The Caribbean is a region of The Americas that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands and the surrounding coasts. The region is southeast of the Gulf of Mexico and the North American mainland, east of Central America, north of South America. Situated on the Caribbean Plate, the region comprises more than 700 islands, islets and cays; these islands form island arcs that delineate the eastern and northern edges of the Caribbean Sea. The Caribbean islands, consisting of the Greater Antilles on the north and the Lesser Antilles on the south and east, are part of the somewhat larger West Indies grouping, which includes the Lucayan Archipelago; the Lucayans and, less Bermuda, are sometimes considered Caribbean despite the fact that none of these islands border the Caribbean Sea. In a wider sense, the mainland countries and territories of Belize, the Caribbean region of Colombia, the Yucatán Peninsula, Margarita Island, the Guyanas, are included due to their political and cultural ties with the region.
Geopolitically, the Caribbean islands are regarded as a subregion of North America and are organized into 30 territories including sovereign states, overseas departments, dependencies. From December 15, 1954, to October 10, 2010, there was a country known as the Netherlands Antilles composed of five states, all of which were Dutch dependencies. From January 3, 1958, to May 31, 1962, there was a short-lived political union called the West Indies Federation composed of ten English-speaking Caribbean territories, all of which were British dependencies; the West Indies cricket team continues to represent many of those nations. The region takes its name from that of the Caribs, an ethnic group present in the Lesser Antilles and parts of adjacent South America at the time of the Spanish conquest of the Americas; the two most prevalent pronunciations of "Caribbean" outside the Caribbean are, with the primary stress on the third syllable, with the stress on the second. Most authorities of the last century preferred the stress on the third syllable.
This is the older of the two pronunciations, but the stressed-second-syllable variant has been established for over 75 years. It has been suggested that speakers of British English prefer while North American speakers more use, but major American dictionaries and other sources list the stress on the third syllable as more common in American English too. According to the American version of Oxford Online Dictionaries, the stress on the second syllable is becoming more common in UK English and is considered "by some" to be more up to date and more "correct"; the Oxford Online Dictionaries claim that the stress on the second syllable is the most common pronunciation in the Caribbean itself, but according to the Dictionary of Caribbean English Usage, the most common pronunciation in Caribbean English stresses the first syllable instead. The word "Caribbean" has multiple uses, its principal ones are political. The Caribbean can be expanded to include territories with strong cultural and historical connections to slavery, European colonisation and the plantation system.
The United Nations geoscheme for the Americas presents the Caribbean as a distinct region within the Americas. Physiographically, the Caribbean region is a chain of islands surrounding the Caribbean Sea. To the north, the region is bordered by the Gulf of Mexico, the Straits of Florida and the Northern Atlantic Ocean, which lies to the east and northeast. To the south lies the coastline of the continent of South America. Politically, the "Caribbean" may be centred on socio-economic groupings found in the region. For example, the bloc known as the Caribbean Community contains the Co-operative Republic of Guyana, the Republic of Suriname in South America and Belize in Central America as full members. Bermuda and the Turks and Caicos Islands, which are in the Atlantic Ocean, are associate members of the Caribbean Community; the Commonwealth of the Bahamas is in the Atlantic and is a full member of the Caribbean Community. Alternatively, the organisation called the Association of Caribbean States consists of every nation in the surrounding regions that lie on the Caribbean, plus El Salvador, which lies on the Pacific Ocean.
