Operation Downfall was the codename for the proposed Allied plan for the invasion of Japan near the end of World War II. The planned operation was abandoned when Japan surrendered following the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The operation had two parts, Operations Olympic and Coronet, later, in the spring of 1946, Operation Coronet was the planned invasion of the Kantō Plain, near Tokyo, on the Japanese island of Honshu. Airbases on Kyūshū captured in Operation Olympic would allow land-based air support for Operation Coronet, if Downfall had taken place, it would have been the largest amphibious operation in history. The Japanese planned an all-out defense of Kyūshū, with left in reserve for any subsequent defense operations. Casualty predictions varied widely, but were extremely high, depending on the degree to which Japanese civilians would have resisted the invasion, estimates ran up into the millions for Allied casualties. Leahy, and Generals of the Army George Marshall and Hap Arnold, at the time, MacArthur was being considered for promotion to a special super rank of General of the Armies, so as to be granted operational authority over other five-star officers.
However, the proposal to promote MacArthur was only at the level of discussion by the time World War II ended. Once the atomic bomb became available, General Marshall envisioned using it to support the invasion if sufficient numbers could be produced in time, throughout the Pacific War, the Allies were unable to agree on a single Commander-in-Chief. A unified command was deemed necessary for an invasion of Japan, interservice rivalry over who it should be was so serious that it threatened to derail planning. Ultimately, the Navy partially conceded, and MacArthur was to be given command of all forces. The primary considerations that the planners had to deal with were time, prior to the Quebec Conference,1943, a joint British-American planning team produced a plan which did not call for an invasion of the Japanese home islands until 1947–48. The American Joint Chiefs of Staff believed that prolonging the war to such an extent was dangerous for national morale, instead, at the Quebec conference, the Combined Chiefs of Staff agreed that Japan should be forced to surrender not more than one year after Germanys surrender.
The United States Navy urged the use of a blockade and airpower to bring about Japans capitulation, the Army, on the other hand, argued that such a strategy could prolong the war indefinitely and expend lives needlessly, and therefore that an invasion was necessary. They supported mounting a large-scale thrust directly against the Japanese homeland, Japan made an imposing target, distant from other landmasses and with very few beaches geographically suitable for sea-borne invasion. Only Kyūshū and the beaches of the Kantō plain were realistic invasion zones, the Allies decided to launch a two-stage invasion. Operation Olympic would attack southern Kyūshū, airbases would be established, which would give cover for Operation Coronet, the attack on Tokyo Bay. While the geography of Japan was known, the US military planners had to estimate the forces that they would face
An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. The reverse of this is the conversion of energy into electrical energy and is done by an electric generator. In normal motoring mode, most electric motors operate through the interaction between an electric motors magnetic field and winding currents to generate force within the motor, small motors may be found in electric watches. General-purpose motors with highly standardized dimensions and characteristics provide convenient mechanical power for industrial use, the largest of electric motors are used for ship propulsion, pipeline compression and pumped-storage applications with ratings reaching 100 megawatts. Electric motors may be classified by electric power source type, internal construction, type of motion output, perhaps the first electric motors were simple electrostatic devices created by the Scottish monk Andrew Gordon in the 1740s. The theoretical principle behind production of force by the interactions of an electric current.
The conversion of energy into mechanical energy by electromagnetic means was demonstrated by the British scientist Michael Faraday in 1821. A free-hanging wire was dipped into a pool of mercury, on which a permanent magnet was placed, when a current was passed through the wire, the wire rotated around the magnet, showing that the current gave rise to a close circular magnetic field around the wire. This motor is often demonstrated in experiments, brine substituting for toxic mercury. Though Barlows wheel was a refinement to this Faraday demonstration. In 1827, Hungarian physicist Ányos Jedlik started experimenting with electromagnetic coils, after Jedlik solved the technical problems of the continuous rotation with the invention of the commutator, he called his early devices electromagnetic self-rotors. Although they were used only for instructional purposes, in 1828 Jedlik demonstrated the first device to contain the three components of practical DC motors, the stator and commutator. The device employed no permanent magnets, as the fields of both the stationary and revolving components were produced solely by the currents flowing through their windings.
