Medal of Honor
The medal is normally awarded by the President of the United States in the name of the U. S. Congress. There are three versions of the medal, one for the Army, one for the Navy, personnel of the Marine Corps and Coast Guard receive the Navy version. U. S. awards including the Medal of Honor do not have titles and while there is no official abbreviation. The Medal of Honor is the oldest continuously issued combat decoration of the United States armed forces, because the medal is presented in the name of Congress, it is often referred to as the Congressional Medal of Honor. However, the name is Medal of Honor, which began with the U. S. Armys version. Within United States Code the medal is referred to as the Medal of Honor, in 1990, Congress designated March 25 annually as National Medal of Honor Day. The capture saved the fort of West Point from the British Army, although the Badge of Military Merit fell into disuse after the American Revolutionary War, the concept of a military award for individual gallantry by members of the U. S.
539 Certificates were approved for this period and this medal was replaced by the Army Distinguished Service Medal which was established on January 2,1918. Those Army members who held the Distinguished Service Medal in place of the Certificate of Merit could apply for the Army Distinguished Service Cross effective March 5,1934. There were no awards or medals at the beginning of the Civil War except for the Certificate of Merit which was awarded for the Mexican-American War. Scott however, was strictly against medals being awarded which was the European tradition, after Scott retired in October 1861, the Secretary of the Navy, Gideon Welles, adopted the idea of a decoration to recognize and honor distinguished naval service. Senator James W. Secretary Wells directed the Philadelphia Mint to design the new military decoration, on May 15,1862, the United States Navy Department ordered 175 medals with the words Personal Valor on the back from the U. S. Mint in Philadelphia. Senator Henry Wilson, the chairman of the Senate Committee on Military Affairs, the resolution was approved by Congress and signed into law on July 12,1862.
During the war, Townsend would have some medals delivered to recipients with a letter requesting acknowledgement of the Medal of Honor. By mid-November the War Department contracted with Philadelphia silversmith William Wilson and Son, the Army version had The Congress to written on the back of the medal. Both versions were made of copper and coated with bronze, which gave them a reddish tint,1863, Congress made the Medal of Honor a permanent decoration. On March 3, Medals of Honor were authorized for officers of the Army, the Secretary of War first presented the Medal of Honor to six Union Army volunteers on March 25,1863 in his office. 1890, On April 23, the Medal of Honor Legion is established in Washington,1896, The ribbon of the Army version Medal of Honor was redesigned with all stripes being vertical
Wissahickon Creek is a tributary of the Schuylkill River in Montgomery and Philadelphia Counties, Pennsylvania in the United States. Wissahickon Creek rises in Montgomery County, runs approximately 23 miles passing through and its watershed covers about 64 square miles. Much of the creek now runs through or next to parkland, the beauty of this area attracted the attention of literary personages like Edgar Allan Poe and John Greenleaf Whittier. The gorge area is now part of the Fairmount Park system in Philadelphia, the name of the creek comes from the Lenape word wiessahitkonk, for catfish creek or stream of yellowish color. Whitpaine was a land owner in the days of William Penn. Industry sprang up along the Wissahickon not long after European settlement, a few of the dams built for the mills remain visible today. Though at first fairly tame, in its last 7 miles and its dramatic geography and dense forest attract thousands of walkers and bikers. The most popular trail for exploring the lower Wissahickon valley is Forbidden Drive and it received its familiar name in the 1920s when automobiles were first banned from the road.
Bicyclists and equestrians may use Forbidden Drive without a permit, other trails in the area are more restricted, with some prohibiting cyclists or equestrians, and the others requiring a permit for bicyclists and equestrians. All users of the park are asked to stay on marked trails to protect against erosion, a paved path on the west bank connects the junction of Forbidden Drive and Lincoln Drive south to Ridge Avenue at the confluence of the Wissahickon and Schuylkill River. Forbidden Drive is accessible at its midpoint at the Valley Green Inn, Valley Green Road can be reached from Springfield Avenue in Chestnut Hill, two blocks west of St. Martins Lane and the St. Martins railroad station on the Chestnut Hill West Line. Just above Valley Green, Wises Mill Road meets Forbidden Drive and he will thus strike the Wissahiccon, at one of its best reaches. Forbidden Drive ends at Northwestern Avenue after crossing Bells Mill Road, a number of trails climb out of the valley from Forbidden Drive to the upper trails which run along the precipitous walls of the valley.