According to the ACS, the total population of its member states is 227 million people. The geography and climate in the Caribbean region varies: Some islands in the region have flat terrain of non-volcanic origin; these islands include Aruba, Curaçao, Bonaire, the Cayman Islands, Saint Croix, the Bahamas, Antigua. Others possess rugged towering mountain-ranges like the islands of Saint Martin, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Dominica, Saba, Sint Eustatius, Saint Kitts, Saint Lucia, Saint Thomas, Saint John, Grenada, Saint Vincent, Guadeloupe and Trinidad and Tobago. Definitions of the terms Greater Antilles and Lesser Antilles vary; the Virgin Islands as part of the Puerto Rican bank are sometimes included with the Greater Antilles. The term Lesser Antilles is used to define an island arc that includes Grenada but excludes Trinidad and Tobago and the Leeward Antilles; the waters of the Caribbean Sea host large, migratory schools of fish and coral reef
USS Mount McKinley
USS Mount McKinley was the lead ship of the Mount McKinley class of amphibious force command ships. She was named after the highest mountain in North America, she was designed as an amphibious force flagship, a floating command post with advanced communications equipment and extensive combat information spaces to be used by the amphibious forces commander and landing force commander during large-scale operations. Mount McKinley, was laid down as Cyclone, a transport, on 31 July 1943 by North Carolina Shipbuilding Company, North Carolina. After a brief shakedown cruise, she departed Norfolk 8 June 1944 for Hawaii, arriving at Pearl Harbor on 27 June. Mount McKinley got underway on 20 July, for Palau with Amphibious Group 5 embarked; the assault force arrived off Peleliu 15 September, with ComPhibGru 5 directing the landing of the 1st Marine Division. On 28 September, Mount McKinley proceeded to nearby Ngesebus Island to provide shore bombardment coordination. Mount McKinley left the area 14 October after Peleliu and the other main islands of the chain were secure.
After a stop at Hollandia, Dutch New Guinea, the ship sailed to San Pedro Bay, Leyte Gulf, for the assault on Leyte and Ormoc. While in San Pedro Bay, the force was under constant air attack. On 15 December the ship participated in the invasion of Mindoro and proceeded to Lingayen Gulf to direct shore bombardment on 9 January. After directing an unopposed landing at San Narciso, near Subic Bay, the command ship returned to Leyte Gulf. On 21 March 1945, Mount McKinley proceeded to Kerama Retto off the southern coast of Okinawa. Six days prior to the last major assault of the war, Mount McKinley directed the landing of the 77th Infantry Division. For the next two months, the ship remained at anchorage at Kerama Retto, threatened by constant air attacks. On 22 May, she sailed for Saipan, thence to Pearl Harbor and San Francisco, arriving in CONUS 23 June. In overhaul for two months, she deployed 20 August. Arriving Sasebo 23 September, she participated in landing occupation troops there and at Kure.
Returning to the United States 12 February 1946, she sailed in the early summer for Bikini Atoll where she was flagship for Operation Crossroads. Admiral William H. P. Blandy, commanded Joint Task Force 1 during the atomic tests, set his flag aboard Mount McKinley. Following the atomic bomb test in July, the ship operated out of San Diego for the next 18 months. In early 1948, she was the command ship for the atomic bomb test at Eniwetok. Upon completion of these tests, she returned to San Diego to resume coastal operations. On 20 May 1950, Mount McKinley was underway for WesPac to conduct training operations with the 8th Army. On 26 June, the ship proceeded from Japan to direct the landing of American reinforcements at Po Han at the beginning of the Korean War. In early September 1950, General Douglas MacArthur was on board, directing the amphibious assault at Inchon which forced the Communists to retreat north; the next assault was against the mined port of Wonsan. When communist Chinese troops entered the war, American troops were pushed back to the Hungnam beachhead, Mount McKinley assisted in the evacuation.
In late January 1951, she assisted in the transfer of thousands of Korean refugees to Cheja Island. On 7 June 1951, Mount McKinley sailed from Yokosuka and entered Mare Island Naval Shipyard 3 August for an extensive overhaul. Mount McKinley departed for WesPac, 6 March 1952, returning to the States 30 January 1953. While in Mare Island Naval Shipyard, a helicopter deck was installed on the fantail. Mount McKinley sailed again, 27 October 1953, for her third tour of duty in the Korean War area, arriving Yokosuka 16 November. From until her departure for the States 30 July 1954, she was involved in fleet and amphibious exercises off Japan and Taiwan. After arrival in San Diego 18 August, the remainder of the year was spent in local operations and a month-long training exercise off Hawaii in October. In the spring of 1955, Mount McKinley served as flagship for Operation Wigwam, an underwater atomic bomb test in the central Pacific. After a yard overhaul in the summer of 1955, the amphibious flagship returned to WestPac in January 1956 for a three-month period.
