Japanese submarine I-19
I-19 was a Japanese Type B1 submarine which damaged and destroyed several enemy ships during World War II while serving in the Imperial Japanese Navy. During the Guadalcanal Campaign, with a single torpedo salvo, the submarine sank the aircraft carrier USS Wasp and the destroyer USS O'Brien, damaged the battleship USS North Carolina. On February 23, 1942, I-19's Yokosuka E14Y floatplane made a night reconnaissance over Pearl Harbor, Hawaii in preparation for Operation K-1, the second attack on Pearl Harbor by the Imperial Japanese Navy. On March 4, she arrived at the French Frigate Shoals to serve as a radio beacon for the Kawanishi H8K flying boats that were to attack Pearl Harbor but did not otherwise participate in the attack, carried out effectually by two of the planned five H8Ks. On September 15, 1942, while patrolling south of the Solomon Islands during the Guadalcanal Campaign under the command of Commander Narahara Shogo, I-19 sighted and attacked the U. S. carrier Wasp, firing six torpedoes.
Three of the torpedoes hit the Wasp. With power knocked out due to damage from the torpedo explosions, Wasp’s damage-control teams were unable to contain the ensuing fires, she was scuttled. The remaining three torpedoes from the same spread incorrectly attributed to a second Japanese submarine, hit the U. S. battleship North Carolina and the destroyer O'Brien, the latter of which sank en route for repairs on October 19, 1942. Significant damage had been sustained by North Carolina, which underwent repairs at Pearl Harbor until November 16, 1942; this single torpedo salvo thus sank an aircraft carrier and a destroyer, damaged a battleship, making it one of the most damaging torpedo salvos in history. From November, 1942, until February, 1943, I-19 assisted with the nocturnal supply and reinforcement deliveries, evacuations for Japanese forces on Guadalcanal; these missions were labeled the "Tokyo Express" by Allied forces. Between April and September, 1943, I-19 was stationed off Fiji. During this time, the submarine sank two Allied cargo ships and damaged one.
After sinking one of the ships— SS William K. Vanderbilt— on May 16, 1943, I-19 surfaced and machine-gunned the surviving crew members in their lifeboats, killing one of them. On November 25, 1943, at 20:49, 50 nautical miles west of Makin Island, destroyer USS Radford detected I-19 on the surface with radar. After I-19 submerged, Radford attacked her with depth charges. I-19 was lost with all hands in this attack. I-19 was the number of the submarine commanded by Toshiro Mifune in the Steven Spielberg movie 1941. Horn, Steve; the Second Attack on Pearl Harbor: Operation K And Other Japanese Attempts to Bomb America in World War II. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-388-8. Jentschura, Hansgeorg. Warships of the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1869-1945. Annapolis, Maryland, USA: United States Naval Institute. ISBN 0-87021-893-X. Parshall, Jon. "Imperial Japanese Navy Page: HIJMS Submarine I-19: Tabular Record of Movement". Retrieved 2006-07-06
USS Wasp (LHD-1)
USS Wasp is a United States Navy multipurpose amphibious assault ship, the lead ship of her class. She is the tenth USN vessel to bear the name since 1775, with the last two ships named Wasp being aircraft carriers, she was built by the Ingalls Shipbuilding division of Litton in Mississippi. Wasp and her sister ships are the first designed to accommodate new Landing Craft Air Cushion for fast troop movement over the beach, Harrier II Vertical/Short Take-Off and Landing jets which provide close air support for the assault force, she can accommodate the full range of Navy and Marine Corps helicopters, the tiltrotor MV-22 Osprey, the F-35B Lightning II multi-role fighter, conventional landing craft, amphibious vehicles. To carry out her primary mission, Wasp has an assault support system that synchronizes the simultaneous horizontal and vertical flow of troops and vehicles throughout the ship. Two aircraft elevators service the hangar flight deck. Six cargo elevators, each 4 by 8 meters, are used to transport material and supplies from the 3,000-cubic-meter cargo holds throughout the ship to staging areas on the flight deck, hangar bay and vehicle storage area.