Many of these trails have been marked with colored blazes. The green blazed trail has been designated a multi-use trail approved for mountain bikers with permits, the blue blazed trail has been designated a hiking trail only. All trails in the Andorra Natural Area are prohibited to all bicycles, Devils Pool is an attraction best reached from Valley Green by crossing the stream and taking the footpath on the eastern bank, going downstream to the mouth of the Cresheim Creek. As the ravine widens into the Cresheim, the waters gather in a basin surrounded on either side by rocky outcroppings before flowing into the Wissahickon Creek, legend has it that the Native American Lenape tribes used this as a spiritual area. Although it is not legal due to levels of pollutants, Devils pool has become a popular area to swim, lounge
Horsepower is a unit of measurement of power. There are many different standards and types of horsepower, two common definitions being used today are the mechanical horsepower, which is approximately 746 watts, and the metric horsepower, which is approximately 735.5 watts. The term was adopted in the late 18th century by Scottish engineer James Watt to compare the output of engines with the power of draft horses. It was expanded to include the power of other types of piston engines, as well as turbines, electric motors. The definition of the unit varied among geographical regions, most countries now use the SI unit watt for measurement of power. With the implementation of the EU Directive 80/181/EEC on January 1,2010, units called horsepower have differing definitions, The mechanical horsepower, known as imperial horsepower equals approximately 745.7 watts. It was defined originally as exactly 550 foot-pounds per second [745.7 N. m/s), the metric horsepower equals approximately 735.5 watts. It was defined originally as 75 kgf-m per second is approximately equivalent to 735.5 watts, the Pferdestärke PS is a name for a group of similar power measurements used in Germany around the end of the 19th century, all of about one metric horsepower in size.
The boiler horsepower equals 9809.5 watts and it was used for rating steam boilers and is equivalent to 34.5 pounds of water evaporated per hour at 212 degrees Fahrenheit. One horsepower for rating electric motors is equal to 746 watts, one horsepower for rating Continental European electric motors is equal to 735 watts. Continental European electric motors used to have dual ratings, one British Royal Automobile Club horsepower can equal a range of values based on estimates of several engine dimensions. It is one of the tax horsepower systems adopted around Europe, the development of the steam engine provided a reason to compare the output of horses with that of the engines that could replace them. He had previously agreed to take royalties of one third of the savings in coal from the older Newcomen steam engines and this royalty scheme did not work with customers who did not have existing steam engines but used horses instead. Watt determined that a horse could turn a mill wheel 144 times in an hour, the wheel was 12 feet in radius, the horse travelled 2.4 × 2π ×12 feet in one minute.
Watt judged that the horse could pull with a force of 180 pounds-force. So, P = W t = F d t =180 l b f ×2.4 ×2 π ×12 f t 1 m i n =32,572 f t ⋅ l b f m i n. Watt defined and calculated the horsepower as 32,572 ft·lbf/min, Watt determined that a pony could lift an average 220 lbf 100 ft per minute over a four-hour working shift. Watt judged a horse was 50% more powerful than a pony, engineering in History recounts that John Smeaton initially estimated that a horse could produce 22,916 foot-pounds per minute
USS Sagamore (1861)
USS Sagamore was a Unadilla-class gunboat built on behalf of the United States Navy for service during the American Civil War. She was outfitted as a gunboat and assigned to the Union blockade of the Confederate States of America, Sagamore was very active during the war, and served the Union both as a patrol ship and a bombardment vessel. Sagamores first encounter with the enemy came at Apalachicola, Florida, on 3 April 1862, armed boat crews from Sagamore and USS Mercedita captured the city without resistance. On 30 June 1862, Sagamore attacked Tampa, Florida, on 11 September, a landing party from Sagamore destroyed the salt works, which could produce 200 bushels a day, at St. Andrews Bay, Florida. Sagamore next captured the blockade-running English schooner By George off Indian River, Florida on 1 December, with a cargo of coffee, in January 1863, Sagamore captured Avenger and destroyed the sloop Elizabeth. Next she captured the sloop Enterprise on 8 March 1863, on 28 July, boats from Sagamore and USS Para attacked New Smyrna, Florida.