In April, she was press observer ship for further nuclear tests. On 3 June, the ship was detached from the Pacific Fleet 1 September, she arrived Norfolk 20 September via the Panama Canal. The following 9 January, the command ship deployed to the Mediterranean. While in the eastern Mediterranean, the ship rescued the crew of a burning Greek fishing vessel, extinguished the fire, towed the damaged vessel into port. After conducting NATO and fleet exercises in the Mediterranean, she returned to Norfolk 19 June. September and early October were spent in Operation Strikeback and other NATO exercises in the eastern Atlantic. Mount McKinley was anchored in Portsmouth Navy Yard to provide command and control for parts of the'Orange' opposition naval forces during Operation Strikeback. In January 1958, Mount McKinley deployed to 6th Fleet, operating with the Amphibious Ready Group in NATO and U. S. exercises. Due to return to the States in June, the ship's departure was delayed due to increasing tensions in the Middle East.
The ship served as an afloat headquarters for the Marine force landed in Lebanon during the crisis of July 1958. She returned to Norfolk 16 August. Mount McKinley's third Mediterranean cruise from 20 February to 26 August 1959 was marked by seven amphibious exercises involving U. S. and NATO forces. In February 1960, the ship sailed to
United States Naval Academy
The United States Naval Academy is a four-year coeducational federal service academy adjacent to Annapolis, Maryland. Established on 10 October 1845, under Secretary of the Navy George Bancroft, it is the second oldest of the United States' five service academies, educates officers for commissioning into the United States Navy and United States Marine Corps; the 338-acre campus is located on the former grounds of Fort Severn at the confluence of the Severn River and Chesapeake Bay in Anne Arundel County, 33 miles east of Washington, D. C. and 26 miles southeast of Baltimore. The entire campus is a National Historic Landmark and home to many historic sites and monuments, it replaced Philadelphia Naval Asylum, in Philadelphia, that served as the first United States Naval Academy from 1838 to 1845 when the Naval Academy formed in Annapolis. Candidates for admission must both apply directly to the academy and receive a nomination from a Member of Congress. Students are referred to as midshipmen. Tuition for midshipmen is funded by the Navy in exchange for an active duty service obligation upon graduation.
1,200 "plebes" enter the Academy each summer for the rigorous Plebe Summer. About 1,000 midshipmen graduate. Graduates are commissioned as ensigns in the Navy or second lieutenants in the Marine Corps, but a small number can be cross-commissioned as officers in other U. S. services, the services of allied nations. The United States Naval Academy has some of the highest paid graduates in the country according to starting salary; the academic program grants a bachelor of science degree with a curriculum that grades midshipmen's performance upon a broad academic program, military leadership performance, mandatory participation in competitive athletics. Midshipmen are required to adhere to the academy's Honor Concept; the United States Naval Academy's campus is located in unincorporated Anne Arundel County, adjacent to Annapolis, at the confluence of the Severn River and the Chesapeake Bay. In its 2016 edition, U. S. News & World Report ranked the U. S. Naval Academy as the No. 1 public liberal arts college and tied for the 12th best overall liberal arts college in the U.
S. In the category of High School Counselor Rankings of National Liberal Arts Colleges, the Naval Academy is tied for No. 1 with the U. S. Military Academy and the U. S. Air Force Academy, is tied for the No. 5 spot for Best Undergraduate Engineering program at schools where doctorates not offered. In 2016, Forbes ranked the U. S. Naval Academy as No. 24 overall in its report "America's Top Colleges". Prospective candidates must either be nominated by certain public officials—or be the child of a Medal of Honor recipient, which entitles a qualified candidate to automatic admission without nomination. Nominations may be made by members of and delegates to Congress, the President or Vice-President, the Secretary of the Navy or certain other sources. Candidates must pass a physical fitness test and a thorough medical exam as part of the application process; the class of 2020 had 1,355 offers of appointment made to 17,043 applicants. In the 21st century, there have been about 1,200 students in each new class of plebes.