Cargo is transferred to waiting landing craft docked within the ship's 12,000-square-foot, 81-meter long well dock. Helicopters in the hangar bay or on the flight deck are cargo-loaded by forklift. Wasp has medical and dental facilities capable of providing intensive medical assistance to 600 casualties, whether combat incurred or brought aboard ship during humanitarian missions; the ship's corpsmen provide routine medical/dental care to the crew and embarked personnel. Major medical facilities include four main and two emergency operating rooms, four dental operating rooms, x-ray rooms, a blood bank and patient wards. In addition, three battle dressing stations are located throughout the ship, as well as a casualty collecting area at the flight deck level. Medical elevators transfer casualties from the flight deck and hangar bay to the medical facilities. For the comfort of the 1,075 crewmembers and 2,200 embarked troops, all manned spaces and berthing areas are individually heated and air conditioned.
Berthing areas are subdivided to provide semi-private spaces without adversely affecting efficiency. Onboard recreational facilities include a Library Multi-Media Resource Center with Internet access, a weight room, satellite television capabilities. Wasp's two steam propulsion plants generate a total of 400 tons of steam per hour; the propulsion system develops 70,000 shaft horsepower, powering the ship to speeds in excess of 22 knots. USS Wasp was built using more than 21,000 tons of steel, 400 tons of aluminum, 400 miles of electrical/electronic cables, 80 miles of piping and tubing of various types and sizes, 10 miles of ventilation ducting. Wasp weighed more than 27,000 tons when moved onto the Ingalls floating dry-dock on 30 July 1987 for launch on 4 August 1987, becoming the largest man-made object rolled across land. In 1996, the ship was fitted with the Advanced Combat Direction System. On 20 June 1991, Wasp departed homeport for her maiden six-month Mediterranean deployment. In February 1993, she left her port on an emergency deployment to Somalia to participate in the United Nations intervention: Operation Restore Hope.
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, General Colin Powell landed on the ship that April for a discussion of military tactics taking place in and around Mogadishu. Following that, she assisted with another operation off the coast of Kuwait, she made stops in Toulon and Rota, Spain, en route to her home port in Norfolk, Virginia. In 1998, she won the Marjorie Sterrett Battleship Fund Award for the Atlantic Fleet. With the exception of deployments noted below, from 2004 to 2012, Wasp was not deployed as or as long as other LHDs, as she was assigned to Joint Strike Fighter F-35B Lightning II testing and kept close to the U. S. as much as possible. Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Iraqi Freedom In February 2004, Wasp set sail to take the Marines of 1/6 Marine Regiment and HMM-266 Rein to Afghanistan, they arrived at the end of March to offload the Marines returned to the U. S. to transported them to Djibouti. After offloading HMH-461 in Djibouti, they picked up the Marines of HMM-266 Rein from Kuwait in August 2004, returned to Norfolk, Virginia mid-September 2004.
On 7 July 2006, Vice President Dick Cheney visited Wasp. He gave a speech honoring the efforts of the USS Nassau Expeditionary Strike Group in Operation Iraqi Freedom. Wasp was the first ship to deploy the V-22 Osprey, doing so in October 2007, by carrying VMM-263's ten MV-22B Ospreys to Iraq to participate in Operation Iraqi Freedom. Wasp served as the platform for the program's first Sea Trials in December 1990, involving the third and fourth Osprey prototypes. Wasp was the principal attraction at Fleet Week 2007 in New York City. On 4 October 2009, Wasp deployed from her base at Norfolk Naval Station in Norfolk, Virginia on a three-month voyage down the Atlantic coast to the Caribbean, with Destroyer Squadron 40 and an embarked Marine Air-Ground Task Force; the 1,100 sailors and 365 embarked Marines conducted operations and exercises in the U. S. 4th Fleet area of responsibility. The operation, called Southern Partnership Station, is part of a maritime strategy, which focuses on building interoperability and cooperation in the region while meeting common challenges.
In mid-October 2009, Wasp set anchor at the Guantanamo Bay Naval Base in Cuba and disembarked Marines who were assigned to training status for three months while Wasp
USS Wasp (CV-7)
USS Wasp was a United States Navy aircraft carrier commissioned in 1940 and lost in action in 1942. She was the eighth ship named USS Wasp, the sole ship of a class built to use up the remaining tonnage allowed to the U. S. for aircraft carriers under the treaties of the time. As a reduced-size version of the Yorktown-class aircraft carrier hull, Wasp was more vulnerable than other United States aircraft carriers available at the opening of hostilities. Wasp was employed in the Atlantic campaign, where Axis naval forces were perceived as less capable of inflicting decisive damage. After supporting the occupation of Iceland in 1941, Wasp joined the British Home Fleet in April 1942 and twice ferried British fighter aircraft to Malta. Wasp was transferred to the Pacific in June 1942 to replace losses at the battles of Coral Sea and Midway. After supporting the invasion of Guadalcanal, Wasp was hit by three torpedoes from Japanese submarine I-19 on 15 September 1942; the resulting damage set off several explosions, destroyed her water-mains and knocked out the ship's power.
