USS Scorpion (PY-3)
The fourth USS Scorpion was a steam yacht in commission in the United States Navy from 1898 to 1899, 1899 to 1901, 1902 to 1927. Scorpion was built in 1896 as Sovereign, a two-masted schooner-rigged, 775-ton, steel steam yacht, for M. C. D. Borden by John N. Robins, South Brooklyn, New York, she was powered by a pair of triple expansion steam engines, with cylinders of 15, 24 and 39 inches by 21-inch stroke, built by the W. & A. Fletcher Co. of Hoboken, New Jersey. Steam was supplied by two Wilcox boilers at a working pressure of 225 pounds; the engines developed 2500 indicated horsepower and in an 1896 race with the steamer Monmouth—said to be the second fastest steamer in New York—Sovereign won handily. The U. S. Navy purchased her on 7 April 1898 for service in the Spanish–American War. Renamed USS Scorpion, she was commissioned on 11 April 1898 with Lieutenant Commander Adolph Marix in command. Following commissioning, Scorpion proceeded to Hampton Roads, where she joined the Flying Squadron on 1 May 1898 and prepared for duty in the Caribbean.
On 22 May, she arrived with the squadron off Cienfuegos, Cuba continued on to the Santiago de Cuba area with dispatches for ships scouting off that port. On 25 May, she returned to Cienfuegos, patrolled there on blockade duty until the next day departed for Key West, for coal and water. On 7 June, Scorpion headed south, escorted a provisions ship and an ammunition ship to Santiago de Cuba until 22 June, performed blockade duties off the harbor there. On 22 June, she assisted in clearing the beach at Daiquirí in preparation for a United States Army landing and, on 23 June, carried out a similar mission at Siboney. On 24 June, she resumed blockade duties off Santiago de Cuba. On 30 June, she shifted to Cape Cruz, on 1 July she joined the armed tug Osceola in an unsuccessful attack on Spanish gunboats in Manzanillo harbor. After the attack, she retired to waters off the entrance, captured a provisions lighter, patrolled there until 5 July. Scorpion proceeded to Guantanamo Bay for water, coal and ammunition.
She returned to Manzanillo on 11 July, and, on 18 July, participated in another attack that destroyed all Spanish Government vessels in the harbor. After the second attack on Manzanillo, Scorpion resumed blockade duties, continued them until 3 August returned to Guantanamo Bay, whence she carried dispatches for the remainder of the war, which ended on 13 August. On 27 November, Scorpion departed Cuban waters. A month she arrived at New York and, on 14 January 1899, she was decommissioned in preparation for conversion to a gunboat. Recommissioned on 22 August 1899, Scorpion was assigned to the Isthmian Canal Commission and ordered to Central America. Into the spring of 1900, she remained in the Caribbean as the Commission investigated the proposed canal routes. A report from February 1900 has her visiting Kingston, during a visit to that island of the British North America and West Indies Squadron. In June 1900, she returned to the United States, operated off the northeast coast into the autumn of 1900 resumed operations in the Caribbean.
From November 1900-May 1901, she cruised off Hispaniola. In June 1901, she arrived at Boston, and, on 24 July, she was again decommissioned. On 1 July 1902, Scorpion was assigned to the North Atlantic Squadron. For the next six years, she carried dispatches and personnel, conducted hydrographic surveys, participated in exercises along the United States East Coast and in the Caribbean, operating off Santo Domingo during 1906 and 1907. Ordered to the Mediterranean in 1908, Scorpion sailed from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on 22 October 1908. On 4 December 1908, she arrived at Constantinople in the Ottoman Empire to take up duties as station ship, but she was ordered to Messina, Italy to assist in relief efforts for the survivors of an earthquake there, she supported International Medical Service efforts from 3–8 January 1909 steamed back to the Ottoman Empire. From 10 February-15 July, she was at Naples, for repairs, she returned to Constantinople on 20 July and assumed station ship duties, which included work for the U.
