up and moved to the Hanover Tavern, owned by Sarah's father.
Henry served as host at Hanover Tavern as part of his duties, entertained the guests by playing the fiddle. Among those who stayed there during this time was the young Thomas Jefferson, aged 17, en route to his studie
The Holy Loch is a sea loch, a part of the Cowal peninsula coast of the Firth of Clyde, in Argyll and Bute, Scotland. The "Holy Loch" name is believed to date from the 6th century, when Saint Munn landed there after leaving Ireland. Kilmun Parish Church and Argyll Mausoleum is said to stand where Saint Munn's church was once located. Robertson's Yard at Sandbank, a village on the loch, was a major wooden boat building company in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. During World War II, the loch was used as a British Royal Navy submarine base. From 1961 to 1992, it was used as a United States Navy Ballistic missile submarine base. In 1992, the Holy Loch base was deemed unnecessary following the demise of the Soviet Union and subsequently closed. Open on the Firth of Clyde at its eastern end, the Sea Loch is 1 mile wide and between 2 and 3 miles long, varying with the tide; the town of Dunoon on the Cowal peninsula lies on the shores of the Clyde just to the south of the loch, houses continue round the villages of Kirn, Hunters Quay at the point with the landing slip for Western Ferries and past Lazaretto Point, the village of Sandbank, with open countryside at the end of the Sea Loch on the northern shore Kilmun, at Strone Point the village of Strone continues on the western shore of the Firth of Clyde joining Blairmore on Loch Long.
All the villages used to have piers served by Clyde steamers, now Western Ferries runs between Hunters Quay and McInroy's Point on the outskirts of Gourock, while the Argyll Ferries service runs from Dunoon to Gourock pierhead. At the end of the loch a road runs past the Benmore Botanic Garden and Arboretum to Loch Eck and on towards Inveraray. On the shore of the Holy Loch at Kilmun stands a nineteenth-century church, it stands on the site of a sequence of earlier churches, an early carved stone on the site suggests that there was a church here as early as the sixth or seventh century. The dedication to St Munnu, otherwise known as Fintan, St Munn, reflects devotion to an Irish saint who founded a church at Taghmon in Leinster; the remains of a 12th-century church are still visible at Kilmun. At the present site of Kilmun Church, a church building is recorded in the 13th century. By the 15th century, the significance of Kilmun as a local centre of Christianity was so great that the adjacent loch became known as the Holy Loch, the powerful Clan Campbell adopted it as their spiritual home.
From the 14th century, Dunoon Castle, a short distance away, was held by the Campbell family and in the 1440s Sir Duncan Campbell of Lochawe, the chief of the clan, lived near Kilmun in a private residence named Strathechaig. Alexander Robertson started repairing boats in a small workshop at Sandbank in 1876, Alexander Robertson and Sons Ltd went on to become one of the foremost wooden boat builders on the Clyde. Their'golden years' were in the early 20th century when they started building classic 12 & 15 metre racing yachts. Robertsons was chosen to build the first 15-metre yacht designed by William Fife. More than 55 boats were built by Robertsons in preparation for the First World War and the yard remained busy during the Great Depression in the 1930s, as many wealthy businessmen developed a passion for yacht racing. During World War II the yard was devoted to Admiralty work, producing a wide range of large high speed Fairmile Marine Motor Boats. After the war the yard built the successful one-class Loch Longs and two 12-metre challengers for the America's Cup: Sceptre and Sovereign.
The Robertson family sold the yard in 1965, it was turned over to GRP production work. During its 104-year history, Robertson's Yard built 500 boats; the yard ceased trading in the site was levelled soon after. The site has since been consumed by the new Holy Loch Marina development. During World War II the loch was used by the Royal Navy as a submarine base, served by the depot ship HMS Forth; the loch was used extensively for trials and exercises by Royal Navy submarines during the war, the submarines HMS Vandal and HMS Untamed were lost in the Clyde after being sunk by accidents during exercises. Untamed was salvaged. Near the Holy Loch an anti-submarine boom was constructed between Dunoon and the Cloch Point Lighthouse to defend waters from German U-boats. Between 1961 and 1992, Holy Loch was the site of the United States Navy's Fleet Ballistic Missile Refit Site One, it was the home base of Submarine Squadron 14, part of Submarine Force, U. S. Atlantic Fleet. To make maximum usage of its submarine-launched ballistic missile deterrent force, American military had determined that it required an overseas base for refit and crew turnover.
