University of Wisconsin System
The University of Wisconsin System is a university system of public universities in the state of Wisconsin. It is one of the largest public higher-education systems in the country, enrolling more than 174,000 students each year and employing 39,000 faculty and staff statewide; the University of Wisconsin System is composed of two doctoral research universities, eleven comprehensive universities, thirteen freshman-sophomore branch campuses. The present-day University of Wisconsin System was created on October 11, 1971, by Chapter 100, Laws of 1971, which combined the former University of Wisconsin and Wisconsin State Universities systems into an enlarged University of Wisconsin System; the merger was supposed to take effect in 1973. The merger took effect on July 1974, combining two chapters of the Wisconsin statutes; the former Chapter 36 and Chapter 37 were merged to create a new Chapter 36. The University of Wisconsin was created by the state constitution in 1848, held its first classes in Madison in 1849.
In 1956, pressed by the growing demand for a large public university that offered graduate programs in Wisconsin's largest city, Wisconsin lawmakers merged Wisconsin State College of Milwaukee and the University of Wisconsin–Extension's Milwaukee division as the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee. The new campus consisted of both the WSCM campus near the lakefront and the UW extension in downtown Milwaukee. Starting in the 1940s, freshman-sophomore centers were opened across the state. In 1968, the Green Bay center was upgraded to a full-fledged four-year institution as the University of Wisconsin–Green Bay, while the Kenosha and Racine centers were merged as the University of Wisconsin–Parkside. By 1971, the University of Wisconsin system consisted of campuses at Madison, Green Bay and Kenosha/Somers, along with 10 freshman-sophomore centers and the statewide University of Wisconsin–Extension; the total enrollment of the University of Wisconsin system at that time was 69,554. The Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin system consisted of ten members, nine of whom were appointed by the governor and confirmed by the senate for nine-year terms.
The tenth was the State Superintendent of Public Instruction who served ex officio on both the University of Wisconsin and Wisconsin State University boards. In 1866, the state legislature established a normal school at Platteville—the first of eight teacher-training schools across the state. In 1911, the legislature permitted the normal schools to offer two years of post-high school work in art, liberal arts and sciences, pre-law, pre-medicine; the broadened curriculum proved popular and soon accounted for over one-third of the normal schools' enrollment. In 1920, the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching issued a report on "The Professional Education of Teachers of American Public Schools", which attacked such programs, arguing that normal schools should not deviate from their purpose as trainers of teachers; when the Milwaukee Normal School persisted with its popular enhanced curriculum, the regents of the Normal School system, the legislature, the governor all became involved.
MNS President Carroll G. Pearse was forced to resign in 1923, the regents ordered the discontinuation of non-teacher-education programs; the issue was not settled, though. In 1926, the regents repurposed the Normal Schools as "State Teachers Colleges", offering a four-year course of study leading to a Bachelor of Education degree that incorporated significant general education at all levels; the thousands of returning World War II veterans in Wisconsin needed more college choices for their studies under the G. I. Bill, popular demand pushed the State Teachers College system Regents to once again allow the teacher training institutions to offer bachelor's degrees in liberal arts and fine arts. In 1951 the state teachers colleges were redesignated as "Wisconsin State Colleges," offering a full four-year liberal-arts curriculum. In 1955, the Stout Institute in Menomonie, founded as a private engineering school in 1891 and was sold to the state in 1911, was merged into the Wisconsin State Colleges system.