The U. S. government pays for tuition and board. Midshipmen receive monthly pay of $1,017.00, as of 2015. From this amount, pay is automatically deducted for the cost of uniforms, supplies and other miscellaneous expenses. Midshipmen only receive a portion of their total pay in cash while the rest is released during "firstie" year. Midshipmen fourth-class to midshipmen second-class receive monthly stipends of $100, $200, $300, respectively. Midshipmen first-class receive the difference between pay and outstanding expenses. Students at the naval academy are addressed as an official military rank and paygrade; as midshipmen are in the United States Navy, starting from the moment that they raise their hands and affirm the oath of office at the swearing-in ceremony, they are subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice, of which USNA regulations are a part, as well as to all executive policies and orders formulated by the Department of the Navy. The same term covers both females. Upon graduation, most naval academy midshipmen are commissioned as ensigns in the Navy or second lieutenants in the Marine Corps and serve a minimum of five years after their commissioning.
If they are selected to serve as a pilot, they will serve 8–11 years minimum from their date of winging, if they are selected to serve as a naval flight officer they will serve 6–8 years. Foreign midshipmen are commissioned into the armed forces of their native countries; the most recent graduating class, that of 2017, inducted 1,200 midshipmen in 2013 and graduated 1,053 in 2017. 768 were commissioned as 259 as Marine 2nd Lieutenants. This graduating class was composed of 242 women and 811 men Since 1959, midshipmen have been eligible for an interservice commission in the Air Force or Army, provided they meet that service's eligibility standards. Starting in 2004, midshipmen became eligible to seek Coast Guard commissions; every year, a small number of graduates do this -- four. In 2017, two members of the class were commissioned as Air Force 2nd Lieutenants. A small number of foreign students are admitted each year. In 2017, 17 foreign midshipmen were graduated. At the beginning of their second-class year, midshipmen make their commitment known as signing their "2-for-7."
This represents a commitment to f
Richard Weedt Widmark was an American film and television actor and producer. He was nominated for an Academy Award for his role as the villainous Tommy Udo in his debut film, Kiss of Death, for which he won the Golden Globe Award for Most Promising Newcomer. Early in his career, Widmark was typecast in similar villainous or anti-hero roles in films noir, but he branched out into more heroic leading and supporting roles in Westerns, mainstream dramas, horror films among others. For his contributions to the motion picture industry, Widmark has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6800 Hollywood Boulevard. In 2002, he was inducted into the Western Performers Hall of Fame at the National Cowboy & Western Heritage Museum in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Widmark was born December 26, 1914, in Sunrise Township, the son of Ethel Mae and Carl Henry Widmark, his father was of Swedish descent, his mother was of English and Scottish ancestry. Widmark grew up in Princeton and lived in Henry, for a short time, moving because of his father's work as a traveling salesman.
He attended Lake Forest College, where he studied acting and taught acting after he graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree in speech in 1936. Widmark made his debut as a radio actor in 1938 on Aunt Jenny's Real Life Stories. In 1941 and 1942, he was heard daily on the Mutual Broadcasting System in the title role of the daytime serial Front Page Farrell, introduced each afternoon as "the exciting, unforgettable radio drama... the story of a crack newspaperman and his wife, the story of David and Sally Farrell." Farrell was a top reporter for the Brooklyn Eagle. When the series moved to NBC, Widmark turned the role over to Carleton G. Young and Staats Cotsworth. During the 1940s, Widmark was heard on such network radio programs as Gang Busters, The Shadow, Inner Sanctum Mysteries, Joyce Jordan, M. D. Molle Mystery Theater and Ethel and Albert. In 1952, he portrayed Cincinnatus Shryock in an episode of Cavalcade of America titled "Adventure on the Kentucky", he returned to radio drama decades performing on CBS Radio Mystery Theater, was one of the five hosts on Sears Radio Theater from 1979–81.