Negotiations with the British Government began as early as March 1959 when President Dwight D. Eisenhower mentioned the need to British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan at a meeting at Camp David. Holy Loch was one of several locations near the Firth of Clyde considered for the refit site. Others were Faslane, the channel between Largs and Cumbrae, Rosneath Bay, Rothesay Bay. Site selection criteria included the requirements for a sheltered anchorage, relative proximity to an international airport, sufficient shore facilities to provide housing for military personnel and their families. Agreement for the use of Holy Loch was reached near the end of 1960 and the arrival of the first tender, USS Proteus scheduled for December. Divis
Puget Sound Naval Shipyard and Intermediate Maintenance Facility
Puget Sound Naval Shipyard Puget Sound Naval Shipyard and Intermediate Maintenance Facility, is a United States Navy shipyard covering 179 acres on Puget Sound at Bremerton, Washington in uninterrupted use since its establishment in 1891. It is bordered on the south by Sinclair Inlet, on the west by the Bremerton Annex of Naval Base Kitsap, on the north and east by the city of Bremerton, Washington, it is the Pacific Northwest's largest naval shore facility and one of Washington state's largest industrial installations. PSNS & IMF provides the Navy with maintenance and technical and logistics support. Puget Sound Naval Shipyard was established in 1891 as a Naval Station and was designated Navy Yard Puget Sound in 1901. During World War I, the Navy Yard constructed ships, including 25 subchasers, seven submarines, two minesweepers, seven seagoing tugs, two ammunition ships, as well as 1,700 small boats. During World War II, the shipyard's primary effort was the repair of battle damage to ships of the U.
S. fleet and those of its allies. Following World War II, Navy Yard Puget Sound was designated Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, it engaged in an extensive program of modernizing carriers, including converting conventional flight decks to angle decks. During the Korean War, the shipyard was engaged in the activation of ships. In the late 1950s, it entered an era of new construction with the building of a new class of guided missile frigates. In 1965, USS Sculpin became the first nuclear-powered submarine to be maintained at PSNS; the shipyard was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1992. The historic district includes 22 contributing buildings and 42 contributing structures, as well as 49 non-contributing buildings and objects; the most visible feature of the shipyard is its huge green hammerhead crane, built in 1933. The PSNS hammerhead crane is 80 feet wide with a lifting capacity of 250 tons; the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard contains five historic districts: Officers' Row Historic District. These five units are a comprehensive representation of the historic features of the naval shipyard.
In 1990 the Navy authorized the Ship-Submarine Recycling Program to recycle nuclear-powered ships at PSNS. 25% of the shipyard's workload involves inactivation, reactor compartment disposal, recycling of ships. It has pioneered an environmentally safe method of recycling nuclear-powered ships; this process places the U. S. Navy in the role of being the world's only organization to design, build and recycle nuclear-powered ships. On 15 May 2003 PSNS and IMF were consolidated into what is now known as PSNS & IMF. PSNS is the only U. S. facility certified to recycle nuclear ships. During all this period Puget Sound Naval Shipyard has scrapped more than 125 submarines and some cruisers; the shipyard contains a portion of the United States Navy reserve fleet, a large collection of inactive U. S. Navy vessels, including the aircraft carrier USS Kitty Hawk. Kitty Hawk is mothballed, meaning that she is stored in case she is needed by the Navy in the future. Gorst Creek Ravine near Port Orchard, Washington was a hazardous waste dump for the Navy's shipyard waste between 1969 and 1970, when the site was not permitted by local authorities to take waste.
After several collapses since 1997 the landfill could blow out Highway 3. The landfill is an "ongoing source of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and metals flowing downstream with the potential to affect groundwater wells, sport fisheries and the Suquamish Tribe's fish hatchery. In October 2014, the US EPA ordered the Navy to fix the problems. List of U. S. National Historic Landmark ships and shipyards Puget Sound Naval Shipyard & Intermediate Maintenance Facility
Puerto Rico the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea 1,000 miles southeast of Miami, Florida. An archipelago among the Greater Antilles, Puerto Rico includes the eponymous main island and several smaller islands, such as Mona and Vieques; the capital and most populous city is San Juan. The territory's total population is 3.4 million. Spanish and English are the official languages. Populated by the indigenous Taíno people, Puerto Rico was colonized by Spain following the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1493, it was contested by French and British, but remained a Spanish possession for the next four centuries. The island's cultural and demographic landscapes were shaped by the displacement and assimilation of the native population, the forced migration of African slaves, settlement from the Canary Islands and Andalusia. In the Spanish Empire, Puerto Rico played a secondary but strategic role compared to wealthier colonies like Peru and New Spain.
Spain's distant administrative control continued up to the end of the 19th century, producing a distinctive creole Hispanic culture and language that combined indigenous and European elements. In 1898, following the Spanish–American War, the United States acquired Puerto Rico under the terms of the Treaty of Paris. Puerto Ricans have been citizens of the United States since 1917, enjoy freedom of movement between the island and the mainland; as it is not a state, Puerto Rico does not have a vote in the United States Congress, which governs the territory with full jurisdiction under the Puerto Rico Federal Relations Act of 1950. However, Puerto Rico does have one non-voting member of the House called a Resident Commissioner; as residents of a U. S. territory, American citizens in Puerto Rico are disenfranchised at the national level and do not vote for president and vice president of the United States, nor pay federal income tax on Puerto Rican income. Like other territories and the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico does not have U.