The state colleges were all granted university status as "Wisconsin State Universities" in 1964. As of 1971, the Wisconsin State Universities comprised nine public universities and four freshman-sophomore branch campuses, with a total enrollment of 64,148; the board was made up of 14 members, 13 of whom were appointed by the governor and confirmed by the senate for five-year terms. The 14th was the State Superintendent of Public Instruction; the University of Wisconsin system merged with the Wisconsin State University system in 1971 to create today's University of Wisconsin System. The 1971 merger law approved by the State Senate combined the two higher education systems in Wisconsin under a single Board of Regents, creating a system with 13 universities, 14 freshman-sophomore centers, a statewide extension with offices in all 72 counties; each university is named "University of Wisconsin–" followed by the location or name. Each two-year college was named "University of Wisconsin
University of Washington
The University of Washington is a public research university in Seattle, Washington. Founded in 1861, Washington was first established in downtown Seattle a decade after the city's founding to aid its economic development. Today, the university's 703-acre main Seattle campus is situated in the University District above the Montlake Cut, within the urban Puget Sound region of the Pacific Northwest; the university has two additional campuses in Bothell. Overall, UW encompasses over 500 buildings and over 20 million gross square footage of space, including one of the largest library systems in the world with over 26 university libraries, as well as the UW Tower, lecture halls, art centers, laboratories and conference centers; the university offers bachelor's, master's and doctoral degrees through 140 departments in various colleges and schools, sees about 46,000 in total student enrollment every year, functions on a quarter system. Washington is a member of the Association of American Universities and classified as an R1 Doctoral Research University classification under the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education.
It is cited as a leading university in the world for scientific performance and research output by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings and the CWTS Leiden Ranking. In the 2015 fiscal year, the UW received nearly $1.2 billion in research funding, the 3rd largest among all universities in the United States. As the flagship institution of the six public universities in Washington State, it is known for its research in medicine, science, as well as its highly-competitive computer science and engineering programs. Additionally, Washington continues to benefit from its deep historical ties and major collaborations with numerous technology giants in the region, such as Amazon, Boeing and Microsoft. Paul G. Allen, Bill Gates and others spent significant time at Washington computer labs for a prior venture before founding Microsoft, its 22 varsity sports teams are highly competitive, competing as the Huskies in the Pac-12 Conference of the NCAA Division I, representing the United States at the Olympic Games, other major competitions.
The University has been affiliated with many notable alumni and faculty, including 20 Nobel Prize laureates and numerous Pulitzer Prize winners, Fulbright Scholars, Rhodes Scholars, Marshall Scholars, as well as members of other distinguished institutions. In 1854, territorial governor Isaac Stevens recommended the establishment of a university in the Washington Territory. Prominent Seattle-area residents, including Methodist preacher Daniel Bagley, saw this as a chance to add to the city's potential and prestige. Bagley learned of a law that allowed United States territories to sell land to raise money in support of public schools. At the time, Arthur A. Denny, an early founder of Seattle and member of the territorial legislature, aimed to increase the city's importance by moving the territory's capital from Olympia to Seattle. However, Bagley convinced Denny that the establishment of a university would assist more in the development of Seattle's economy. Two universities were chartered, but the decision was repealed in favor of a single university in Lewis County provided that locally donated land was available.
When no site emerged, Denny petitioned the legislature to reconsider Seattle as a location in 1858. In 1861, scouting began for an appropriate 10 acres site in Seattle to serve as a new university campus. Arthur and Mary Denny donated eight acres, while fellow pioneers Edward Lander, Charlie and Mary Terry, donated two acres on Denny's Knoll in downtown Seattle. More this tract was bounded by 4th Avenue to the west, 6th Avenue to the east, Union Street to the north, Seneca Streets to the south. John Pike, for whom Pike Street is named was the builder. On November 4, 1861, the university opened as the Territorial University of Washington; the legislature passed articles incorporating the University, establishing its Board of Regents in 1862. The school struggled, closing three times: in 1863 for low enrollment and again in 1867 and 1876 due to funds shortage. Washington awarded its first graduate Clara Antoinette McCarty Wilt in 1876, with a bachelor's degree in science. By the time Washington State entered the Union in 1889, both Seattle and the University had grown substantially.