His motor set a record which was improved only four years in September 1838 by Jacobi himself. His second motor was powerful enough to drive a boat with 14 people across a wide river and it was not until 1839/40 that other developers worldwide managed to build motors of similar and also of higher performance. The first commutator DC electric motor capable of turning machinery was invented by the British scientist William Sturgeon in 1832, following Sturgeons work, a commutator-type direct-current electric motor made with the intention of commercial use was built by the American inventor Thomas Davenport, which he patented in 1837. The motors ran at up to 600 revolutions per minute, and powered machine tools, due to the high cost of primary battery power, the motors were commercially unsuccessful and Davenport went bankrupt. Several inventors followed Sturgeon in the development of DC motors but all encountered the same battery power cost issues, no electricity distribution had been developed at the time
A submarine is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater. It differs from a submersible, which has more limited underwater capability, the term most commonly refers to a large, crewed vessel. It is used historically or colloquially to refer to remotely operated vehicles and robots, as well as medium-sized or smaller vessels, such as the midget submarine. The noun submarine evolved as a form of submarine boat, by naval tradition, submarines are usually referred to as boats rather than as ships. Although experimental submarines had been built before, submarine design took off during the 19th century, Submarines were first widely used during World War I, and now figure in many navies large and small. Civilian uses for submarines include marine science, salvage and facility inspection, Submarines can be modified to perform more specialized functions such as search-and-rescue missions or undersea cable repair. Submarines are used in tourism, and for undersea archaeology, most large submarines consist of a cylindrical body with hemispherical ends and a vertical structure, usually located amidships, which houses communications and sensing devices as well as periscopes.
In modern submarines, this structure is the sail in American usage, a conning tower was a feature of earlier designs, a separate pressure hull above the main body of the boat that allowed the use of shorter periscopes. There is a propeller at the rear, and various hydrodynamic control fins, deep-diving and specialty submarines may deviate significantly from this traditional layout. Submarines use diving planes and change the amount of water, Submarines have one of the widest ranges of types and capabilities of any vessel. Submarines can work at greater depths than are survivable or practical for human divers, modern deep-diving submarines derive from the bathyscaphe, which in turn evolved from the diving bell. In 1578, the English mathematician William Bourne recorded in his book Inventions or Devises one of the first plans for an underwater navigation vehicle and its unclear whether he ever carried out his idea. The first submersible of whose construction there exists reliable information was designed and built in 1620 by Cornelis Drebbel and it was propelled by means of oars.
By the mid-18th century, over a dozen patents for submarines/submersible boats had been granted in England, in 1747, Nathaniel Symons patented and built the first known working example of the use of a ballast tank for submersion. His design used leather bags that could fill with water to submerge the craft, a mechanism was used to twist the water out of the bags and cause the boat to resurface. In 1749, the Gentlemens Magazine reported that a design had initially been proposed by Giovanni Borelli in 1680. By this point of development, further improvement in design stagnated for over a century, until new industrial technologies for propulsion. The first military submarine was the Turtle, a hand-powered acorn-shaped device designed by the American David Bushnell to accommodate a single person and it was the first verified submarine capable of independent underwater operation and movement, and the first to use screws for propulsion
Fairbanks Morse and Company was an American manufacturing company in the late 19th and early 20th century. It used the trade name Fairbanks-Morse, there are three separate corporate entities that could be considered successors to the company, none of which represent a complete and direct descendant of the original company. All claim the heritage of Fairbanks Morse and Company, Fairbanks Scales is a owned company in Kansas City, Missouri. Fairbanks Morse Engine, a subsidiary of EnPro Industries, is a company based in Beloit, Fairbanks Morse Pumps is a part of Pentair Water in Kansas City and manufactures pumps. In 1829 he started a hemp dressing business for which he built the machinery, though unsuccessful in fabricating for fiber factories, another invention by Thaddeus, the platform scale, formed the basis for a great enterprise. Scales were integral to business as marine and railway shippers charged by weight, Fairbanks scales won 63 medals over the years in international competition. It became the manufacturer in the US, and the best-known company the world over until Henry Ford.