As a result, her damage-control teams were unable to contain the ensuing fires that blazed out of control. She was abandoned and scuttled by USS Lansdowne that evening, her wreck was found in early 2019. Wasp was a product of the Washington Naval Treaty. After the construction of the carriers Yorktown and Enterprise, the U. S. was still permitted 15,000 long tons to build a carrier. The Navy sought to squeeze a large air group onto a ship with nearly 25% less displacement than the Yorktown-class. To save weight and space, Wasp was constructed with low-power propulsion machinery. Additionally, Wasp was launched with no armor, modest speed, more no protection from torpedoes. Absence of side protection of the boilers and internal aviation fuel stores "doomed her to a blazing demise"; these were inherent design flaws that were recognized when constructed, but could not be remedied within the allowed tonnage. These flaws, combined with a relative lack of damage control experience in the early days of the war, proved fatal.
Wasp was the first carrier fitted with a deck-edge elevator for aircraft. The elevator consisted of a platform for the front wheels of the plane and an outrigger for the tail wheel; the two arms on the sides moved the platform in a half-circle up and down between the flight deck and the hangar deck. Her keel was laid down on 1 April 1936 at the Fore River Shipyard in Massachusetts. Wasp remained at Boston through May, fitting out, before she got underway on 5 June 1940 for calibration tests on her radio direction finder gear. After further fitting out while anchored in Boston harbor, the new aircraft carrier steamed independently to Hampton Roads, anchoring there on 24 June. Four days she sailed for the Caribbean in company with the destroyer Morris. En route, she conducted the first of many carrier qualification tests. Among the earliest of the qualifiers was Lieutenant, junior grade David McCampbell, who became the Navy's top-scoring "ace" in World War II. Wasp arrived at Guantanamo Bay Naval Base in time to "dress ship" in honor of Independence Day.
A fatal incident marred the carrier's shakedown. On 9 July, one of her Vought SB2U-2 Vindicator dive bombers crashed 2 nautical miles from the ship. Wasp bent on flank speed to close; the latter's boats recovered items from the plane's baggage compartment, but the plane itself had gone down with its crew of two. Wasp returned to Hampton Roads four days later. There, she embarked planes from the 1st Marine Air Group and took them to sea for qualification trials. Operating off the southern drill grounds, the ship and her planes honed their skills for a week before the Marines and their planes were disembarked at Norfolk, the carrier moved north to Boston for postshakedown repairs. While at Boston, she fired a 21-gun salute and rendered honors to President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, whose yacht, stopped at the Boston Navy Yard on 10 August. Wasp departed the Army Quartermaster Base on 21 August to conduct steering drills and full-power trials. Late the following morning, she got underway for Virginia.
For the next few days, while destroyer Ellis operated as plane guard, Wasp launched and recovered her aircraft: fighters from Fighter Squadron 7, scout bombers from Scouting Squadron 72. The carrier put into the Norfolk Navy Yard on 28 August for repair work on her turbines – alterations which kept the ship in dockyard hands into the following month. Drydocked from 12–18 September, Wasp ran her final sea trials in Hampton Roads on 26 September 1940. Now ready to join the fleet and assigned to Carrier Division 3, Patrol Force, Wasp shifted to Naval Operating Base, Norfolk from the Norfolk Navy Yard on 11 October. There, she loaded 24 Curtiss P-40 fighters from the Army Air Corps' 8th Pursuit Group and nine North American O-47A reconnaissance aircraft from the 2d Observation Squadron, as well as her own spares and utility unit Grumman J2F Duck flying boats on the 12th. Proceeding to sea for maneuvering room, Wasp flew off the Army planes in a test designed to compare the take-off runs of standard Navy and Army aircraft.