Washington's total undergraduate enrollment increased from 30 to nearly 300 students, the campus's relative isolation in downtown Seattle faced encroaching development. A special legislative committee, headed by UW graduate Edmond Meany, was created to find a new campus to better serve the growing student population and faculty; the committee selected a site on the northeast of downtown Seattle called Union Bay, the land of the Duwamish, the legislature appropriated funds for its purchase and construction. In 1895, the University relocated to the new campus by moving into the newly built Denny Hall; the University Regents tried and failed to sell the old campus settling with leasing the area. This would become one of the University's most valuable pieces of real estate in modern-day Seattle, generating millions in annual revenue with what is now called the Metropolitan Tract; the original Territorial University building was torn down in 1908, its former site now houses the Fairmont Olympic Hotel.
The sole-surviving remnants of Washington's first building are four 24-foot, hand-fluted cedar, Ionic columns. They were salvaged by Edmond S. Meany, one of the University's first graduates and former head of its history dep
University of Wuppertal
The University of Wuppertal is a German scientific institution, located in Wuppertal, in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. The university's official name in German is Bergische Universität Wuppertal, or BUW, it was founded in 1972. In 2014/15, approx. 20,000 students were enrolled in a wide range of subjects with many interdisciplinary linkages between a total of 7 faculties. Division A: Humanities and Cultural Studies Division B: Schumpeter School of Business and Economics Division C: Mathematics and Natural Sciences Division D: Architecture, Civil Engineering Mechanical Engineering, Safety Division E: Electrical Engineering, Information Technology, Media Technology Division F: Design and Art Division G: Education and Social Sciences The main building of the University of Wuppertal is located in the suburb of Elberfeld on Grifflenberg; the university now has 3 campuses: Campus Grifflenberg in Elberfeld, Wuppertal Campus Freudenberg in Elberfeld, Wuppertal Campus Haspel in Unterbarmen, WuppertalAll three campuses house specific parts of the University Library of Wuppertal, the main library at Campus Grifflenberg holds five specific libraries.
From 2004 until 2010, the University of Wuppertal was home to the second supercomputer at a German university. ALiCEnext, the supercomputer, was consisted of 512 so-called Blades. ALiCEnext was used in the field of elementary particle physics, applied computer science, astro-particle physics and experimental high energy physics; the university employs more than 250 professors. Notable people who have taught in Wuppertal are: Bazon Brock, art theorist Gerd Faltings, mathematician Lev Kopelev and historian of literature Klaus Held and phenomenologist Peter Ulrich, economist Dieter Vieweger, archaeologist Paul J. J. Welfens, economist Joachim Holtz, Electrical Engineer Christian Boros, German advertising agency founder and art collector Godela Habel, abstract painter Walter Heidenfels, industrial designer Shanghai Ranking placed the University of Wuppertal between 404th and 502nd overall as compared to other international collegiate programs. However, the Physics program in particular is ranked somewhat higher, being placed between the 101st and 150th places in 2013 and between 151st and 200th in 2014.
The Times Higher Education World University Rankings does not place Wuppertal within its list of top German or International universities. In 2016, CWUR ranked University of Wuppertal as the 909th best university overall within its list of top 1000 international universities. In 2017 its place raised to 844th in the same list. At the CHE ranking, which evaluated more than 300 universities in the German-speaking world on the basis of the judgments of more than 250,000 students, University of Wuppertal was awarded three times. In 2011 the university reached the top group in eleven of the 13 categories. With a total score of 1.9, the Faculty of Economics was above the nationwide average of 2.6. Official website of Bergische Universität Wuppertal Website of University of Wuppertal
Relative humidity is the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor to the equilibrium vapor pressure of water at a given temperature. Relative humidity depends on the pressure of the system of interest; the same amount of water vapor results in higher relative humidity in cool air than warm air. A related parameter is that of dewpoint; the relative humidity of an air–water mixture is defined as the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor in the mixture to the equilibrium vapor pressure of water over a flat surface of pure water at a given temperature: ϕ = p H 2 O p H 2 O ∗. Relative humidity is expressed as a percentage. At 100 % relative humidity, the air is at its dewpoint. Climate control refers to the control of temperature and relative humidity in buildings and other enclosed spaces for the purpose of providing for human comfort and safety, of meeting environmental requirements of machines, sensitive materials and technical processes. Along with air temperature, mean radiant temperature, air speed, metabolic rate, clothing level, relative humidity plays a role in human thermal comfort.