In Wisconsin, a missionary named Leonard Wheeler designed a durable windmill for pumping water. Wheeler set up shop in Beloit just after the Civil War, soon half a million windmills dotted the landscape throughout the West and as far away as Australia. As part of expansion, Morse brought Wheeler and his Eclipse Windmill pumps into business with the Fairbanks company. Morse became a partner in the Fairbanks Company and by the end of the nineteenth century and American cities had branch dealerships, with Fairbanks first coming to Montreal, Canada, in 1876 and opening a factory there. In the late century, business expanded in the Western United States. It grew to include typewriters, hand trucks, railway velocipedes, tractors, the company became an industrial supplier distributing complete turn-key systems, plumbing, gaskets, parts and pipe. Its 1910 catalog contained over 800 pages, the Fairbanks Morse Company began producing oil and naptha engines in the 1890s with the purchase of the Charter line of engines.
Fairbanks Morse gas engine became a success with farmers, electricity generation, and oilfield work benefited from these engines. Small lighting plants built by the company were popular, Fairbanks Morse powerplants evolved by burning kerosene in 1893, coal gas in 1905, to semi-diesel engines in 1913 and to full diesel engines in 1924. In 1914 the company production of the Model Z single-cylinder engine in one-, three-. The Z was soon made in sizes up to 20 horsepower, over a half million units were produced in the following 30 years
New England is a geographical region comprising six states of the northeast United States, Maine, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont. It is bordered by the state of New York to the west and south, the Atlantic Ocean is to the east and southeast, and Long Island Sound is to the south. Its largest metropolitan area is Greater Boston, which includes Worcester, ten years later, more Puritans settled north of Plymouth Colony in Boston, thus forming Massachusetts Bay Colony. Over the next 126 years, people in the region fought in four French and Indian Wars, until the British and their Iroquois allies defeated the French and their Algonquin allies in North America. In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of the most infamous cases of hysteria in the history of the Western Hemisphere. The Boston Tea Party was a protest to which Britain responded with a series of punitive laws stripping Massachusetts of self-government, the confrontation led to the first battles of the American Revolutionary War in 1775, and the expulsion of the British authorities from the region in spring 1776.
Each state is subdivided into small incorporated municipalities known as towns. The only unincorporated areas in the region exist in the populated northern regions of Vermont, New Hampshire. The region is one of the U. S. Census Bureaus nine regional divisions, the earliest known inhabitants of New England were American Indians who spoke a variety of the Eastern Algonquian languages. Prominent tribes included the Abenaki, Penobscot, Mohegans, Narragansett Indians, prior to the arrival of Europeans, the Western Abenakis inhabited New Hampshire, New York, and Vermont, as well as parts of Quebec and western Maine. Their principal town was Norridgewock in present-day Maine, the Penobscot lived along the Penobscot River in Maine. The Narragansett and smaller tribes under Narragansett sovereignty lived in most of modern-day Rhode Island, west of Narragansett Bay, the Wampanoag occupied southeastern Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and the islands of Marthas Vineyard and Nantucket. The Pocumtucks lived in Western Massachusetts, and the Mohegan and Pequot tribes in the Connecticut region, the Connecticut River Valley includes parts of Vermont, New Hampshire and Connecticut, and linked different indigenous communities culturally and politically.
As early as 1600, French and English traders began exploring the New World, trading metal, glass, on April 10,1606, King James I of England issued a charter for each of the Virginia Companies and Plymouth. These were privately funded ventures, intended to land for England, conduct trade. In 1620, Plymouth in present-day Massachusetts was settled by Pilgrims from the Mayflower, in 1616, English explorer John Smith named the region New England. As the first colonists arrived in Plymouth, they wrote and signed the Mayflower Compact, the Massachusetts Bay Colony came to dominate the area and was established by royal charter in 1629 with its major town and port of Boston established in 1630. Massachusetts Puritans began to settle in Connecticut as early as 1633, roger Williams was banished from Massachusetts for heresy, led a group south, and founded Providence Plantation in the area that became the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations in 1636
The Arctic Circle is the most northerly of the abstract five major circles of latitude as shown on maps of the Earth. The region north of this circle is known as the Arctic, the position of the Arctic Circle is not fixed, as of 7 April 2017, it runs 66°33′46. 6″ north of the Equator. Its latitude depends on the Earths axial tilt, which fluctuates within a margin of 2° over a 40, 000-year period, the Arctic Circle is currently drifting northwards at a speed of about 15 m per year. The word arctic comes from the Greek word ἀρκτικός and that from the word ἄρκτος, directly on the Arctic Circle these events occur, in principle, exactly once per year, at the June and December solstices, respectively. That is true at sea level, those limits increase with elevation above sea level, tens of thousands of years ago, waves of people migrated from eastern Siberia across the Bering Strait into North America to settle. Much later, in the period, there has been migration into some Arctic areas by Europeans.
