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UTF-8 is a variable width character encoding capable of encoding all 1,112,064 valid code points in Unicode using one to four one-byte code units. The encoding is defined by the Unicode Standard, was designed by Ken Thompson and Rob Pike; the name is derived from Unicode Transformation Format – 8-bit. It was designed for backward compatibility with ASCII. Code points with lower numerical values, which tend to occur more are encoded using fewer bytes; the first 128 characters of Unicode, which correspond one-to-one with ASCII, are encoded using a single byte with the same binary value as ASCII, so that valid ASCII text is valid UTF-8-encoded Unicode as well. Since ASCII bytes do not occur when encoding non-ASCII code points into UTF-8, UTF-8 is safe to use within most programming and document languages that interpret certain ASCII characters in a special way, such as "/" in filenames, "\" in escape sequences, "%" in printf. Since 2009, UTF-8 has been the dominant encoding for the World Wide Web and as of February 2020 accounts for 95.0% of all web pages and 96% of the top 1,000 highest ranked web pages.

The next-most popular multi-byte encodings, Shift JIS and GB 2312, 0.2 % respectively. The Internet Mail Consortium recommended that all e-mail programs be able to display and create mail using UTF-8, the W3C recommends UTF-8 as the default encoding in XML and HTML. Since the restriction of the Unicode code-space to 21-bit values in 2003, UTF-8 is defined to encode code points in one to four bytes, depending on the number of significant bits in the numerical value of the code point; the following table shows the structure of the encoding. The x characters are replaced by the bits of the code point. If the number of significant bits is no more than seven, the first line applies; the first 128 characters need one byte. The next 1,920 characters need two bytes to encode, which covers the remainder of all Latin-script alphabets, Greek, Coptic, Hebrew, Syriac, Thaana and N'Ko alphabets, as well as Combining Diacritical Marks. Three bytes are needed for characters in the rest of the Basic Multilingual Plane, which contains all characters in common use, including most Chinese and Korean characters.

Four bytes are needed for characters in the other planes of Unicode, which include less common CJK characters, various historic scripts, mathematical symbols, emoji. Some of the important features of this encoding are as follows: Backward compatibility: Backwards compatibility with ASCII and the enormous amount of software designed to process ASCII-encoded text was the main driving force behind the design of UTF-8. In UTF-8, single bytes with values in the range of 0 to 127 map directly to Unicode code points in the ASCII range. Single bytes in this range represent characters, as they do in ASCII. Moreover, 7-bit bytes never appear in a multi-byte sequence, no valid multi-byte sequence decodes to an ASCII code-point. A sequence of 7-bit bytes is both valid ASCII and valid UTF-8, under either interpretation represents the same sequence of characters. Therefore, the 7-bit bytes in a UTF-8 stream represent all and only the ASCII characters in the stream. Thus, many text processors, protocols, file formats, text display programs, etc. which use ASCII characters for formatting and control purposes, will continue to work as intended by treating the UTF-8 byte stream as a sequence of single-byte characters, without decoding the multi-byte sequences.

ASCII characters on which the processing turns, such as punctuation and control characters will never be encoded as multi-byte sequences. It is therefore safe for such processors to ignore or pass-through the multi-byte sequences, without decoding them. For example, ASCII whitespace may be used to tokenize a UTF-8 stream into words. Many format strings used by library functions like "printf" will handle UTF-8-encoded input arguments. Fallback and auto-detection: UTF-8 provided backwards compatibility for 7-bit ASCII, but much software and data uses 8-bit extended ASCII encodings designed prior to the adoption of Unicode to represent the character sets of European languages. Part of the popularity of UTF-8 is due to the fact that it provides a form of backward compatibility for these as well. A UTF-8 processor which erroneously receives an extended ASCII file as input can "fall back" or replace 8-bit bytes using the appropriate code-point in the Unicode Latin-1 Supplement block, when the 8-bit byte appears outside a valid multi-byte sequence.

The bytes in extended ASCII encodings of “real world” text are not legal UTF-8 multi-byte sequences. This is because the bytes which introduce multi-byte sequences in UTF-8 are accented letters in the common extended ASCII encodings, the UTF-8 continuation bytes are punctuation and symbol characters. To appear as a valid UTF-8 multi-byte sequence, a series of 2 to 4 extended ASCII 8-bit characters would have to be an unusual combination of symbols and accented letters. In short, real-world extended ASCII character sequences which look like valid UTF-8 multi-byte sequences are unlikely. Fall