That experiment, the first time that Army planes had flown from
A schooner is a type of sailing vessel with fore-and-aft sails on two or more masts. The most common type has the foremast being shorter than the main. While the schooner was gaff-rigged, modern schooners carry a Bermuda rig; the first detailed definition of a schooner, describing the vessel as two-masted vessel with fore and aft gaff-rigged sails appeared in 1769 in William Falconer's Universal Dictionary of the Marine. According to the language scholar Walter William Skeat, the term schooner comes from scoon, while the sch spelling comes from the adoption of the Dutch spelling. Another study suggests that a Dutch expression praising ornate schooner yachts in the 17th century, "een schoone Schip", may have led to the term "schooner" being used by English speakers to describe the early versions of the schooner rig as it evolved in England and America; the Dutch word "schoon" means nice, good looking, sexually arousing, or horny.. A popular legend holds that the first schooner was built by builder Andrew Robinson and launched in Gloucester, Massachusetts where a spectator exclaimed "Oh how she scoons", scoon being similar to scone, a Scots word meaning to skip along the surface of the water.
Robinson replied, "A schooner let her be." The launch is variously described as being in 1713 or 1745. Naval architects such as Howard Chapelle have dismissed this invention story as a "childish fable", but some language scholars feel that the legend may support a Gloucester origin of the word. Other sources state the etymology as uncertain. Although associated with North America, schooners were first used by the Dutch in the 16th or 17th century, they were further developed in North America from the early 18th century, came into extensive use in New England. Schooners were popular in trades requiring speed and windward ability, such as slaving, blockade running, offshore fishing. In the Chesapeake Bay area several distinctive schooner types evolved, including the Baltimore clipper and pungy. Schooners were popular among pirates in the West Indies during the Golden Age of Piracy, for their speed and agility, they could sail in shallow waters, while being smaller than other ships of the time period, they could still hold enough cannons to intimidate merchant vessels into submission.
Schooners first evolved in the late 17th century from a variety of small two-masted gaff-rigged vessels used in the coast and estuaries of the Netherlands. Most were working craft but some pleasure yachts with schooner rigs were built for wealthy merchants. Following the arrival of the Dutch Stadtholder William of Orange on the British throne, the British Royal Navy built a royal yacht with a schooner rig in 1695, HMS Royal Transport; this vessel, captured in a detailed Admiralty model, is the earliest documented schooner. Royal Transport was noted for its speed and ease of handling, mercantile vessels soon adopted the rig in Europe and in European colonies in North America. Schooners were popular with colonial traders and fishermen in North America with the first documented reference to a schooner in the United States appearing in Boston port records in 1716. North American shipbuilders developed a variety of schooner forms for trading and privateering. Essex, was the most significant shipbuilding center for schooners.
By the 1850s, over 50 vessels a year were being launched from 15 shipyards and Essex became recognized worldwide as North America's center for fishing schooner construction. In total, Essex launched over 4,000 schooners, most headed for the Gloucester, fishing industry. Bath, was another notable center, which during much of the 19th century had more than a dozen yards working at a time, from 1781 to 1892 launched 1352 schooners, including the Wyoming. Schooners were popular on both sides of the Atlantic in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, long dominating yacht races such as the America's Cup, but gave way in Europe to the cutter. Schooners were used to carry cargo in many different environments, from ocean voyages to coastal runs and on large inland bodies of water, they were popular in North America. In their heyday, during the late 19th century more than 2,000 schooners carried on the Great Lakes. Three-masted "terns" were a favourite rig of Canada's Maritime Provinces; the scow schooner, which used a schooner rig on a flat-bottomed, blunt-ended scow hull, was popular in North America for coastal and river transport.
Schooners were used in North American fishing the Grand Banks fishery. Some Banks fishing schooners such as Bluenose became famous racers. Two of the most famous racing yachts and Atlantic, were rigged as schooners, they were about 152 feet in length. Although a schooner may have several masts, the typical schooner has only two, with the foremast shorter than the mainmast. There may be a bowsprit to help balance the rig; the principal issue with a schooner sail plan is how to fill the space between the two masts most effectively. Traditional schooners were gaff rigged, the trapezoid shape of the foresail occupied the inter-mast space to good effect, with a useful sail area and a low center of effort. A Bermuda rigged schooner has four triangular sails: a mainsail, a main staysail abaft the foremast, plus a forestaysail and a jib forward of the foremast. An advantage of the staysail schooner is that it is handled and reefed by a small crew, as both staysails can be self-tacking; the main staysail will not overlap the mainsail, so does little to prepare the wind for the mainsail, but is effective when close-hauled or when on a beam reach.