The largest communities north of the Arctic Circle are situated in Russia and Norway, Norilsk, Tromsø, rovaniemi in Finland is the largest settlement in the immediate vicinity of the Arctic Circle, lying slightly south of the line. In contrast, the largest North American community north of the Arctic Circle, of the Canadian and United States Arctic communities, Alaska is the largest settlement with about 4,000 inhabitants. The Arctic Circle is roughly 16,000 kilometres, the area north of the Circle is about 20,000,000 km2 and covers roughly 4% of Earths surface. The Arctic Circle passes through the Arctic Ocean, the Scandinavian Peninsula, North Asia, Northern America, the land within the Arctic Circle is divided among eight countries, Sweden, Russia, the United States, Canada and Iceland. In the interior, summers can be warm, while winters are extremely cold
Tampa is a major city in, and the county seat of, Hillsborough County, Florida. It is located on the west coast of Florida on Tampa Bay, near the Gulf of Mexico, the city had a population of 346,037 in 2011. The current location of Tampa was once inhabited by peoples of the Safety Harbor culture. The area was explored by Spanish explorers in the 16th century, resulting in violent conflicts and the introduction of European diseases, which wiped out the original native cultures. In 1824, the United States Army established a frontier outpost called Fort Brooke at the mouth of the Hillsborough River, near the site of todays Tampa Convention Center. The first civilian residents were pioneers who settled near the fort for protection from the nearby Seminole population, Tampa is part of the metropolitan area most commonly referred to as the Tampa Bay Area. For U. S. Census purposes, Tampa is part of the Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, the Greater Tampa Bay area has over 4 million residents and generally includes the Tampa and Sarasota metro areas.
The Tampa Bay Partnership and U. S. Census data showed an annual growth of 2.47 percent. A2012 estimate shows the Tampa Bay area population to have 4,310,524 people, Tampa was ranked as the 5th best outdoor city by Forbes in 2008. Tampa ranks as the fifth most popular American city, based on where people want to live, a 2004 survey by the NYU newspaper Washington Square News ranked Tampa as a top city for twenty-somethings. Tampa is ranked as a Gamma+ world city by Loughborough University, ranked alongside other world cities such as Phoenix, Charlotte and Santo Domingo. The word Tampa may mean sticks of fire in the language of the Calusa and this might be a reference to the many lightning strikes that the area receives during the summer months. Other historians claim the name means the place to gather sticks, toponymist George R. Stewart writes that the name was the result of a miscommunication between the Spanish and the Indians, the Indian word being itimpi, meaning simply near it. The name first appears in the Memoir of Hernando de Escalante Fontaneda and he calls it Tanpa and describes it as an important Calusa town.
While Tanpa may be the basis for the modern name Tampa, archaeologist Jerald Milanich places the Calusa village of Tanpa at the mouth of Charlotte Harbor, the original Bay of Tanpa. A Spanish expedition did not notice Charlotte Harbor while sailing north along the west coast of Florida, the name was accidentally transferred north. Map makers were using the term Bay or Bahia Tampa as early as 1695, people from Tampa are known as Tampans or Tampanians. Latin Americans from Tampa are known as tampeños, or tampeñas for females and these terms of Spanish origin emerged after 1900 for the immigrant communities in West Tampa and Ybor City
Historically, it was called an automotive, locomotive or fish torpedo, colloquially called a fish. The term torpedo was originally employed for a variety of devices, from about 1900, torpedo has been used strictly to designate an underwater self-propelled weapon. Todays torpedoes can be divided into lightweight and heavyweight classes, and into straight-running, autonomous homers and they can be launched from a variety of platforms. The word torpedo comes from the name of a genus of rays in the order Torpediniformes. In naval usage, the American Robert Fulton introduced the name to refer to a gunpowder charge used by his French submarine Nautilus to demonstrate that it could sink warships. The concept of a torpedo existed many centuries before it was successfully developed. In 1275, Hasan al-Rammah described. an egg which moves itself, in modern language, a torpedo is an underwater self-propelled explosive, —but historically, the term applied to primitive naval mines. These were used on an ad hoc basis during the modern period up to the late 19th century.