S. Embassy. From 27 November 1910 – 28 January 1912, she was at Trieste in Austria-Hungary for extensive repairs, in February 1912 she returned to Constantinople. In August 1912, she assisted earthquake victims in the Ottoman Empire and, in October 1912, as the First Balkan War broke out, she commenced operations to assist Americans caught in disputed areas. On 18 November, the Diplomatic Corps resident in Constantinople decided to land 2,500 men and 26 guns to protect foreign residents and their interests from rioting. In addition to detachments from British, German and Russian warships, Scorpion landed a small detail to guard the U. S. Legation; the men from Scorpion reembarked on 3 December. Throughout the First Balkan War, which lasted six months, the Second Balkan War, which followed in the summer of 1913, Scorpion continued to protect American interests. After the two wars, she assisted the international commissions which gave aid to refugees and displaced persons. World War I began in August 1914, in November 1914 the Ottoman Empire entered it on the side of the Central Powers.
During the first years of the war, the Ottoman government held the Scorpion at Constantinople. The U. S. entered the war on the side of the Allies on 6 April 1917, and, on 11 April, the government interned Scorpion. Under Ottoman Turkish guard from 15 November, she was allowed to assist British personnel released from prisoner-of-war camps in the interior of the Ottoman Empire during late October 1918; the armistice that ended the participation of the Ottoman Empire in World War I went into force on 28 October 191
USS Scorpion (SS-278)
USS Scorpion – a Gato-class submarine – was the fifth ship of the United States Navy to be named for the scorpionHer keel was laid down by Portsmouth Naval Shipyard of Kittery, Maine, on 20 March 1942. She was launched on 20 July 1942 sponsored by Ms. Elizabeth T. Monagle, commissioned on 1 October 1942, Lieutenant Commander William N. Wylie in command. Following further yard work and fitting out, Scorpion conducted shakedown operations off the southern New England coast in January 1943 and sailed for Panama in late February. In mid-March she transited the Panama Canal, arriving at Hawaii on 24 March. There she underwent modifications which included the installation of a bathythermograph, a then-new oceanographic instrument to enable her to locate and hide in thermal layers that minimized the effectiveness of sonar equipment. On 5 April, Scorpion departed Pearl Harbor for her first war patrol, a hunting and mining mission off the east coast of Honshū. On 19 April, she reached the mining area near Nakaminato.
During the afternoon she reconnoitered the coast and in the evening she laid her naval mines retired to deep water. On 20 April, she sank her first enemy ship – a 1,934 long tons converted gunboat, Meiji Maru No.1. On 21 April, prior to 01:00, she fired on and destroyed her first sampan in surface action moved up the coast to observe the fishing grounds, shipping lanes, coastline of the Shioya Saki area. On the night of 22 April, she destroyed three more sampans with gunfire and continued north toward Kinkasan To. With the absence of shipping along the coastal lanes, she moved seaward and on 27 April sighted a convoy of four freighters escorted by a destroyer. At 04:59, she launched four torpedoes at the largest merchantman. At 05:05, the destroyer dropped her first depth charges. A half-hour the Japanese warship broke off her search for Scorpion to aid the stricken passenger-cargo ship. While Scorpion escaped with slight damage, the 6,380 long tons merchant vessel Yuzan Maru sank. On 28 April, Scorpion received orders home.
En route on 29 April, she sighted and engaged a 100 long tons patrol vessel, which she left burning to the waterline. On the morning of 30 April she stalked, fired on, torpedoed and sank a 600 long tons patrol ship Ebisu Maru No.5. During the 105-minute fight, Scorpion received her first casualty. Lt. Cdr. R. M. Raymond -- on board as prospective commanding officer -- was killed by gunfire. Soon after the patrol vessel went down, an enemy plane appeared. Scorpion submerged, survived the plane's depth charges and continued toward Midway Island and Pearl Harbor, arriving on 8 May. With a 4 in /50 gun in place of her 3 in /50 gun, Scorpion set out on her second war patrol on 29 May. On 2 June, she refueled at Midway, on 21 June she arrived off Takara Jima in the Tokara Gunto. For the next week, she searched for targets in that archipelago in an effort to disrupt shipping on the Formosa-Nagasaki routes. On 28 June, she shifted her hunt to the Yellow Sea and, by 30 June, was off the Shantung Peninsula.