Widmark appeared on Broadway in 1943 in F. Hugh Herbert's Kiss and Tell and in William Saroyan's "Get Away Old Man," directed by George Abbott, which ran for 13 performances, he was unable to join the military during World War II because of a perforated eardrum. He was in Chicago appearing in a stage production of Dream Girl with June Havoc when 20th Century Fox signed him to a seven-year contract. Widmark's first movie appearance was in Kiss of Death, as the giggling, sociopathic villain Tommy Udo. In his most notorious scene, Udo pushed a woman in a wheelchair down a flight of stairs to her death. Widmark was not cast, he said, "Henry Hathaway, didn't want me. I have a high forehead. Hathaway was overruled by studio boss Darryl F. Zanuck. "Hathaway gave me kind of a bad time," recalled Widmark. Kiss of Death was a commercial and critical success: Widmark won the Golden Globe Award for New Star Of The Year - Actor, was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for his performance.
Widmark followed Kiss of Death with other villainous performances in The Street with No Name, Road House, the Western Yellow Sky, the latter film with Gregory Peck and Anne Baxter. Another standout villainous role was in the racial melodrama No Way Out, alongside Sidney Poitier in his film debut. Widmark and Poitier would become good friends and work in a number of films together in years. Widmark played heroic roles in films including Down to the Sea in Ships, Slattery's Hurricane, Elia Kazan's Panic in the Streets, he featured in Halls of Montezuma and Don't Bother to Knock, would go on to appear in two films for director Samuel Fuller. Widmark continued to appear in a number of successful films including The Tunnel of Love with Doris Day, the Westerns Warlock with Henry Fonda, John Wayne's The Alamo, the courtroom drama Judgment at Nuremberg, reuniting with Sidney Poitier in the adventure The Long Ships. Widmark produced and starred in the films Time Limit, The Secret Ways — based on a novel by Alistair MacLean, which Widmark directed due to clashes with original director Phil Karlson's proposed tongue-in-cheek direction of the screenplay — and The Bedford Incident, his third film with Sidney Poitier and loosely based on the Herman Melville novel Moby Dick.
Widmark began to drift into supporting roles during the 1970s, though he still played the occasional lead. He was part of an all-star cast in the 1974 film Murder on the Orient Express, The Swarm, he had a prominent supporting role in Michael Crichton's Coma, alongside Geneviève Bujold and Michael Douglas. Widmark continued to appear in a number of films during the 1980s, reuniting again with Sidney Poitier who directed him in the comedy Hanky Panky, alongside Gene Wilder, he featured in the political thriller Who Dares Wins, Against All Odds, with Jeff Bridges and James Woods. In all, Widmark appeared in over 60 films during his career, before making his final movie appearance in the 1991 drama True Colors. In an interview with Michael Shelden in 2002, Widmark complained that "movie-making has lost a lot of its magic." He thought it had become "mostly a mechan
Brooklyn is the most populous borough of New York City, with an estimated 2,648,771 residents in 2017. Named after the Dutch village of Breukelen, it borders the borough of Queens at the western end of Long Island. Brooklyn has several bridge and tunnel connections to the borough of Manhattan across the East River, the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge connects Staten Island. Since 1896, Brooklyn has been coterminous with Kings County, the most populous county in the U. S. state of New York and the second-most densely populated county in the United States, after New York County. With a land area of 71 square miles and water area of 26 square miles, Kings County is New York state's fourth-smallest county by land area and third-smallest by total area, though it is the second-largest among the city's five boroughs. Today, if each borough were ranked as a city, Brooklyn would rank as the third-most populous in the U. S. after Los Angeles and Chicago. Brooklyn was an independent incorporated city until January 1, 1898, after a long political campaign and public relations battle during the 1890s, according to the new Municipal Charter of "Greater New York", Brooklyn was consolidated with the other cities and counties to form the modern City of New York, surrounding the Upper New York Bay with five constituent boroughs.
The borough continues, however. Many Brooklyn neighborhoods are ethnic enclaves. Brooklyn's official motto, displayed on the Borough seal and flag, is Eendraght Maeckt Maght, which translates from early modern Dutch as "Unity makes strength". In the first decades of the 21st century, Brooklyn has experienced a renaissance as an avant garde destination for hipsters, with concomitant gentrification, dramatic house price increases, a decrease in housing affordability. Since the 2010s, Brooklyn has evolved into a thriving hub of entrepreneurship and high technology startup firms, of postmodern art and design; the name Brooklyn is derived from the original Dutch colonial name Breuckelen, meaning marshland. Established in 1646, the name first appeared in print in 1663; the Dutch colonists named it after the scenic town of Netherlands. Over the past two millennia, the name of the ancient town in Holland has been Bracola, Brocckede, Brocklandia, Broikelen and Breukelen; the New Amsterdam settlement of Breuckelen went through many spelling variations, including Breucklyn, Brucklyn, Brookland, Brockland and Brookline/Brook-line.