An early submarine, the Turtle, attempted to lay a bomb with a fuse on the hull of HMS Eagle during the American Revolutionary War. In the early 1800s, the American inventor Robert Fulton, while in France and he coined the term torpedo in reference to the explosive charges he outfitted his submarine Nautilus. However, both the French and the Dutch governments were uninterested in the submarine, Fulton concentrated on developing the torpedo independent of a submarine deployment. However, the British government refused to purchase the invention, stating they did not wish to introduce into naval warfare a system that would give advantage to weaker maritime nations. Fulton carried out a demonstration for the US government on 20 July 1807. Further development languished as Fulton focused on his steam-boat matters, during the War of 1812, torpedoes were employed in attempts to destroy British vessels and protect American harbors. In fact a submarine deployed torpedo was used in an attempt to destroy HMS Ramillies while in New Londons harbor.
Hardy to warn the Americans to cease efforts with the use of any boat in this cruel and unheard-of warfare. Torpedoes were used by the Russian Empire during the Crimean War in 1855 against British warships in the Gulf of Finland and they used an early form of chemical detonator. During the American Civil War, the torpedo was used for what is today called a contact mine
Tench-class submarines were a type of submarine built for the United States Navy between 1944 and 1951. They were an improvement over the Gato and Balao classes, only about 35 to 40 tons larger. One of the ballast tanks was converted to fuel, increasing range from 11,000 nautical miles to 16,000 nautical miles. This improvement was made on some boats of the previous two classes. Further improvements were made beginning with SS-435, which are referred to as the Corsair class. Initial plans called for 84 to be built, but 55 were cancelled in 1944 and 1945 when it became apparent that they would not be needed to defeat Japan, the remaining 29 were commissioned between October 1944 and February 1951. All except Corsair received the Fairbanks-Morse 38D 8-1/8 engine with 10 cylinders, two 126-cell Sargo-type lead-acid batteries provided submerged power to the electric motors. A design weakness of earlier classes solved by the Tench re-design were the ballast tank vent riser pipes that passed through the interior of the boat in the forward and after torpedo rooms.
These pipes allowed #1 and #7 Main Ballast Tanks to vent air during diving and allowing water to flood into them from below. The tops of these formed the walking deck in the interior of both rooms and thus the normal location of the vent valves could not be used. The riser pipes allowed the tanks to vent but when the tanks were full these pipes contained water at full submergence pressure inside the torpedo rooms, if these pipes ruptured during depth charge attack, catastrophic flooding would occur. Solving this problem initially proved difficult, but ultimately required the complete rearrangement of the ballast tanks. #1 MBT was moved to a forward of the end of the pressure hull. This move eliminated the riser pipes completely, #7 MBT, after stability and buoyancy calculations were run was found to be redundant and was converted to a variable fuel oil tank as mentioned above. These changes forced the rearrangement of the associated piping runs and the location of many of the other tanks. Remarkably, these resulted in a boat that was visually almost indistinguishable from the earlier Balao class. A side benefit of the rearrangement was that these boats could carry four additional torpedoes in the forward torpedo room.