Following the attack at New Smyrna, Sagamore returned to her coastal duties, on 8 August, Sagamore captured the sloops Clara Louise, Southern Rights and Ann. On 21 April 1864, boat expeditions from Sagamore took 100 bales of cotton and destroyed 300 additional bales near Clay Landing on the Suwannee River, sagamores final action in the Civil War took place on 7 June. Sagamore was decommissioned on 1 December 1864 at Philadelphia, United States Navy List of United States Navy ships This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entry can be found here, Naval History and Heritage Command website
USS Kanawha (1861)
USS Kanawha was a Unadilla-class gunboat built for the Union Navy during the American Civil War. She was used by the navy to patrol navigable waterways of the Confederacy to prevent the South from trading with other countries. Kanawha was launched on 21 October 1861 by G. B. & W. H. Goodspeed, East Haddam and commissioned at New York Navy Yard on 21 January 1862, Lt. John C. She drew first blood with a vengeance on 10 April by capturing four blockade-running schooners in a day, Southern Independence, Charlotte. The first three had attempted to slip to sea laden with cotton and naval stores while the latter had tried to run into Mobile, with supplies badly needed by the South. Files carrying cotton out of Mobile on 21 April and took British sloop Annie on the 29th between Ship Island and Mobile headed for Cuba, on 17 November near Mobile she and Kennebec chased an unidentified schooner ashore where she was set afire by her crew. Then the guns of the Union ships assured her complete destruction by preventing Confederate coast guards from boarding her to extinguish the flames, on 25 March 1863 Kanawha, commanded by Lieutenant Commander William K.
Mayo, took the schooner Clara attempting to run the blockade at Mobile. The schooner Dart attempted to slip into Mobile from Havana, Cuba, on 1 May, a fortnight the same fate befell British brig Comet some 20 miles east of Fort Morgan on Mobile Point. On 17 May Kanawha snared schooner Hunter, laden with cotton for Havana, the next day she caught schooner Ripple attempting the same feat. Dawn of 12 October disclosed the steamer Alice aground under the guns of Fort Morgan and an unidentified Confederate tug attempting to pull her free. Lackawanna and Genesee headed in to finish the task with their 150-pounders, before they got in range, on 29 November Kanawha took the schooner Albert, called Wenona, attempting to carry cotton, naval stores, and tobacco out of Mobile. The toll collected by relentless Northern blockaders like Kanawha in capturing Southern blockade runners steadily drained away the blood of the Confederacy. The loss of carrying the products of Southern fields and forests to foreign markets undermined the Souths financial structure.
The loss of incoming ships deprived Southern armies of a proportion of the shrinking supplies. In the spring of 1864 Kanawha was transferred to the Texas coast, on 8 July, now under Lieutenant Commander. Taylor, she forced steamer Matagorda aground near Galveston, Texas, on 9 September, after Union troops had been withdrawn from the area, Kanawha reinstituted the blockade of Brownsville, which had been lifted by Presidential proclamation in mid-February. On 28 December she forced an unidentified sloop ashore near Caney Creek and she captured Mary Ellen of Montreal, Canada, on 3 January 1865 as the schooner tried to run into Velasco, Texas. She remained on duty until after the end of the war and was ordered north on 27 May
American Civil War
The American Civil War was an internal conflict fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865. The Union faced secessionists in eleven Southern states grouped together as the Confederate States of America, the Union won the war, which remains the bloodiest in U. S. history. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, War broke out in April 1861 when Confederates attacked the U. S. fortress of Fort Sumter. The Confederacy grew to eleven states, it claimed two more states, the Indian Territory, and the southern portions of the western territories of Arizona. The Confederacy was never recognized by the United States government nor by any foreign country. The states that remained loyal, including border states where slavery was legal, were known as the Union or the North, the war ended with the surrender of all the Confederate armies and the dissolution of the Confederate government in the spring of 1865. The war had its origin in the issue of slavery. The Confederacy collapsed and 4 million slaves were freed, but before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies formed the Confederacy.
The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, the first seven with state legislatures to resolve for secession included split majorities for unionists Douglas and Bell in Georgia with 51% and Louisiana with 55%. Alabama had voted 46% for those unionists, Mississippi with 40%, Florida with 38%, Texas with 25%, of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession, outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincolns March 4,1861 inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war, speaking directly to the Southern States, he reaffirmed, I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists. I believe I have no right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so. After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed, the Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on King Cotton that they would intervene, but none did, and none recognized the new Confederate States of America.