There have been so many variations of the name. The final name of Brooklyn, however, is the most accurate to its meaning; the history of European settlement in Brooklyn spans more than 350 years. The settlement began in the 17th century as the small Dutch-founded town of "Breuckelen" on the East River shore of Long Island, grew to be a sizeable city in the 19th century, was consolidated in 1898 with New York City, the remaining rural areas of Kings County, the rural areas of Queens and Staten Island, to form the modern City of New York; the etymology of Breuckelen may be directly from the dialect word Breuckelen meaning buckle or from the Plattdeutsch Brücken meaning bridge. The Dutch were the first Europeans to settle Long Island's western edge, largely inhabited by the Lenape, an Algonquian-speaking American Indian tribe who are referred to in colonial documents by a variation of the place name "Canarsie". Bands were associated with place names, but the colonists thought their names represented different tribes.
The Breuckelen settlement was named after Breukelen in the Netherlands. The Dutch West India Company lost little time in chartering the six original parishes: Gravesend: in 1645, settled under Dutch patent by English followers of Anabaptist Lady Deborah Moody, named for's-Gravenzande, Netherlands, or Gravesend, England Brooklyn Heights: as Breuckelen in 1646, after the town now spelled Breukelen, Netherlands. Breuckelen was located along Fulton Street between Smith Street. Brooklyn Heights, or Clover Hill, is where the village Brooklyn was founded in 1816. Flatlands: as Nieuw Amersfoort in 1647 Flatbush: as Midwout in 1652 Nieuw Utrecht: in 1657, after the city of Utrecht, Netherlands Bushwick: as Boswijck in 1661 The colony's capital of New Amsterdam, across the East River, obtained its charter in 1653 than the village of Brooklyn; the neighborhood of Marine Park was home to North America's first tide mill. It was built by the Dutch, the foundation can be seen today, but the area was not formally settled as a town.
Many incidents and documents relating to this period are in Gabriel Furman's 1824 compilation. What is Brooklyn today left Dutch hands after the final English conquest of New Netherland in 1664, a prelude to the Second Anglo–Dutch War. New Netherland was taken in a naval action, the conquerors renamed their prize in honor of the overall English naval commander, Duke of York, brother of the monarch King Charles II of England and future king himself as King James II of England and James VII of Scotland; the English reorganized the six old Dutch towns on southwestern Long Island as Kings County on November 1, 1683, one of the "original twelve counties" established in New York Pro
United States Fleet Forces Command
The United States Fleet Forces Command is a service component command of the United States Navy that provides naval forces to a wide variety of U. S. forces. The naval resources may be allocated to Combatant Commanders such as United States Northern Command under the authority of the Secretary of Defense. Formed as United States Atlantic Fleet in 1906, it has been an integral part of the defense of the United States of America since the early 20th century. In 2002, the Fleet comprised over 118,000 Navy and Marine Corps personnel serving on 186 ships and in 1,300 aircraft, with an area of responsibility ranging over most of the Atlantic Ocean from the North Pole to the South Pole, the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, the waters of the Pacific Ocean along the coasts of Central and South America; the command is based at Naval Support Activity Hampton Roads in Norfolk, Virginia and is the navy's service component to U. S. Northern Command and is a supporting command under the U. S. Strategic Command.
The command's mission is to organize, man and equip Naval Forces for assignment to Unified Command Combatant commanders. The Atlantic Fleet was established by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1906, at the same time as the Pacific Fleet, as protection for new bases in the Caribbean acquired as a result of the Spanish–American War; the Fleet was a combination of the South Atlantic Squadron. The first commander of the fleet was Rear Admiral Robley D. Evans, who hoisted his flag in the battleship USS Maine on 1 January 1906; the following year, he took his 16 battleships, now dubbed the Great White Fleet, on a round-the-world cruise that lasted until 1909, a goodwill tour that served the purpose of advertising the United States' naval strength and reach to all other nations of the globe. In January 1913 the fleet consisted of six first-line divisions, a torpedo flotilla and fleet auxiliaries; the fleet was under the command of Rear Admiral Hugo Osterhaus. The First Division, under Rear Admiral Bradley A. Fiske, consisted of USS Florida, USS Delaware, USS North Dakota.