S. senators. Congress approved a local constitution in 1952, allowing U. S. citizens on the territory to elect a governor. Puerto Rico's future political status has been a matter of significant debate. In early 2017, the Puerto Rican government-debt crisis posed serious problems for the government; the outstanding bond debt had climbed to $70 billion at a time with 12.4% unemployment. The debt had been increasing during a decade long recession; this was the second major financial crisis to affect the island after the Great Depression when the U. S. government, in 1935, provided relief efforts through the Puerto Rico Reconstruction Administration. On May 3, 2017, Puerto Rico's financial oversight board in the U. S. District Court for Puerto Rico filed the debt restructuring petition, made under Title III of PROMESA. By early August 2017, the debt was $72 billion with a 45% poverty rate. In late September 2017, Hurricane Maria made landfall in Puerto Rico; the island's electrical grid was destroyed, with repairs expected to take months to complete, provoking the largest power outage in American history.
Recovery efforts were somewhat slow in the first few months, over 200,000 residents had moved to the mainland State of Florida alone by late November 2017. Puerto Rico is Spanish for "rich port". Puerto Ricans call the island Borinquén – a derivation of Borikén, its indigenous Taíno name, which means "Land of the Valiant Lord"; the terms boricua and borincano derive from Borikén and Borinquen and are used to identify someone of Puerto Rican heritage. The island is popularly known in Spanish as la isla del encanto, meaning "the island of enchantment". Columbus named the island San Juan Bautista, in honor of Saint John the Baptist, while the capital city was named Ciudad de Puerto Rico. Traders and other maritime visitors came to refer to the entire island as Puerto Rico, while San Juan became the name used for the main trading/shipping port and the capital city; the island's name was changed to "Porto Rico" by the United States after the Treaty of Paris of 1898. The anglicized name was used by the U.
S. government and private enterprises. The name was changed back to Puerto Rico by a joint resolution in Congress introduced by Félix Córdova Dávila in 1931; the official name of the entity in Spanish is Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, while its official English name is Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. The ancient history of the archipelago, now Puerto Rico is not well known. Unlike other indigenous cultures in the New World which left behind abundant archeological and physical evidence of their societies, scant artifacts and evidence remain of the Puerto Rico's indigenous population. Scarce archaeological findings and early Spanish accounts from the colonial era constitute all, known about them; the first comprehensive book on the history of Puerto Rico was written by Fray Íñigo Abbad y Lasierra in 1786, nearly three centuries after the first Spaniards landed on the island. The first known settlers were the Ortoiroid people, an Archaic Period culture of Amerindian hunters and fishermen who migrated from the South American mainland.
Some scholars suggest their settlement dates back about 4,000 years. An archeological dig in 1990 on the island of Vieques found the remains of a man, designated as the "Puerto Ferro Man", dated to around 2000 BC; the Ortoiroid were displaced
A sister ship is a ship of the same class or of identical design to another ship. Such vessels share a nearly identical hull and superstructure layout, similar size, comparable features and equipment, they share a common naming theme, either being named after the same type of thing or with some kind of alliteration. Sisters become more differentiated during their service as their equipment are separately altered. For instance, the U. S. warships USS Iowa, USS New Jersey, USS Missouri, USS Wisconsin are all sister ships, each being an Iowa-class battleship. The most famous sister ships were RMS Titanic and HMHS Britannic; as with some other liners, the sisters worked as running mates. Other sister ships include the Royal Caribbean International's Explorer of the Seas and Adventure of the Seas. Half-sister refers with some significant differences. One example of half-sisters are the First World War-era British Courageous-class battlecruisers where the first two ships had four 15-inch guns, but the last ship, HMS Furious, had two 18-inch guns instead.
Another example is the American Essex-class aircraft carriers of the Second World War that came in "long-hull" and "short-hull" versions. Notable airships include the American sister ships USS Akron and USS Macon, the German Hindenburg class airship's Hindenburg and Graf Zeppelin II; the accepted commercial distinctions of a sister ship are the following: Type: Identical main type Dry weight: ± 10% on the DWT Builder: Identical shipbuilding company name The critical overriding criteria are the same hull design. For example, the popular TESS-57 standard design built by Tsunishi Shipbuilding are built in Japan and the Philippines. All the ships of this design are classed as sister ships; the International Maritime Organization defined sister ship in IMO resolution MSC/Circ.1158 in 2006. Criteria included these: A sister ship is a ship built by the same yard from the same plans; the acceptable deviation of lightship displacement should be between 1 and 2% of the lightship displacement of the lead ship, depending on the length of the ship.
Ship naming and launching Ship commissioning