Nhial Deng Nhial

Lieutenant General Nhial Deng Nhial is a South Sudanese politician and a member of the ruling Sudan People's Liberation Movement. He was Minister of Foreign Affairs 2011 to 2013 and 2018 to 2019 after having served as the caretaker Minister of Defense since 10 July 2011. Prior to that he served as the pre-independence South Sudanese Minister of SPLA and Veteran Affairs, from 22 December 2008 until 9 July 2011. Nhial Deng is a Dinka from the Bahr el Ghazal region of Southern Sudan, he is the son of the famous late leader William Deng Nhial, assassinated in 1968 before the Addis Ababa Agreement was signed between Sudan and South Sudan in Ethiopia, in 1972. William Deng Nhial was as thoughtful, his son Nhial Deng Nhial did not join the movement as a member of an average Southern Sudanese family, he came from a home of a politician and was familiar with the grief of losing his father when he was young. He is a man of honor and he has committed his life to the liberation of South Sudan as a member of the Sudan People's Liberation Movement and of the Sudan People's Liberation Army.

Nhial joined the SPLA right after its inception in 1983. He was associated with the drafting and negotiation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement between the Republic of Sudan and South Sudan, signed in Naivasha, Kenya, in January 2005. Nhial Deng Nhial completed his early education at Comboni College in Sudan, he entered the University of Khartoum to study law. He graduated in the early 1980s with the degree of Bachelor of Laws, earned a Doctor of Laws is a doctoral degree in law degree from the University of Dundee in the UK in 2008, he is fluent in both Arabic. There are South Sudanese media reports, yet unconfirmed, that following the conclusion of the Naivasha Agreement, Nhial Deng Nhial was slated to become the Sudanese Foreign Minister in the Government of National Unity; however following the death of Dr. John Garang in a plane crash in July 2005, Mr. Nhial refused entreaties to serve in Khartoum and opted to work in the nascent Government of Southern Sudan. Nhial Deng Nhial was appointed Minister of Regional Affairs in the Southern Sudanese cabinet in 2005 by President Salva Kiir.

He however abruptly resigned from the cabinet less than six months later. There has been speculation as to what led with no clear reason being fronted. In 2004, rumors soared across Southern Sudan that John Garang was planning to dismiss Salva Kiir as his deputy and replace him with Nhial Deng Nhial. However, at a meeting of SPLA top brass held in Rumbek, in December 2004, one month before the signing of the CPA, Dr. Garang made it clear that those speculations were just that. In December 2008, Nhial Deng Nhial was appointed Minister of SPLA and Veterans Affairs by the President of Southern Sudan, Salva Kiir, replacing General Dominic Dim Deng who died in a plane crash on 2 May 2008, he returned to the South Sudanese cabinet with the military rank of Lieutenant General in the SPLA. Following the independence of South Sudan on 9 July 2011, Nhial Deng Nhial was appointed Caretaker Minister of Defense of the Republic of South Sudan. On 26 August 2011, President Salva Kiir Mayardit unveiled his long-awaited cabinet with Mr. Nhial Deng Nhial appointed as the Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation of the Republic of South Sudan.

He is a member of the SPLM's highest organ, the Political Bureau, served as the leader of the SPLM delegation in Naivasha peace talks. Photo of Lieutenant General Nhial Deng Nhial, South Sudanese Defense Minister Another Photo of Lt. General Nhial Deng Nhial, Also At Website of Government of South Sudan SPLM SPLA University of Khartoum Cabinet of South Sudan


Kyivpastrans is a municipal company that operates public transport in Kiev, Ukraine. Its operations include city buses and trolleybuses, it is alo operates some urban rail. Kyivpastrans was established on October 2, 2001 by the Kiev City Council to replace KP "Kyivelektrotrans" and the Kiev City Territorial-Production Union of Automobile Transport. Kyivpastrans have 4 bus depot with 650 buses, it is all operates 107 routes by bus depots #2,5,6 and 8. Company have 3 tram depot. One depot on the left bank and 2 depots on the right bank. One of the right-bank depots operates only LRT routes # 3 by new air conditioning trams. All these depots operates 21 tram routes; the most popular tram model - Tatra t3 with different modifications. There are 3 trolleybus depots, they are all on the right bank of Kyiv and it is operates 45 trolleybuses routes. The average lifetime of buses and trolleybuses is 7-18 years. There are no tickets for a time in Kyiv; each ride should be paid in each bus/bus/trolleybus/tram/metro.