The Second Division, under Rear Admiral Nathaniel R. Usher with his flag aboard the USS Vermont, consisted of USS Louisiana, USS Michigan, USS New Hampshire, USS South Carolina; the Third Division, under Rear Admiral Cameron McR. Winslow, comprised USS Virginia, USS Georgia, USS New Jersey, USS Rhode Island, USS Nebraska; the Fourth Division, under Rear Admiral Frank F. Fletcher, consisted of the USS Minnesota, USS Connecticut, USS Ohio, USS Idaho, USS Kansas.. Fifth and Sixth Divisions were made up of protected cruisers, USS St. Louis, USS Tennessee, USS Washington, USS Cleveland, USS Denver, USS Des Moines, USS Tacoma; the Cruiser and Transport Force, under Rear Admiral Albert Gleaves served in Atlantic waters during World War I moving the American Expeditionary Forces to Europe. United States Battleship Division Nine joined the Grand Fleet in the UK; the Atlantic Fleet was reorganized into the Scouting Force in 1923, under the United States Fleet along with the Pacific Fleet. In January 1939 the Atlantic Squadron, United States Fleet, was formed.
The aircraft carrier USS Ranger was transferred to the Atlantic Ocean. Vice Admiral Alfred Wilkinson Johnson commanded the squadron. On 1 November 1940 the Atlantic Squadron was renamed the Patrol Force; the Patrol Force was organized into type commands: Patrol Force. On 1 February 1941, the Atlantic Fleet was organized from the Patrol Force. Along with the Pacific Fleet and Asiatic Fleet, the fleet was to be under the command of a full admiral, which jumped the fleet's commander Ernest J. King from a two-star to a four-star. King's flagship was USS Texas. Subsequently, the headquarters was in a rather odd assortment of ships. In 1948, the HQ moved into the former naval hospital at Norfolk and has remained there since. On 7 December 1941 the Fleet comprised eight separate components: Battleships, Atlantic Fleet was made up of three Battleship Divisions Of these, Battleship Division 5 was a training unit consisting of the oldest remaining battleships in service, while Division 6 was responsible for working up the two most commissioned battleships, North Carolina and Washington.
The other components were Atlantic Fleet, which included Carrier Division Three. During World War II "Transports, Amphibious Force, Atlantic Fleet" was part of this command. Smaller units included the Antisubmarine Development Detachment, Atlantic Fleet located at Quonset Point, Rhode Island; the detachment was responsible for the study and development of antisubmarine gear during World War II. The Commander of the detachment was known as COMASDEVLANT. In addition, the aircraft carriers USS Yorktown and USS Long Island were directl
United States Sixth Fleet
The Sixth Fleet is a numbered fleet of the United States Navy operating as part of United States Naval Forces Europe. The Sixth Fleet is headquartered at Italy; the stated mission of the Sixth Fleet in 2011 is that it "conducts the full range of Maritime Operations and Theater Security Cooperation missions, in concert with coalition, joint and other parties, in order to advance security and stability in Europe and Africa." The current commander of the Sixth Fleet is Vice Admiral Lisa M. Franchetti; the Sixth Fleet was established in February 1950 by redesignation of the former Sixth Task Fleet, which in turn was the 1948 redesignation of U S Naval Forces, Mediterranean. Since that time, it has been continually engaged in world affairs around the Mediterranean, and, on occasion, further afield, it was involved in numerous NATO maritime exercises, the U. S. Lebanese intervention of 1958, confrontation with the Soviets during the Yom Kippur War of 1973, clearance of the Suez Canal after 1973, several confrontations with Libya during the 1980s, maintenance of task forces in the Adriatic during the wars in former Yugoslavia in the 1990s.