Hostilities began on April 12,1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter, while in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive in 1861–62. The autumn 1862 Confederate campaigns into Maryland and Kentucky failed, dissuading British intervention, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy, much of their western armies, the 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lees Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg, Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grants command of all Union armies in 1864
Fort Wagner or Battery Wagner was a beachhead fortification on Morris Island, South Carolina, that covered the southern approach to Charleston Harbor. Named for deceased Lt. Col. Thomas M. Wagner, Fort Wagner measured 250 by 100 yards and its walls, composed of sand and earth, rose 30 feet above the level beach and were supported by palmetto logs and sandbags. The forts arsenal included fourteen cannons, the largest a 10-inch Columbiad that fired a 128-pound shell and it was a large structure capable of sheltering nearly 1,000 of the forts 1, 700-man garrison and provided substantial protection against naval shelling. The forts land face was protected by a trench,10 feet wide and 5 feet deep, surrounded by buried land mines. The fort itself was supported by defenses throughout Morris Island, the First Battle of Fort Wagner, occurred on July 11,1863. Only 12 Confederate soldiers were killed, as opposed to the Unions 339 losses, the Second Battle of Fort Wagner, a week later, is better known. This was the Union attack on July 18,1863, led by the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry, Colonel Robert Gould Shaw led the 54th Massachusetts on foot while they charged, and was killed in the assault.
The Union besieged the fort after the unsuccessful assault, by August 25, Union entrenchments were close enough to attempt an assault on the Advanced Rifle Pits,240 yards in front of the Battery, but this attempt was defeated. A second attempt, by the 24th Mass, inf. on August 26 was successful. After enduring almost 60 days of shelling, the Confederates abandoned it on the night of September 6–7,1863. Withdrawing all operable cannons and the garrison, the main reason the fort was abandoned was a concern about the loss of the garrison due to artillery fire and the threat of imminent assault. On September 6, the commander, Colonel Keitt, wrote to his superiors that The garrison must be taken away immediately after dark. It is idle to deny that the heavy Parrott shells have breached the walls and are knocking away the bomb-proofs, pray have boats immediately after dark at Cummings Point to take away the men. I say deliberately that this must be done or the garrison will be sacrificed, I am sending the wounded and sick now to Cummings Point, and will continue to do so, if possible, until all are gone. I have a number of now there. I have not in the garrison 400 effective men, including artillery, the engineers agree in opinion with me, or, shape my opinion.
A council of war in Charleston on the 4th had already reached the conclusion. After the war a revisionist story arose concerning access to fresh water, the claim was made that bodies of the Union troops were buried close to the fort and the decomposition of the bodies poisoned the fresh water well within the fort
In the age of sail, a gunboat was usually a small undecked vessel carrying a single smoothbore cannon in the bow, or just two or three such cannons. A gunboat could carry one or two masts or be oar-powered only, but the version of about 15 m length was most typical. Some types of gunboat carried two cannons, or else mounted a number of guns on the railings. The gun that such boats carried could be heavy, a 32-pounder for instance. For example, in the Battle of Alvøen during the Gunboat War of 1807-1814, Gunboats used in the Battle of Valcour Island on Lake Champlain during the American Revolutionary War were mostly built on the spot, attesting to the speed of their construction. All navies of the era kept a number of gunboats on hand. Gunboats saw extensive use in the Baltic Sea during the late 18th century as they were well-suited for the extensive coastal skerries and archipelagoes of Sweden and Russia. The rivalry between Sweden and Russia in particular led to an expansion of gunboat fleets and the development of new gunboat types.
The majority of these were developed from the 1770s and onwards by the naval architect Fredrik Henrik af Chapman for the Swedish archipelago fleet. The designs and refined by the rival Danish and Russian navies, spread to the Mediterranean, British ships engaged larger 22 m Russian gunboats off Turku in southeast Finland in 1854 during the Crimean War. The Russian vessels had the distinction of being the last oared vessels of war in history to fire their guns in anger, Gunboats played a key role in Napoleon Bonapartes plan for the invasion of England in 1804. Denmark-Norway used them heavily in the Gunboat War, between 1803 and 1812 the United States Navy had a policy of basing its navy on coastal gunboats, experimenting with a variety of designs. President Thomas Jefferson and his Democratic-Republican Party opposed a strong navy and they proved useless against the British blockade during the War of 1812. With the introduction of power in the early 19th century. Initially, these vessels retained full sailing rigs and used steam engines for auxiliary propulsion, the British Royal Navy deployed two wooden paddle-gunboats in the Lower Great Lakes and St.