According to ASHRAE Standard 55-2017: Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy, indoor thermal comfort can be achieved through the PMV method with relative humidities ranging from 0% to 100%, depending on the levels of the other factors contributing to thermal comfort. However, the recommended range of indoor relative humidity in air conditioned buildings is 30-60%. In general, higher temperatures will require lower relative humidities to achieve thermal comfort compared to lower temperatures, with all other factors held constant. For example, with clothing level = 1, Metabolic rate = 1.1, air speed 0.1 m/s, a change in air temperature and mean radiant temperature from 20 degrees C to 24 degrees C would lower the maximum acceptable relative humidity from 100% to 65% to maintain thermal comfort conditions. The CBE Thermal Comfort Tool can be used to demonstrate the effect of relative humidity for specific thermal comfort conditions and it can be used to demonstrate compliance with ASHRAE Standard 55-2017.
When using the adaptive model to predict thermal comfort indoors, relative humidity is not taken into account. Although relative humidity is an important factor for thermal comfort, humans are more sensitive to variations in temperature than they are to changes in relative humidity. Relative humidity has a small effect on thermal comfort outdoors when air temperatures are low, a more pronounced effect at moderate air temperatures, a much stronger influence at higher air temperatures. In cold climates, the outdoor temperature causes lower capacity for water vapor to flow about, thus although it may be snowing and the relative humidity outdoors is high, once that air comes into a building and heats up, its new relative humidity is low, making the air dry, which can cause discomfort. Dry cracked. Low humidity causes tissue lining nasal passages to dry and become more susceptible to penetration of Rhinovirus cold viruses. Low humidity is a common cause of nosebleeds; the use of a humidifier in homes bedrooms, can help with these symptoms.
Indoor relative humidities should be kept above 30% to reduce the likelihood of the occupant's nasal passages drying out. Humans can be comfortable within a wide range of humidities depending on the temperature—from 30% to 70%—but ideally between 50% and 60%. Low humidity can create discomfort, respiratory problems, aggravate allergies in some individuals. In the winter, it is advisable to maintain relative humidity above. Low relative humidities may cause eye irritation. For climate control in buildings using HVAC systems, the key is to maintain the relative humidity at a comfortable range—low enough to be comfortable but high enough to avoid problems associated with dry air; when the temperature is high and the relative humidity is low, evaporation of water is rapid. Wooden furniture can shrink; when the temperature is low and the relative humidity is high, evaporation of water is slow. When relative humidity approaches 100 percent, condensation can occur on surfaces, leading to problems with mold, corrosion and other moisture-related deterioration.
Condensation can pose a safety risk as it can promote the growth of mold and wood rot as well as freezing emergency exits shut. Certain production and technical processes and treatments in factories, laboratories and other facilities require specific relative humidity levels to be maintained using humidifiers and associated control systems; the basic principles for buildings, above apply to vehicles. In addition, there may be safety considerations. For instance, high humidity inside a vehicle can lead to problems of condensation, such
University of Würzburg
The Julius Maximilian University of Würzburg is a public research university in Würzburg, Germany. The University of Würzburg is one of the oldest institutions of higher learning in Germany, having been founded in 1402; the university had a brief run and was closed in 1415. It was reopened in 1582 on the initiative of Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn. Today, the university is named for Julius Echter von Maximilian Joseph; the University of Würzburg is part of the U15 group of research-intensive German universities. The university is a member of the Coimbra Group. Adolf-Wuerth-Center for the History of Psychology is a scientific institution of the University Its official name is Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg but it is referred to as the University of Würzburg; this name is taken from Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn, Prince-Bishop of Würzburg, who reestablished the university in 1582, Prince Elector Maximilian Joseph, the prince under whom secularization occurred at the start of the 19th century.
