Battle of Mobile Bay
The Battle of Mobile Bay of August 5, 1864 was an engagement of the American Civil War in which a Union fleet commanded by Rear Admiral David G. Farragut, assisted by a contingent of soldiers, attacked a smaller Confederate fleet led by Admiral Franklin Buchanan and three forts that guarded the entrance to Mobile Bay. A paraphrase of his order, "Damn the torpedoes, full speed ahead!" became famous. Farragut's actual order was "Damn the torpedoes! Four bells. Captain Drayton, go ahead! Jouett, full speed!". The battle was marked by Farragut's rash but successful run through a minefield that had just claimed one of his ironclad monitors, enabling his fleet to get beyond the range of the shore-based guns; this was followed by a reduction of the Confederate fleet to a single vessel, ironclad CSS Tennessee. Tennessee did not retire, but engaged the entire Northern fleet. Tennessee's armor enabled her to inflict more injury than she received, but she could not overcome the imbalance in numbers, she was reduced to a motionless hulk and surrendered, ending the battle.
With no Navy to support them, the three forts surrendered within days. Complete control of lower Mobile Bay thus passed to the Union forces. Mobile had been the last important port on the Gulf of Mexico east of the Mississippi River remaining in Confederate possession, so its closure was the final step in completing the blockade in that region; this Union victory, together with the capture of Atlanta, was extensively covered by Union newspapers and was a significant boost for Abraham Lincoln's bid for re-election three months after the battle. The city of Mobile is situated near the head of Mobile Bay, where a natural harbor is formed by the meeting of the Mobile and Tensaw rivers; the bay is about 33 mi long. It is deep enough to accommodate ocean-going vessels in the lower half without dredging; the mouth of the bay is marked on the east by a long narrow peninsula of sand, Mobile Point, that separates Bon Secour Bay, where the Bon Secour River enters the larger bay, from the gulf. The point ends at the main channel into Mobile Bay, here the United States government erected a pre-war fort to shield Mobile from enemy fleets.
Across the entrance, the line of the peninsula is continued in a series of barrier islands, beginning with Dauphin Island. Northwest of Dauphin Island is Little Dauphin Island a series of minor islands that are interrupted by a secondary entrance to the bay, Grant's Pass. A few other small islands and shoals lie to the south of Dauphin Island, defining the main channel for as much as 10 mi south of the entrance. Rather early in the war, the Confederate government decided not to defend its entire coastline, but rather to concentrate its efforts on a few of its most important ports and harbors. Following the loss of New Orleans in April 1862, Mobile became the only major port in the eastern Gulf of Mexico that needed to be defended; the city subsequently became the center for blockade running on the gulf. Most of the trade between the Confederacy and other Caribbean ports passed through Mobile. A few attempts were mounted to break the blockade, but they were not large enough to have lasting impact.
Among the most embarrassing episodes of the war for the U. S. Navy was the passage of the raider CSS Florida through the blockade into Mobile Bay on September 4, 1862. Although the orders given to Flag Officer David G. Farragut when he was assigned to command of the West Gulf Blockading Squadron had included instructions to capture Mobile as well as New Orleans, the early diversion of the squadron into the campaign for the lower Mississippi meant that the city and its harbor would not receive full attention until after the fall of Vicksburg in July 1863. Given respite by the Union strategy, the Confederate Army improved the defenses of Mobile Bay by strengthening Fort Morgan and Fort Gaines at the entrance to the bay. In addition, they set up a smaller work that guarded the Grant's Pass channel. Grant's Pass was obstructed by a set of piles and other impediments, which had the effect of diverting the tidal flow to Heron Pass. Mobile and Mobile Bay were within the Department of Alabama and East Louisiana, led by Major General Dabney H. Maury.