Lawrence River during the Rebellions of 1837 in Upper and Lower Canada. The United States Navy deployed an iron-hulled paddle gunboat, the USS Michigan, the Von der Tann became the first propeller-driven gunboat in the world. Conradi shipyards in Kiel built the steam-powered 120 long tons gunboat in 1849 for the navy of Schleswig-Holstein. 1, Von der Tann was the most modern ship in the navy and she participated successfully in the First Schleswig War of 1848-1851
A schooner /ˈskuːnər/ is a type of sailing vessel with fore-and-aft sails on two or more masts, the foremast being shorter than the main and no taller than the mizzen if there is one. While the schooner was originally gaff-rigged, modern schooners typically carry a Bermuda rig, such vessels were first used by the Dutch in the 16th or 17th century. They were further developed in North America from the early 18th century, the most common type, with two masts, were popular in trades requiring speed and windward ability, such as slaving, blockade running, and offshore fishing. In the Chesapeake Bay area several distinctive schooner types evolved, including the Baltimore clipper, schooners were popular among pirates in the West Indies during the Golden Age of Piracy, for their speed and agility. They could sail in shallow waters, and while being smaller than other ships of the time period. Schooners first evolved in the late 17th century from a variety of small two-masted gaff-rigged vessels used in the coast, most were working craft but some pleasure yachts with schooner rigs were built for wealthy merchants and Dutch nobility.
Following the arrival of the Dutch monarch William of Orange on the British throne and this vessel, captured in a detailed Admiralty model, is the earliest fully documented schooner. Royal Transport was quickly noted for its speed and ease of handling, North American shipbuilders quickly developed a variety of schooner forms for trading and privateering. According to the language scholar Walter William Skeat, the term comes from scoon. The Dutch word schoone means nice, good looking, robinson replied, A schooner let her be. The launch is variously described as being in 1713 or 1745, naval architects such as Howard Chapelle have dismissed this invention story as a childish fable, but some language scholars feel that the legend may support a Gloucester origin of the word. Other sources state the etymology as unknown and uncertain, the first detailed definition of a schooner, describing the vessel as two-masted vessel with fore and aft gaff-rigged sails appeared in 1769 in William Falconers, Universal Dictionary of the Marine.
Although a schooner may have up to four masts, the schooner has only two, with the foremast shorter than the mainmast. There may be a bowsprit to help balance the rig, the principal issue with a schooner sail plan is how to fill the space between the two masts most effectively. Traditional schooners were rigged, and the trapezoid shape of the foresail occupied the inter-mast space to good effect, with a useful sail area. A Bermuda rigged schooner typically has four sails, a mainsail, a main staysail abaft the foremast, plus a forestaysail. An advantage of the schooner is that it is easily handled and reefed by a small crew. The main staysail will not overlap the mainsail, and so little to prepare the wind for the mainsail
USS Huron (1861)
USS Huron was a Unadilla-class gunboat built for the United States Navy during the American Civil War for blockage duty against the ports and rivers of the Confederate States of America. Huron joined the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron in February to take part in Union strangulation of Confederate commerce, in addition to blockading duties, her men often took part in shore expeditions against the Confederates, as on 15 March 1862 on the Georgia coast. Huron chased a schooner ashore on 12 April and seven days captured schooner Glide off Charleston, South Carolina with 100 bales of cotton and she captured schooner Albert on 1 May and British blockade runner Cumbria on 26 May. Back on regular duty, she captured schooner Aquilla on 4 August. Huron continued her patrol and blockading duties off Charleston into 1863, during the ironclad attack on the forts in Charleston Harbor on 7 April 1863, the ship formed part of a reserve squadron outside the bar. Five days later, while patrolling with Flag, she detected blockade runner Stonewall Jackson attempting to dash into Charleston.