In the 18th century and most of the 19th, a sloop-of-war in the Royal Navy was a warship with a single gun deck that carried up to eighteen guns. The rating system covered all vessels above. In technical terms the more specialised bomb vessels and fireships were classed as sloops-of-war, in practice these were employed in the sloop role when not carrying out their specialized functions. In World War I and World War II, the Royal Navy reused the term "sloop" for specialized convoy-defence vessels, including the Flower class of World War I and the successful Black Swan class of World War II, with anti-aircraft and anti-submarine capability. A sloop-of-war was quite different from a civilian or mercantile sloop, a general term for a single-masted vessel rigged in a way that would today be called a gaff cutter, though some sloops of that type did serve in the 18th century British Royal Navy on the Great Lakes of North America. In the first half of the 18th century, most naval sloops were two-masted vessels carrying a ketch or a snow rig.
A ketch had main and mizzen masts but no foremast, while a snow had a foremast, a main mast and a mizzen abaft the lower main mast. The first three-masted sloops appeared during the 1740s, from the mid-1750s most new sloops were built with a three-masted rig; the third sail the ability to back sail. In the 1770s, the two-masted sloop re-appeared in a new guise as the brig sloop, the successor to the former snow sloops. Brig sloops had two masts. In the Napoleonic period, Britain built huge numbers of brig sloops of the Cruizer class and the Cherokee class; the brig rig was economical of manpower and, when armed with carronades, they had the highest ratio of firepower to tonnage of any ships in the Royal Navy. The carronades used much less manpower than the long guns used to arm frigates; the Cruizer class were used as cheaper and more economical substitutes for frigates, in situations where the frigates' high cruising endurance was not essential. A carronade-armed brig, would be at the mercy of a frigate armed with long guns, so long as the frigate manoeuvered to exploit its superiority of range.
The other limitation of brig sloops as opposed to post ships and frigates was their restricted stowage for water and provisions, which made them less suitable for long-range cruising. However, their shallower draught made them excellent raiders against coastal shipping and shore installations; the Royal Navy made extensive use of the Bermuda sloop, both as a cruiser against French privateers and smugglers, as its standard advice vessels, carrying communications, vital persons and materials, performing reconnaissance duties for the fleets. Bermuda sloops were found with mixtures of gaff and square rig, or a Bermuda rig, they were built with up to three masts. The single masted ships, with their huge sails, the tremendous wind energy they harnessed, were demanding to sail, required large, experienced crews; the Royal Navy favoured multi-masted versions as it was perennially short of sailors, at the end of the 18th century, such personnel as it had in the Western Atlantic, received insufficient training.
The longer decks of the multi-masted vessels had the advantage of allowing more guns to be carried. A sloop-of-war was smaller than a sailing frigate and was outside the rating system. In general, a sloop-of-war would be under the command of a master and commander rather than a post captain, although in day-to-day use at sea the commanding officer of any naval vessels would be addressed as "captain". A ship sloop was the equivalent of the smaller corvette of the French Navy; the name corvette was subsequently applied to British vessels, but not until the 1830s. American usage, while similar to British terminology into the beginning of the 19th century diverged. By about 1825 the United States Navy used "sloop-of-war" to designate a flush-deck ship-rigged warship with all armament on the gundeck; the Americans occasionally used the French term corvette. In the Royal Navy, the sloop evolved into an unrated vessel with a single gun deck and three masts, two square rigged and the aftermost fore-and-aft rigged.
Steam sloops had a transverse division of their lateral coal bunkers in order that the lower division could be emptied first, to maintain a level of protection afforded by the coal in the upper bunker division along the waterline. During the War of 1812 sloops of war in the service of the United States Navy performed well against their Royal Navy equivalents; the American ships had the advantage of being ship
War of 1812
The War of 1812 was a conflict fought between the United States, the United Kingdom, their respective allies from June 1812 to February 1815. Historians in Britain see it as a minor theater of the Napoleonic Wars. From the outbreak of war with Napoleonic France, Britain had enforced a naval blockade to choke off neutral trade to France, which the US contested as illegal under international law. To man the blockade, Britain impressed American merchant sailors into the Royal Navy. Incidents such as the Chesapeake–Leopard affair, which happened five years before the war, inflamed anti-British sentiment in the US. In 1811, the British were in turn outraged by the Little Belt affair, in which 11 British sailors died. Britain supplied Native Americans who raided American settlers on the frontier, hindering American expansion and provoking resentment. Historians debate whether the desire to annex some or all of British North America contributed to the American decision to go to war. On June 18, 1812, US President James Madison, after heavy pressure from the War Hawks in Congress, signed the American declaration of war into law.