Although Mobile was the site of the department headquarters, Maury did not exercise immediate command of the forts at the entrance to the bay, he was not present during the battle and ensuing siege. Local command was entrusted to Brigadier General Richard L. Page; the primary contribution of the Confederate Army to the defense of Mobile Bay was the three forts. Fort Morgan was a masonry structure dating from 1834; the fort mounted 46 guns. Its garrison numbered about 600. Across the main channel from Fort Morgan on Dauphin Island was Fort Gaines, containing 26 guns, with a garrison of about 600; when Page was not present, command of the fort fell to Colonel Charles D. Anderson. At the western end of the bay was Fort Powell, smallest of the three, with 18 guns and about 140 men, it was commanded in Page's absence by Lieutenant Colonel James M. Williams. All three forts were flawed in; the raw numbers of troops available do not indicate how they would fight. The war was winding down, assertions were made that the morale of the soldiers was bad.
The judgment is hard to quantify, but it would explain at least in part the poor performance of the defenders. The Confeder
James Madison-class submarine
The James Madison class of submarine was an evolutionary development from the Lafayette class of fleet ballistic missile submarine. They were identical to the Lafayettes except for being designed to carry the Polaris A-3 missile instead of the earlier A-2; this class, together with the George Washington, Ethan Allen and Benjamin Franklin classes, composed the "41 for Freedom", the Navy's primary contribution to the nuclear deterrent force through the late 1980s. This class and the Benjamin Franklin class are combined with the Lafayettes in some references. In the early 1970s all were modified for the Poseidon C-3 missile. During the late 1970s and early 1980s, six boats were further modified to carry the Trident I C-4 missile, along with six Benjamin Franklin-class boats; these were James Madison, Daniel Boone, John C. Calhoun, Von Steuben, Casimir Pulaski, Stonewall Jackson; the James Madisons were decommissioned between 1986 and 1995 due to a combination of SALT II treaty limitations as the Ohio class SSBNs entered service and the collapse of the Soviet Union.
One remains out of commission but converted to a Moored Training Ship with the missile compartment removed. She is stationed at Nuclear Power Training Unit Charleston, South Carolina, along with USS Daniel Webster. Submarines of the James Madison class: 41 for Freedom Fleet Ballistic Missile submarines Fleet Ballistic Missile List of submarines of the United States Navy List of submarine classes of the United States Navy Gardiner and Chumbley, Stephen. Conway's All The World's Fighting Ships 1947-1995. Annapolis, USA: Naval Institute Press, 1995. ISBN 1-55750-132-7. Polmar, Norman; the Ships and Aircraft of the U. S. Fleet: Twelfth Edition. London:Arms and Armour Press, 1981. ISBN 0-85368-397-2. US Naval Vessel Register - List of SSBN BALLISTIC MISSILE SUBMARINE Class vessels This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. NavSource.org SSBN photo gallery index
A submarine is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater. It differs from a submersible, it is sometimes used or colloquially to refer to remotely operated vehicles and robots, as well as medium-sized or smaller vessels, such as the midget submarine and the wet sub. Although experimental submarines had been built before, submarine design took off during the 19th century, they were adopted by several navies. Submarines were first used during World War I, are now used in many navies large and small. Military uses include attacking enemy surface ships, attacking other submarines, aircraft carrier protection, blockade running, ballistic missile submarines as part of a nuclear strike force, conventional land attack, covert insertion of special forces. Civilian uses for submarines include marine science, salvage and facility inspection and maintenance. Submarines can be modified to perform more specialized functions such as search-and-rescue missions or undersea cable repair. Submarines are used in tourism, for undersea archaeology.
Most large submarines consist of a cylindrical body with hemispherical ends and a vertical structure located amidships, which houses communications and sensing devices as well as periscopes. In modern submarines, this structure is the "sail" in American usage and "fin" in European usage. A "conning tower" was a feature of earlier designs: a separate pressure hull above the main body of the boat that allowed the use of shorter periscopes. There is a propeller at the rear, various hydrodynamic control fins. Smaller, deep-diving and specialty submarines may deviate from this traditional layout. Submarines use diving planes and change the amount of water and air in ballast tanks to change buoyancy for submerging and surfacing. Submarines have one of the widest ranges of capabilities of any vessel, they range from small autonomous examples and one- or two-person vessels that operate for a few hours, to vessels that can remain submerged for six months—such as the Russian Typhoon class, the biggest submarines built.