On 3 July, she sighted a five-freighter convoy with one escort making its way through the eastern waters of that sea. By 09:55, she dived; as the depth charging began, she struck bottom at 150 ft. Two charges exploded close by. Between 10:02 and 10:06, five more shook her hull. Fearing that she was stirring up a mud trail, her screws were stopped and she settled on the bottom at 174 ft. At 10:08, a chain or cable was dragged over her hull. Four minutes her hull was scraped a second time. Underway again, she began evasive course changes and escaped further exploding charges; the hunt continued for over an hour. Postwar examination of Japanese records show that Scorpion scored five hits, sank a 3,890 long tons freighter – the Anzan Maru – and a 6,112 long tons passenger-cargo ship – the Kokuryu Maru; because of damage received during the depth charging, Scorpion retraced her route through Tokara Gunto. On 26 July, she arrived back at Pearl Harbor, underwent repairs, conducted training exercises, and, on 13 October, departed Pearl Harbor for her third war patrol.
After touching at Midway on 17 October, she headed for the Mariana Islands, where she reconnoitered Pagan Island and Agrihan Island on 25–26 October, Farallon de Pajoras on 1–2 November. On the last date, she struck an uncharted pinnacle. On 3 November, she was off Maug. Squalls interfered and she abandoned the target after a four-hour chase. On 7 November, she was back off Agrihan; the freighter was a warship disguised as a merchantman. Unable to regain the advantage, Scorpion retired. Poor weather continued to plague the submarine's hunting until, on 13 November, she sighted a freighter and a tanker escorted by three warships. Firing her torpedoes, she scored on the oiler. One of the escorts dropped depth charges rejoined the formation. On 14 November, Scorpion patrolled near Rota. For the next week, the submarine continued to work the shipping lanes of the Marianas without success. Heavy seas and squalls continued to shelter enemy traffic. On 22 November, she sighted a transport
USS Scorpion (1812)
USS Scorpion was a self-propelled floating artillery battery in commission with the United States Navy from 1812 to 1814. Scorpion was sloop-rigged and could be propelled by oars, she was built under contract for the U. S. Navy in 1812 for service during the War of 1812. Lieutenant Edmond P. Kennedy assumed command of the ship at Norfolk, Virginia, in September 1812. On 29 March 1813, Scorpion was ordered to the Potomac River to serve in the Potomac Flotilla, to protect Washington, D. C. Since Lieutenant Kennedy was to command the flotilla, Lieutenant George C. Read became the commanding officer of Scorpion on 4 May 1813. On 18 February 1814, Scorpion reported for duty at Baltimore, Maryland, in Commodore Joshua Barney's Chesapeake Bay Flotilla and became Commodore Barney's flagship. On 24 May 1814, with Major William B. Barney, Commodore Barney's son, acting as captain of Scorpion, the flotilla sailed for the lower Chesapeake Bay in an attempt to stop the British from advancing toward Washington.
On 1 June 1814, a British squadron was encountered at the mouth of the Patuxent River, the flotilla was forced to retreat up the river. During the following weeks, Commodore Barney's flotilla engaged the British on several occasions and was able to delay the British advance. On 21 August 1814, facing overwhelming odds, Barney was forced to retreat and landed his men at Pig Point, near Upper Marlboro, Maryland. Barney and his men marched to assist in the defense of Washington, leaving Scorpion and the rest of the flotilla to be burned by a detail of men under Lieutenant Solomon Frazier to prevent the capture of the ships by the British. For more than a century, the remains of some of the flotilla were visible in the Patuxent River mud, but by the mid-20th century they had vanished, thanks to the river silt. In 1979, marine researchers explored the Pig Point waters and located a shipwreck they thought to be Scorpion. U. S. Navy and State of Maryland divers began exploring the site; the researchers issued a report in 2011.
Http://www.history.navy.mil/ua/docs/USS%20Scorpion%20Project%202010%20Field%20Report-%20FINAL_2-15-2012.pdf This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entry can be found here
USS Scorpion (SSN-589)
USS Scorpion was a Skipjack-class nuclear submarine of the United States Navy and the sixth vessel of the U. S. Navy to carry that name. Scorpion was lost on 22 May 1968, with 99 crewmen dying in the incident. USS Scorpion is one of two nuclear submarines the U. S. Navy has lost, it was one of four mysterious submarine disappearances in 1968, the others being the Israeli submarine INS Dakar, the French submarine Minerve and the Soviet submarine K-129. Scorpion's keel was laid down 20 August 1958 by General Dynamics Electric Boat in Groton, Connecticut, she was launched 19 December 1959, sponsored by Mrs. Elizabeth S. Morrison, the daughter of the last commander of the World War II-era USS Scorpion. Scorpion was commissioned 29 July 1960, Commander Norman B. Bessac in command. Assigned to Submarine Squadron 6, Division 62, Scorpion departed New London, Connecticut, 24 August for a two-month European deployment. During that time, she participated in exercises with NATO-member navies. After returning to New England in late October, she trained along the eastern seaboard until May 1961.