With most of its army in Europe fighting Napoleon, Britain adopted a defensive strategy, with offensive operations limited to the border, the western frontier. American prosecution of the war effort suffered from its unpopularity in New England, where it was derogatorily referred to as "Mr. Madison's War". American defeats at the Siege of Detroit and the Battle of Queenston Heights thwarted attempts to seize Upper Canada, improving British morale. American attempts to invade Lower Canada and capture Montreal failed. In 1813, the Americans won the Battle of Lake Erie, gaining control of the lake, at the Battle of the Thames defeated Tecumseh's Confederacy, securing a primary war goal. A final American attempt to invade Canada was fought to a draw at the Battle of Lundy's Lane during the summer of 1814. At sea, the powerful Royal Navy blockaded American ports, cutting off trade and allowing the British to raid the coast at will. In 1814, one of these raids burned the capital, but the Americans repulsed British attempts to invade New York and Maryland, ending invasions of the northern and mid-Atlantic United States from Canada.
Fighting took place overseas in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. In neighbouring Spanish Florida, a two-day battle for the city of Pensacola ended in Spanish surrender. In Britain, there was mounting opposition to wartime taxation. With the abdication of Napoleon, the war with France ended and Britain ceased impressment, rendering the issue of the impressment of American sailors moot; the British were able to increase the strength of the blockade on the United States coast, annihilating American maritime trade, but attempts to invade the U. S. ended unsuccessfully. Peace negotiations began in August 1814, the Treaty of Ghent was signed on December 24. News of the peace did not reach America for some time. Unaware of the treaty, British forces invaded Louisiana and were defeated at the Battle of New Orleans in January 1815; these late victories were viewed by Americans as having restored national honour, leading to the collapse of anti-war sentiment and the beginning of the Era of Good Feelings, a period of national unity.
News of the treaty arrived shortly thereafter. The treaty was unanimously ratified by the US Senate on February 17, 1815, ending the war with no boundary changes. Historians have long debated the relative weight of the multiple reasons underlying the origins of the War of 1812; this section summarizes several contributing factors which resulted in the declaration of war by the United States. As Risjord notes, a powerful motivation for the Americans was the desire to uphold national honour in the face of what they considered to be British insults such as the Chesapeake–Leopard affair. H. W. Brands says, "The other war hawks spoke of the struggle with Britain as a second war of independence; the approaching conflict was about violations of American rights, but it was about vindication of American identity." Americans at the time and historians since have called it the United States' "Second War of Independence". The British were offended by what they considered insults such as the Little Belt affair.
This gave the British a particular interest in capturing the United States flagship President, which they succeeded in doing in 1815. In 1807, Britain introduced a series of trade restrictions via the Orders in Council to impede neutral trade with France, which Britain was fighting in the Napoleonic Wars; the United States contested these restrictions as illegal under international law. Historian Reginald Horsman states, "a large section of influential British opinion, both in the government and in the country, thought that America presented a threat to British maritime supremacy."The American merchant marine had nearly doubled between 1802 and 1810, making it by far the largest neutral fleet. Britain was the largest trading partner, receiving 80% of U. S. cotton and 50% of other U. S. exports. The British public and press were resentful of commercial competition; the United States' view was. During the Napoleonic Wars, the Royal Navy expanded to 176 ships of the line and 600 ships overall, requiring 140,000 sailors to man.
While the Royal Navy could man its ships with volunteers in peacetime, it competed in wartime with merchant shi
USS Wasp (1807)
USS Wasp of the United States Navy was a sailing sloop-of-war captured by the British in the early months of the War of 1812. She was constructed in 1806 at the Washington Navy Yard, was commissioned sometime in 1807, Master Commandant John Smith in command. In 1812 she captured HMS Frolic, but was herself captured; the British took her into service first as HMS Loup Cervier and as HMS Peacock. She was lost, presumed foundered with all hands, in mid-1814. In 1808 Wasp was involved in supporting Jefferson's Embargo, including delivering an army garrison from New York City to Passamaquoddy in June, patrolling Casco Bay, Maine, in the winter of 1808-1809, remaining at Portland until May, 1809. In the final weeks of 1810, she was operating from the ports of Charleston, South Carolina, Savannah, Georgia patrolling the waters along southern Atlantic coast. In 1811, she sailed to Hampton Roads, where she and the brig Nautilus joined frigates United States and Congress in forming a squadron commanded by Commodore Stephen Decatur.