Submarines can work at greater depths than are practical for human divers. Modern deep-diving submarines derive from the bathyscaphe, which in turn evolved from the diving bell. Whereas the principal meaning of "submarine" is an armed, submersible warship, the more general meaning is for any type of submersible craft; the definition as of 1899 was for any type of "submarine boat". By naval tradition, submarines are still referred to as "boats" rather than as "ships", regardless of their size. In other navies with a history of large submarine fleets they are "boats". According to a report in Opusculum Taisnieri published in 1562: Two Greeks submerged and surfaced in the river Tagus near the City of Toledo several times in the presence of The Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, without getting wet and with the flame they carried in their hands still alight. In 1578, the English mathematician William Bourne recorded in his book Inventions or Devises one of the first plans for an underwater navigation vehicle.
A few years the Scottish mathematician and theologian John Napier wrote in his Secret Inventions the following: "These inventions besides devises of sayling under water with divers, other devises and strategems for harming of the enemyes by the Grace of God and worke of expert Craftsmen I hope to perform." It's unclear whether he carried out his idea. The first submersible of whose construction there exists reliable information was designed and built in 1620 by Cornelis Drebbel, a Dutchman in the service of James I of England, it was propelled by means of oars. By the mid-18th century, over a dozen patents for submarines/submersible boats had been granted in England. In 1747, Nathaniel Symons patented and built the first known working example of the use of a ballast tank for submersion, his design used leather bags. A mechanism was used to cause the boat to resurface. In 1749, the Gentlemen's Magazine reported that a similar design had been proposed by Giovanni Borelli in 1680. Further design improvement stagnated for over a century, until application of new technologies for propulsion and stability.
The first military submarine was the Turtle, a hand-powered acorn-shaped device designed by the American David Bushnell to accommodate a single person. It was the first verified submarine capable of independent underwater operation and movement, the first to use screws for propulsion. In 1800, France built a human-powered submarine designed by the Nautilus; the French gave up on the experiment in 1804, as did the British when they considered Fulton's submarine design. In 1864, late in the American Civil War, the Confederate navy's H. L. Hunley became the first military submarine to sink an enemy vessel, the Union sloop-of-war USS Housatonic. In the aftermath of its successful attack against the ship, the Hunley sank because it was too close to its own exploding torpedo. In 1866, the Sub Marine Explorer was the first submarine to dive, cruise underwater, resurface under the control of the crew; the design by German American Julius H. Kroehl incorporated elements that are still used in modern submarines.
In 1866, the Flach was built at the request of the Chilean government, by Karl Flach, a German engineer and immigrant
A ballistic missile follows a ballistic trajectory to deliver one or more warheads on a predetermined target. These weapons are only guided during brief periods of flight—most of their trajectory is unpowered, being governed by gravity and air resistance if in the atmosphere. Shorter range ballistic missiles stay within the Earth's atmosphere, while longer-ranged intercontinental ballistic missiles, are launched on a sub-orbital flight trajectory and spend most of their flight out of the atmosphere; these weapons are in a distinct category from cruise missiles, which are aerodynamically guided in powered flight. The earliest use of rockets as a weapon dates to the 13th Century. A pioneer ballistic missile was the A-4 known as the V-2 rocket developed by Nazi Germany in the 1930s and 1940s under the direction of Wernher von Braun; the first successful launch of a V-2 was on October 3, 1942, it began operation on September 6, 1944 against Paris, followed by an attack on London two days later. By the end of World War II in Europe in May 1945, over 3,000 V-2s had been launched.