On 9 August 1961, she returned to New London, moving to Virginia, a month later. In 1962, she earned a Navy Unit Commendation. Norfolk was Scorpion's port for the remainder of her career, she specialized in developing nuclear submarine warfare tactics. Varying roles from hunter to hunted, she participated in exercises along the Atlantic coast and Puerto Rico operating areas. From June 1963 to May 1964, she interrupted operations for an overhaul at Charleston, she resumed duty in late spring, but was again interrupted from 4 August to 8 October for a transatlantic patrol. In the spring of 1965, she conducted a similar patrol in European waters. In 1966 she deployed for special operations. After completing those assignments, her commanding officer received a Navy Commendation Medal for outstanding leadership and professional skill. Other Scorpion officers and crewmen were cited for meritorious achievement. Scorpion is reputed to have entered an inland Russian sea during a "Northern Run" in 1966, where it filmed a Soviet missile launch through its periscope before fleeing from Soviet Navy ships.
On 1 February 1967, Scorpion entered Norfolk Naval Shipyard for needed refueling overhaul. However, instead of a much-needed complete overhaul, she received only emergency repairs to get back on duty; the preferred SUBSAFE program required increased submarine overhaul times, from 9 months in length to 36 months. Intensive vetting of submarine component quality, SUBSAFE, was required, coupled with various improvements and intensified structural inspections – hull-welding inspections using ultrasonic testing – and reduced availability of critical parts like seawater piping. Cold War pressures prompted U. S. Submarine Force Atlantic officers to seek ways to cut corners; the last overhaul cost one-seventh of those performed on other nuclear submarines at the same time. This was the result of concerns about the "high percentage of time offline" for nuclear attack submarines, estimated at about 40% of total available duty time. Scorpion's original. Long-overdue SUBSAFE work, such as a new central valve control system, was not performed.
Crucially, her emergency system was not corrected for the same problems. While Charleston Naval Ship Yard claimed the Emergency Main Ballast Tank Blow system worked as-is, SUBLANT claimed it did not, their EMBT was "tagged out" or listed as unusable. Perceived problems with overhaul duration led to a delay on all SUBSAFE work in 1967. CNO Admiral David Lamar McDonald approved Scorpion's reduced overhaul on 17 June 1966. On 20 July, McDonald deferred SUBSAFE extensions, otherwise deemed essential since 1963.. In late October 1967, Scorpion started refresher training and weapons system acceptance tests, was given a new commanding officer, Francis Slattery. Following type training out of Norfolk, she got underway on 15 February 1968 for a Mediterranean Sea deployment, she operated with the 6th Fleet into May and headed west for home. Scorpion suffered several mechanical malfunctions, including a chronic problem with Freon leakage from refrigeration systems. An electrical fire occurred in an escape trunk when a water leak shorted out a shore power connection?
There is no evidence that Scorpion's speed was restricted in May 1968, although it was conservatively observing a depth limitation of 500 feet, due to the incomplete implementation of planned post-Thresher safety checks and modifications. Departing the Mediterranean on 16 May, two men left Scorpion at Naval Station Rota in Spain, one for a family emergency and the other was dispatched for health reasons; some U. S. ballistic missile submarines operated from the U. S. Naval base Rota, it is speculated that USS Scorpion provided noise cover for USS John C. Calhoun as they both departed to the Atlantic the first time; as well as Soviet intelligence trawlers, there were Soviet fast nuclear attack submarines attempting to detect and follow the U. S. submarines going out of Rota. Scorpion was detailed to observe Soviet naval activities in the Atlantic in the vicinity of the Azores. An Echo II-class submarine was operating with this Soviet task force, as well as a Russian guided missile destroyer. Having observed and listened to the Soviet units, Scorpion prepared to head back to Naval St