The two Union ships opened fire immediately, so damaging the blockade runner that she was forced to run aground and destroy her cargo, which included vitally needed Army artillery and shoes. During the first attack on the fort on 24–25 December 1864 and this first assault aborted, but preparations were quickly made for a second joint operation in January 1865. Then, during the months of the war, Huron took part in combined operations against the city itself, bombarding Forts Anderson. She arrived on 2 May, but Davis was captured near Irwinville, following the end of the Civil War, Huron served on the South American station. Seaman James Carey who while serving on the Huron in 1868 saved three shipmates from drowning and was awarded the Medal of Honor and she decommissioned in October 1868 and was sold in June 1869. She subsequently became the merchant vessel D. H. Bills and this article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entry can be found here
In 1682, William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia was one of the capitals in the Revolutionary War. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became an industrial center. It became a destination for African-Americans in the Great Migration. The areas many universities and colleges make Philadelphia a top international study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational, with a gross domestic product of $388 billion, Philadelphia ranks ninth among world cities and fourth in the nation. Philadelphia is the center of activity in Pennsylvania and is home to seven Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is growing, with a market of almost 81,900 commercial properties in 2016 including several prominent skyscrapers. The city is known for its arts and rich history, Philadelphia has more outdoor sculptures and murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States.
The 67 National Historic Landmarks in the city helped account for the $10 billion generated by tourism, Philadelphia is the only World Heritage City in the United States. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon, the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians and their territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases, mainly smallpox, and violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people occasionally fought the Lenape, surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin. The American Revolutionary War and United States independence pushed them further west, in the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy.
In the 21st century, most Lenape now reside in the US state of Oklahoma, with communities living in Wisconsin, Ontario. The Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony, in 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and quickly spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their defeat of the English colony of Maryland
USS Sciota (1861)
USS Sciota was a Unadilla-class gunboat built on behalf of the United States Navy for service during the Civil War. The first U. S. P. Morris and Company, launched on 15 October 1861, the new screw gunboat was assigned to the Gulf Blockading Squadron and arrived at Ship Island, Mississippi, on the afternoon of 8 January 1862. On 6 February, she captured blockade runner, off Isle of Breton, during the first weeks in April, supported Farraguts efforts to get his deep draft ships across the bar off Pass a LOutre and into the Mississippi River. During this period, she steamed up the river gathering information about Southern defenses. On the 18th, the ships of Farraguts fleet took position close to Fort St. Philip, Sciota bombarded these forts, and she continued to duel with the Confederate guns intermittently for the next six days. In the early morning darkness of the 24th, Sciota got underway with the fleet, after New Orleans, Sciota operated up the river with Farragut. She attacked and passed the Confederate forts at Vicksburg, Mississippi on 28 June when Farragut raced by that riverside stronghold to join Flag Officer Charles H.
Davis Western flotilla. Since the Army was unable to provide the necessary for joint operations against Vicksburg. Sciota again ran the gauntlet past the Southern batteries, the gunboat continued operations on the Mississippi below Vicksburg for much of the remainder of the year. She engaged Southern batteries at Donaldsonville, Louisiana, on 4 October, on 3 January 1863, Farragut ordered gunboats, Sciota and Hatteras to Galveston, Texas which had just been captured by the South in a surprise attack shortly after midnight on New Years Day. On the 10th, Commodore Bell, in Brooklyn led an attack by Sciota and they learned that the Southern guns were capable of firing past the Union squadron-more than two and one-half miles. After the engagement, Sciota continued to operate in the Gulf of Mexico, on 14 July, she collided with the Union steamer, Antona, in the Mississippi River about eight miles above Quarantine and sank. However, she was raised late in August and taken to New Orleans to be refitted, the ship returned to blockade duty off the Texas coast early in December.
On the last day of 1863, she and Granite City made a reconnaissance from Pass Cavallo, while Granite City covered the troops ashore from attacks by Confederate cavalry, Sciota reconnoitered the mouth of the Brazos River. Returning to the area, Sciota anchored close to the beach. Granite City steamed down to Pass Cavallo to call up Monogahela, Confederate gunboat, John F. Carr and fired on the Union troops, making some very good hits. But was driven ashore by a gale and destroyed by fire. The Union troops were withdrawn on board ship, reporting on the operation, Lt. Col. Frank S. guns. and by his gallantry in bringing us off during the gale