The R-7 Semyorka was the first intercontinental ballistic missile. A total of 30 nations have deployed operational ballistic missiles. Development continues with around 100 ballistic missile flight tests in 2007 by China and the Russian Federation. In 2010, the U. S. and Russian governments signed a treaty to reduce their inventory of intercontinental ballistic missiles over a seven-year period to 1550 units each. An intercontinental ballistic missile trajectory consists of three parts: the powered flight portion. Ballistic missiles can be launched from fixed sites or mobile launchers, including vehicles, aircraft and submarines; the powered flight portion can last from a few tenths of seconds to several minutes and can consist of multiple rocket stages. When in space no more thrust is provided, the missile enters free-flight. In order to cover large distances, ballistic missiles are launched into a high sub-orbital spaceflight; the re-entry stage begins at an altitude where atmospheric drag plays a significant part in missile trajectory, lasts until missile impact.
Reentry vehicles reenter the Earth's atmosphere at high velocities, on the order of 6-8 kilometers per second at ICBM ranges. The course taken by ballistic missiles has two significant desirable properties. First, ballistic missiles that fly above the atmosphere have a much longer range than would be possible for cruise missiles of the same size. Powered rocket flight through thousands of kilometers of air would require vastly greater amounts of fuel, making the launch vehicles larger and easier to detect and intercept. Powered missiles that can cover similar ranges, such as cruise missiles, do not use rocket motors for the majority of their flight, but instead use more economical jet engines. However, cruise missiles have not made ballistic missiles obsolete, due to the second major advantage: ballistic missiles can travel quickly along their flight path. An ICBM can strike a target within a 10,000 km range in about 30 to 35 minutes. With terminal speeds of over 5,000 m/s, ballistic missiles are much harder to intercept than cruise missiles, due to the much shorter time available.
Therefore, ballistic missiles are some of the most feared weapons available, despite the fact that cruise missiles are cheaper, more mobile, more versatile. Ballistic missiles can vary in range and use, are divided into categories based on range. Various schemes are used by different countries to categorize the ranges of ballistic missiles: Air-launched ballistic missile Tactical ballistic missile: Range between about 150 km and 300 km Theatre ballistic missile: Range between 300 km and 3,500 km Short-range ballistic missile: Range between 300 km and 1,000 km Medium-range ballistic missile: Range between 1,000 km and 3,500 km Intermediate-range ballistic missile or long-range ballistic missile: Range between 3,500 km and 5,500 km Intercontinental ballistic missile: Range greater than 5,500 km Submarine-launched ballistic missile: Launched from ballistic missile submarines. A comparable missile would be the decommissioned China's JL-1 SLBM with a range of less than 2,500 km. Tactical, short- and medium-range missiles are collectively referred to as tactical and theatre ballistic missiles, respectively.
Long- and medium-range ballistic missiles are designed to deliver nuclear weapons because their payload is too limited for conventional explosives to be cost-effective in comparison to conventional bomber aircraft. Throw-weight is a measure of the effective weight of ballistic missile payloads, it is measured in tonnes. Throw-weight equals the total weight of a missile's warheads, reentry vehicles, self-contained dispensing mechanisms, penetration aids, missile guidance sy
USS Tecumseh (1863)
USS Tecumseh was a Canonicus-class monitor built for the United States Navy during the American Civil War. Although intended for forthcoming operations against Confederate fortifications guarding Mobile Bay with Rear Admiral David Farragut's West Gulf Blockading Squadron, Tecumseh was temporarily assigned to the James River Flotilla in April 1864; the ship engaged Confederate artillery batteries in June. Tecumseh was sunk on 5 August during the Battle of Mobile Bay; the ship rests upside down northwest of Fort Morgan. The Smithsonian Institution surveyed her wreck in 1967 with the intent of raising it, but decided against the project when proffered funding was withdrawn. Several other plans to raise the wreck have been made; the ship was 223 feet long overall, had a beam of 43 feet 4 inches and had a maximum draft of 13 feet 6 inches. Tecumseh had a tonnage of 1,034 tons displaced 2,100 long tons, her crew enlisted men. Tecumseh was powered by a two-cylinder horizontal vibrating-lever steam engine that drove one propeller using steam generated by two Stimers horizontal fire-tube boilers.