On 9 March 1812 Wasp sailed from New York for France to deliver an adventurer named John Henry who had sold correspondence to President Madison indicating Britain's interest in determining if the New England states wished to secede from the union. The correspondence, known as the Henry Papers, helped build outrage in Congress against Britain that led to the declaration of war. Wasp, under the command of Master Commandant Jacob Jones continued to operate along the coast of the middle states after the United States went to war with Britain in June 1812, her single action came in October. On 13 October, she sailed from the Delaware River and two days encountered a heavy gale that tore away her jib boom and washed two crewmen overboard; the following evening, Wasp encountered a squadron of ships and, in spite of the fact that two of their number appeared to be large men-of-war, made for them straight away. She caught the enemy convoy the following morning and discovered six merchantmen under the protection of a 22-gun sloop-of-war, HMS Frolic.
At half past eleven in the morning of 18 October and Frolic closed to do battle, commencing fire at a distance of 50 to 60 yards. In a short, fight, both ships sustained heavy damage to masts and rigging, but Wasp prevailed over her adversary by boarding her. For Wasp, a British 74-gun ship-of-the-line, HMS Poictiers, appeared on the scene. Frolic was crippled and Wasp's rigging and sails were badly damaged. At 4:00 PM Jones had no choice. Wasp was given the name Loup Cervier on her capture, she was commissioned in 1813 on the Halifax station under Captain Charles Gill. Captain William William Mends succeeded Gill, taking command on 26 February 1813. In June Loup Cervier was off New London, where she helped blockade the squadron under Commodore Stephen Decatur. James Biddle, first lieutenant of Wasp, had become captain of USS Hornet, he issued a challenge to Mends. Decatur forbade the engagement until he was sure that it would be an match; the day after he gave his assent Loup Cervier left New London to patrol elsewhere.
Thereafter Loup Cervier recaptured four vessels. On 27 June she captured the schooner Little Bill, John Roach master, sailing from St Bartholomew to North Carolina, she was carrying a cargo of sugar and molasses. Little Bill was restored. Another report gives the vessel's name as Little Bell. On 28 August Loup Cervier captured the ship Hope, of 468 tons, J. Emery master. Hope was sailing from Lisbon to Newport, Rhode Island with a cargo of salt, she too was restored. On 29 October Loup Cervier recaptured the brig John and Mary, T. Collins, master. Lastly, Loup Cervier was one of four British warships that shared in the capture of the sloop Emeline, of 44 tons, O. Adams, master. Emeline was sailing from New York to Rhode Island with a cargo of 240 barrels of flour. At some point Loup Cervier was renamed Peacock, Hornet having captured and sunk the Cruizer-class brig-sloop Peacock in February 1813. Mends was appointed to command of Terpsichore on 23 March 1814. Peacock may have been under the command of Captain G. Donnett.
In April or shortly thereafter Commander Richard Coote of Borer was promoted to post captain and transferred to Peacock. Peacock was one of the five British warships that on 21 April 1814 captured the Swedish brig Minerva. On 15 May, Peacock recaptured the Swedish ship Providentia, of four guns, 400 tons, 17 men, she had been sailing from Amelia Island to Lisbon with a cargo of pine, etc. when an American privateer had captured her. That same day, Peacock recaptured the Russian ship Hendrick, of eight guns, 80 tons, 13 men, she had been sailing from Amelia Island to Amsterdam with a cargo of cotton when captured. Peacock was under Coote's command, she had foundered on 23 July 1814. Smith, Joshua. ""'So Far Distant from the Eyes of Authority:' Jefferson's Embargo and the U. S. Navy, 1807-1809," in". New Interpretations in Naval History: Selected Papers from the Twelfth Naval History Symposium: 123–140. Roosevelt, Theodore; the naval war of 1812. G. P. Putnam's New York. P. 541. Url Dennie, Joseph The Port Folio..
Vol. 3. ISBN 978-0-217-30861-8 Cooper, James Fenimore. History of the navy of the United States of America. Stringer & Townsend, New York. P. 508. OCLC 197401914. Url Malcomson, Robert. Historical dictionary of the War of 1812. Scarecrow Press/Rowman & Littfield, Maryland, 1991. P. 701. ISBN 978-0-8108-5499-4. Url Essex Institute, Peabody Essex Mus