Most it launched airstrikes on Libya again during the Libyan Civil War of 2011. The United States has maintained a naval presence in the Mediterranean since the early 19th century, when U. S. Naval forces first engaged the Barbary pirates to prevent them from interfering with commercial shipping; the earliest unit was the Mediterranean Squadron. On 1 February 1946, U. S. Naval Forces, Northwest African Waters, was redesignated U. S. Naval Forces, Mediterranean; the force was responsible to U. S. Naval Forces, Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean in London, had as its flagship a destroyer tender, anchored at Naples, Italy. In 1946, President Truman dispatched the battleship Missouri to the Eastern Mediterranean, ostensibly to return the body of Münir Ertegün, former Turkish Ambassador to Washington, back to Istanbul; however a much stronger motive was to demonstrate U. S. power in view of Soviet threats to Turkey and Iran. The cruiser Dayton began operating with the fleet. In June 1946 Fargo, flying the flag of Vice Admiral Bernhard Bieri, Naval Forces Mediterranean, was despatched to Trieste.
On 5 September 1946, USS Franklin D. Roosevelt, flying the flag of Rear Admiral John H. Cassady, Commander Carrier Division 1, accompanied by USS Little Rock, USS Cone, USS New and USS Corry, visited Piraeus, the port of Athens. USS Randolph, escorted by USS Fargo and USS Perry, visited Greece in December 1946; the title of Naval Forces Mediterranean was changed to Commander Sixth Task Fleet and in 1950, Sixth Fleet. Sixth Fleet's NATO guise was the principal player in Exercise Longstep during November 1952. In 1957, a naval exercise, Operation Deep Water, took place within the Allied Forces Southern Europe area of responsibility, it was conducted by Naval Striking and Support Forces Southern Europe, commanded by Vice Admiral Charles R. Brown USN, who commanded the Sixth Fleet. STRIKEFORSOUTH was the NATO designation for the U. S. Sixth Fleet, though additional NATO headquarters personnel would be assigned, while maintaining American control over its nuclear weapons on board U. S. aircraft carriers as mandated by the Atomic Energy Act of 1946.
Sixth Fleet supported American land forces during Operation Blue Bat in Lebanon in 1958. On 20 January 1967, following France's withdrawal from the NATO Military Command Structure, the removal of NATO troops from France, Sixth Fleet Headquarters was moved from Villefranche-sur-Mer, France to Gaeta, Italy. During the Cold War, the Sixth Fleet had several confrontations with the Soviet Navy's 5th Operational Squadron, notably during the 1973 Yom Kippur War. During the Yom Kippur War Elmo Zumwalt describes part of the Sixth Fleet buildup as follows: On 25 October JCS directed TG 20.1, John F. Kennedy and escorts, to... ComSixthFleet as TG 60.3 and proceed to join TG 60 south of Crete. Additionally, Franklin D. Roosevelt and escorts and TF61/62 were directed to join TG 60.1 south of Crete.... TG 100.1 were ordered to proceed to the Mediterranean and chop to ComSixthFleet... In an exchange of notes on 13 and 25 April 1974, the United States and Egypt agreed that the United States would provide extensive assistance to clear the Suez Canal of mines, unexploded ordnance, sunken ships.
These operations took the form of Nimbus Star, Nimbus Moon, Nimrod Spar, in which a private salvage contractor would clear the canal of the ten sunken ships under the supervision of the Sixth Fleet's Task Force 65. Captain J. Huntly Boyd, the Navy's Supervisor of Salvage, was sent to the Canal Zone as Commander, Salvage Task Group, he supervised the actual salvage clearing operation, carried out by the Murphy Pacific Marine Salvage Company of New York. A total of ten ships blocked the canal; the canal reopened on 5 June 1975, with the Sixth Fleet flagship Little Rock in attendance. In 1999, changes to CINCUSNAVEUR's area of responsibility were announced, after amendments to the Unified Command Plan; the United States Atlantic Command areas that had included the waters off Europe and the west coast of Africa were to be transferred to European Command. U. S. European Command had responsibility for all U. S. land and air military planning in Europe and most of Africa. The change gave EUCOM, NAVEUR, the respon