This was a change that had been asked for by submarine crews much earlier, many targets in the Pacific War were sampans or otherwise not worth a torpedo, so the deck gun was an important weapon
Ceremonial ship launching
Ceremonial ship launching is the process of transferring a vessel to the water. It is a tradition in many cultures, dating back thousands of years. It has been observed as a celebration and a solemn blessing. The process involves many traditions intended to invite good luck, such as christening by breaking a bottle of champagne over the bow as the ship is named aloud. There are three methods of conveying a new ship from building site to water, only two of which are called launching. The oldest, most familiar, and most widely used is the launch, in which the vessel slides down an inclined slipway. With the side launch, the ship enters the water broadside and this method came into use in the 19th-century on inland waters and lakes, and was more widely adopted during World War II. The third method is float-out, used for ships that are built in basins or dry docks and floated by admitting water into the dock. In all cases, heavy chains are attached to the ship, ways are arranged perpendicular to the shore line and the ship is built with its stern facing the water.
The barricades support the two launch ways, the vessel is built upon temporary cribbing that is arranged to give access to the hulls outer bottom and to allow the launchways to be erected under the complete hull. When it is time to prepare for launching, a pair of standing ways is erected under the hull, the surface of the ways is greased. A pair of sliding ways is placed on top, under the hull, the weight of the hull is transferred from the build cribbing onto the launch cradle. On launching, the vessel slides backwards down the slipway on the ways until it floats by itself, some slipways are built so that the vessel is side-on to the water and is launched sideways. This is done where the limitations of the channel would not allow lengthwise launching. The Great Eastern designed by Brunel was built this way as were many landing craft during World War II and this method requires many more sets of ways to support the weight of the ship. Sometimes ships are launched using a series of inflated tubes underneath the hull and this procedure has the advantages of requiring less permanent infrastructure and cost.
The airbags provide support to the hull of the ship and aid its launching motion into the water and these airbags are usually cylindrical in shape with hemispherical heads at both ends. The Xiao Qinghe shipyard launched a tank barge with marine airbags on January 20,1981, egyptians and Romans called on their gods to protect seamen
Kittery is a town in York County, United States. Home to the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard on Seaveys Island, Kittery includes Badgers Island, the district of Kittery Point. The town is a tourist destination known for its outlet stores. Kittery is part of the Portland–South Portland–Biddeford, Maine metropolitan statistical area, the towns population was 9,490 at the 2010 census. English settlement around the harbor of the Piscataqua River estuary began about 1623. Kittery was incorporated in 1647, staking a claim as the oldest incorporated town in Maine. Though the municipalities of Portland and it was named after the birthplace of a founder, Alexander Shapleigh, from his manor of Kittery Court at Kingswear in Devon, England. Shapleigh arrived in 1635 aboard the ship Benediction, which he co-owned with another prominent settler, Captain Francis Champernowne, together with the Pepperrell family, they established fisheries offshore at the Isles of Shoals, where fish were caught and exported back to Europe.
Other pioneers were hunters and workers of the abundant timber. The settlement at the mouth of the Piscataqua River was protected by Fort McClary, thomas Spencer, immigrant from Gloucestershire, England, is a notable settler of Kittery with his wife Patience Chadbourne. Their story is included in, The Maine Spencers, a history and genealogy, Kittery originally extended from the Atlantic Ocean inland up the Salmon Falls River, including the present-day towns of Eliot, South Berwick and North Berwick. Located opposite Portsmouth, New Hampshire, the town developed into a center for trade, after the death of Gorges, Maine in 1652 became part of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Francis Small was a resident of Kittery, and operated a trading post near the confluence of the Ossipee River. Small became the largest property owner in the history of Maine, in 1663, John Josselyn would write, Towns there are, are not many in this province. Kittery, situated not far from Passacataway, is the most populous, in 1705, during Queen Annes War tribes of the Wabanaki Confederacy raided the town killing six citizens and taking five prisoners.
During the Revolution, the first vessels of the U. S. Navy were constructed on Badgers Island, the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, the nations first federal navy yard, was established in 1800 on Fernalds Island. It connects to the mainland by two bridges, the facility rebuilt the USS Constitution, and built the Civil War USS Kearsarge. Seaveys Island was annexed and became site of the now defunct Portsmouth Naval Prison, Kittery has some fine early architecture, including the Sir William Pepperrell House, built in 1733, and the Lady Pepperrell House, built in 1760. The John Bray House, built in 1662, is believed to be the oldest surviving house in Maine, located at the John Paul Jones State Historic Site on U. S.1 is the Maine Sailors and Soldiers Memorial by Bashka Paeff