Passengers can pay for their ride by qr-code. It is possible to buy qr-codes in internet and just validate it from smartphone screen or buy it in ticket machine. In municipal buses and trolleybuses operated by Kyivpastrans one ride cost from 6.50 hrivnas to 8.00 hrn. These prices is the same in the metro. 1 ride - 8 hrn. 10 rides - 7.70 hrn 50 rides - 6.50 hrn The penalty for a ticketless fare is 160 hrivnas. One Kyivsmartcard should be activated before use it. Passengers should validate in each ride their qr-code or cards on orange validators inside bus/tram/trolleybus. Passengers can use all the doors to enter. Passengers can get from Zhuliany by trolleybus #9 to Central railway station and Palats Sportu. One of the most popular and useful routes for a tourists is a bus #24 from Central railway station - Khreshchatyk str - European Square - to Kiev Pechersk Lavra; this route operates by air-conditioning buses. Passengers can see in online. Kyiv is have night routes. All these routes operated only by Kyivpastrans.

137N - Central railway station - Kharkisvka metro str. 91N - Central railway station - Myloslavska str. 92N - Zhuliany Airport - Central Railway station - Svobody avenue. 93N - Lva Tolstoho sq. metro st. - Chornobylska str. 94N - Lva Tolstoho sq. metro st. - Lesya Kurbasa avenue. Kyivpastrans

BL 4-inch Mk IX naval gun

The BL 4-inch Mk IX naval gun was a British medium-velocity naval gun introduced in 1916 as secondary armament on the Renown-class battlecruisers and Glorious-class "large light cruisers", but which served most notably as the main armament on Flower-class corvettes throughout World War II. The gun was based on the barrel of the QF 4-inch Mk V and the breech mechanism of the BL 4-inch Mk VIII and was first introduced in World War I on capital ships as secondary armament in triple-gun mountings, intended to provide rapid concentrated fire; this turned out to be unworkable in practice. Jane's Fighting Ships of 1919 commented, "4-inch triples are clumsy and not liked, they are not mounted in one sleeve. Guns were thereafter used in single-gun mountings on smaller ships as the main armament. In World War II the gun was employed on many small warships such as Flower-class corvettes and minesweepers for action against surfaced submarines; this was the last BL 4 inch gun in British service: all subsequent guns have used charges in metal cartridges "QF".

It was succeeded on new small warships built in World War II by the QF 4-inch Mk XIX gun which fired a heavier shell at much lower velocity and had a high-angle mounting which added anti-aircraft capability. On board HMCS Sackville, the last surviving Flower-class corvette, at Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada A gun at the entrance to the marina in Hull, UK A gun at Port Isaac, Cornwall, UK List of naval guns Tony DiGiulian, British 4"/45 BL Marks IX and X Campbell, John. Naval Weapons of World War Two. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-459-4

Vernon Rosario

Vernon A. Rosario II is an American psychiatrist and medical historian who studies human sexuality, his recent work has focused on transgender and intersex youth, he has served as chair of the medical advisory board for Intersex Society of North America. Rosario earned undergraduate degrees in French literature and biomedical engineering from Brown University in 1986, he received his Ph. D. in the History of Science from Harvard University in 1993, his M. D. from the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology in 1995. Rosario completed a residency and fellowship with the UCLA Neuropsychiatric Institute in 2002. Since he has been in private practice and been a psychiatric consultant at Gay and Lesbian Adolescent Social Services in Los Angeles, he has held a UCLA clinical teaching position since 2003, is an Associate Clinical Professor in the Department of Psychiatry. Rosario has published in English and Spanish, his books include Science and Homosexualities and The Erotic Imagination: French Histories of Perversity.

He has been a longtime activist in eliminating homophobia, he has criticized author J. Michael Bailey’s stereotypic depiction of gay men in The Man Who Would Be Queen; as a child and adolescent psychiatrist, one major focus has been helping young LGBT people come out to their families. Rosario has expressed concern for excessive specialization in psychiatry, focusing on neuroscience while ignoring other factors; as chair of the LGBT Committee of the Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry, he edited and published a web-based course on LGBT mental health. Vernon A. Rosario faculty page at UCLA Vernon A. Rosario profile at Intersex Society of North America

Running Wild (1955 film)

Running Wild is a 1955 American film noir crime film directed by Abner Biberman and starring William Campbell, Mamie Van Doren, Keenan Wynn and Kathleen Case. The film was paired with Tarantula as part of a double feature. Ralph Barten is a young rookie cop who goes undercover to infiltrate an auto theft ring run by juvenile delinquents. William Campbell as Ralph Barton Mamie Van Doren as Irma Bean Keenan Wynn as Ken Osanger Kathleen Case as Leta Novak Jan Merlin as Scotty Cluett John Saxon as Vince Pomeroy Walter Coy as Lieutenant Ed Newpole Grayce Mills as Osanger's Mother Chris Randall Arkie Nodecker Michael Fox as Delmar Graves Will J. White as State Trooper Richard Castle as Herbie Otto Waldis as Leta's Father List of American films of 1955 Running Wild on IMDb