The 320-indicated-horsepower engine gave the ship a top speed of 8 knots. She carried 140–150 long tons of coal. Tecumseh's main armament consisted of two smoothbore, muzzle-loading, 15-inch Dahlgren guns mounted in a single gun turret; each gun weighed 43,000 pounds. They could fire a 350-pound shell up to a range of 2,100 yards at an elevation of +7°; the exposed sides of the hull were protected by five layers of 1-inch wrought iron plates, backed by wood. The armor of the gun turret and the pilot house consisted of ten layers of one-inch plates; the ship's deck was protected by armor 1.5 inches thick. A 5-by-15-inch soft iron band was fitted around the base of the turret to prevent shells and fragments from jamming the turret as had happened to the older Passaic-class monitors during the First Battle of Charleston Harbor in April 1863; the base of the funnel was protected to a height of 6 feet by 8 inches of armor. A "rifle screen" of 1⁄2-inch armor 3 feet high was installed on the top of the turret to protected the crew against Confederate snipers based on a suggestion by Commander Tunis A. M. Craven.
The contract for Tecumseh, named after the Indian chief, was awarded to Charles Secor & Co.. She was commissioned on 19 April 1864 with Craven in command; the ship's construction was delayed by multiple changes ordered while she was being built that reflected battle experience with earlier monitors. This included the rebuilding of the turrets and pilot houses to increase their armor thickness from 8 inches to 10 inches and to replace the bolts that secured their armor plates together with rivets to prevent them from being knocked loose by the shock of impact from shells striking the turret. Other changes included deepening the hull by 18 inches to increase the ship's buoyancy, moving the position of the turret to balance the ship's trim and replacing all of the ship's deck armor. After commissioning, the ship was ordered to join the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron at Newport News and arrived there on 28 April. Tecumseh was ordered to protect the transports conveying Major General Benjamin Butler's Army of the James up the James River at the beginning of the Bermuda Hundred Campaign on 4 May.
To prevent Confederate warships from coming down from the James, the Union forces blocked the channel in mid-June 1864. Tecumseh sank four hulks and a schooner and laid several boom across the river as part of this effort. On 21 June, Commander Craven spotted a line of breastworks that the enemy was building at Howlett's Farm and the ship opened fire at the workers; the Confederates replied with a battery of four guns near the breastworks and her sisters Canonicus and Saugus joined in the bombardment. A half-hour Confederate ships near Dutch Gap joined in, but their fire was ineffective because they were firing blindly at the Union monitors. During the engagement, Tecumseh fired forty-six 15-inch shells and was not hit by any Confederate shells. Craven claimed the destruction of one gun emplacement. Two days after the battle, Tecumseh sailed down the James for Norfolk, but ran aground en route when her wire steering ropes broke after having been burned halfway through by the heat of her boilers.
She was refloated four hours and spend a week in Norfolk making repairs and taking on supplies. On 5 July, the ship got underway for Pensacola, Florida to join the West Gulf Blockading Squadron, towed by the side-wheel gunboats Augusta and Eutaw; the ship's engine had overheated en route and required a week's repairs at Port Royal, South Carolina and Augusta had to turn back with engine problems, but Eutaw and Tecumseh arrived in Pensacola on 28 July. Towed by the side-wheel gunboat Bienville, the monitor arrived off Mobile Bay on the evening of 4 August. Farragut briefed Craven on his ship's intended role in the battle, she and her sister Manhattan were to keep the ironclad ram CSS Tennessee away from the vulnerable wooden ships while they were passing Fort Morgan and sink her. The river monitors Winnebago and Chickasaw were to engage the fort until all of the wooden ships had passed; the four monitors would form the starboard column of ships, closest to Fort Morgan, with Tecumseh in the lead, while the wooden ships formed a separate column to port.
The eastern side of the channel clos
A tugboat is a type of vessel that maneuvers other vessels by pushing or pulling them either by direct contact or by means of a tow line. Tugs move vessels that either are restricted in their ability to maneuver on their own, such as ships in a crowded harbor or a narrow canal, or those that cannot move by themselves, such as barges, disabled ships, log rafts, or oil platforms. Tugboats are powerful for their size and built, some are ocean-going; some tugboats serve as icebreakers or salvage boats. Early tugboats had steam engines. Many tugboats have firefighting monitors, allowing them to assist in firefighting in harbors. Seagoing tugs fall into four basic categories: The standard seagoing tug with model bow that tows its "payload" on a hawser; the "notch tug" which can be secured in a notch at the stern of a specially designed barge making a combination ship. This configuration is dangerous to use with a barge, "in ballast" or in a head- or following sea. Therefore, "notch tugs" are built with a towing winch.
With this configuration, the barge being pushed might approach the size of a small ship, with interaction of the water flow allowing a higher speed with a minimal increase in power required or fuel consumption. The "integral unit", or "integrated tug and barge", comprises specially designed vessels that lock together in such a rigid and strong method as to be certified as such by authorities such as the American Bureau of Shipping, Lloyd's Register of Shipping, Indian Register of Shipping, Det Norske Veritas or several others; these units stay combined under any sea conditions and the tugs have poor sea-keeping designs for navigation without their barges attached. Vessels in this category are considered to be ships rather than tugboats and barges must be staffed accordingly; these vessels must show navigation lights compliant with those required of ships rather than those required of tugboats and vessels under tow. "Articulated tug and barge" units utilize mechanical means to connect to their barges.
The tug is attached by a hinged connection. ATBs utilize Intercon and Bludworth connecting systems. ATBs are staffed as a large tugboat, with between seven and nine crew members; the typical American ATB operating on the east coast customarily displays navigational lights of a towing vessel pushing ahead, as described in the 1972 ColRegs. Compared to seagoing tugboats, harbour tugboats are smaller and their width-to-length ratio is higher, due to the need for a lower draught. In smaller harbours these are also termed lunch bucket boats, because they are only manned when needed and only at a minimum, thus the crew will bring their own lunch with them; the number of tugboats in a harbour varies with the harbour infrastructure and the types of tugboats. Things to take into consideration include ships with/without bow thrusters and forces like wind and waves and types of ship. River tugs are referred to as towboats or pushboats, their hull designs would make open ocean operation dangerous. River tugs do not have any significant hawser or winch.
Their hulls feature a flat front or bow to line up with the rectangular stern of the barge with large pushing knees. Tugboat engines produce 500 to 2,500 kW, but larger boats can have power ratings up to 20,000 kW. Tugboats have an extreme power:tonnage-ratio; the engines are the same as those used in railroad locomotives, but drive the propeller mechanically instead of converting the engine output to power electric motors, as is common for diesel-electric locomotives. For safety, tugboats' engines feature two of each critical part for redundancy. A tugboat is rated by its engine's power output and its overall bollard pull; the largest commercial harbour tugboats in the 2000s–2010s, used for towing container ships or similar, had around 60 to 65 short tons-force of bollard pull, described as 15 short tons-force above "normal" tugboats. Tugboats are maneuverable, various propulsion systems have been developed to increase maneuverability and increase safety; the earliest tugs were fitted with paddle wheels, but these were soon replaced by propeller-driven tugs.
Kort nozzles have been added to increase thrust per kW/hp. This was followed by the nozzle-rudder; the cycloidal propeller was developed prior to World War II and was used in tugs because of its maneuverability. After World War II it was linked to safety due to the development of the Voith Water Tractor, a tugboat configuration which could not be pulled over by its tow. In the late 1950s, the was developed. Although sometimes referred to as the Aquamaster or Schottel system, many brands exist: Steerprop, Wärtsilä, Berg Propulsion, etc; these propulsion systems are used on tugboats designed for tasks such as ship docking and marine construction. Conventional propeller/rudder configurations are more efficient for port-to-port towing; the Kort nozzle is a sturdy cylindrical structure around a special propeller having minimum clearance between the propeller blades and the