The university’s central administration, foreign student office, several research institutes are located within the area of the old town, while the new liberal arts campus, with its modern library, overlooks the city from the east. The university today enrolls 29,000 students, out of which more than 1,000 come from other countries. Although the university was first founded in 1402, it was short-lived; this was attributed to the instability of the age. Johannes Trithemius, well-known humanist and learned abbot of the Scottish monastery of St. Jacob, held the dissolute student lifestyle responsible for the premature decline of the city's first university. In the Annales Hirsaugiensis Chronologia Mystica of 1506 he cites bathing, brawling, inebriation and general pandemonium as "greatly impeding the academic achievement in Würzburg". Evidence of this is provided by the fatal stabbing of the university's first chancellor, Johann Zantfurt, in 1413, by a scholar's unruly assistant, or famulus, evidently the result of these influences.
Despite Egloffstein's thwarted first attempt at founding a university, the city still boasts one of the oldest universities in the German-speaking world on a par with Prague, Heidelberg and Erfurt. A university in Würzburg was refounded more than 150 years later. A "second founding" by Prince Bishop Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn in 1582 offered the institution guaranteed autonomous self-government; the university was fiercely Roman Catholic and considered a "bastion of Catholicism in the face of Protestantism", words used in the university charter which prevented all non-Catholics from graduating from or receiving tenure at the Alma Julia. Echter intended it as a tool of Counter-Reformation. Over a century would pass before the university opened its doors to non-Catholics, in keeping with the spirit of Enlightenment encouraged by Prince Bishop Friedrich Karl von Schönborn's newly formulated students' charter of 1734; the resultant increase in religious tolerance enabled the summoning and subsequent appointment of the famous physician, Karl Kaspar von Siebold, under Schönborn's successor, Adam Friedrich von Seinsheim.
Shortly after his arrival in 1769, Protestant medical students were permitted to study for their doctorates at the university. Würzburg's increasing secularisation as a bishopric and its eventual surrender to Bavarian rule at the beginning of the 19th century resulted in the loss of the university's Roman Catholic character; the end of the city's status as a Grand Duchy under Ferdinand of Toscana in 1814 heralded the Alma Julia's ideological transition to the non-denominational establishment which endures to this day. This new inclusiveness towards professors and students alike was instrumental in the resultant upturn in all areas of research and education in the 19th century. Since the university has borne the name of its second and most influential founder known as the Julius-Maximilians-Universität of Bavaria; the many medical accomplishments associated with the university from the mid- to late-19th century were inextricably linked with achievements in the affiliated field of natural science, notably by Schwab, the eminent botanist, the zoologist, the celebrated chemist and Boveri, the biologist.
Their progress culminated in the discovery of x-rays by physicist Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, first winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics, in 1895. Röntgen's discovery, which he dubbed a "new kind of ray", is regarded as the university's greatest intellectual achievement, a scientific development of huge global import. Röntgen's successors, namely Wilhelm Wien, Johannes Stark and the chemists Emil Fischer and Eduard Buchner number among the succession of Nobel Prize winners to lecture at the university, a tradition which endures in the modern-day example of Klaus von Klitzing. After World War II, the free state of Bavaria invested a fortune in the rebuilding and renovation of the university buildings, damaged by Allied bombing. Restoration of Echter's "Old University", current home to the faculty of law, continues today; the eventual rebuilding of the Neubaukirche affiliated to the legal faculty and razed to the ground in 1945, marked the end of the city's extensive reconstruction process. In 1970 it was decided that the church, one of the most important examples of 16th century vaulted architecture in southern Germany, should fulfill a dual function as a place of worship and
University of Winnipeg
The University of Winnipeg is a public university in Winnipeg, Canada that offers undergraduate faculties of art and economics, education and kinesiology and applied health as well as graduate programs. UWinnipeg's founding colleges were Manitoba College and Wesley College, which merged to form United College in 1938; the University of Winnipeg was established in 1967. The governance was modeled on the provincial University of Toronto Act of 1906 which established a bicameral system of university government consisting of a senate, responsible for academic policy, a board of governors exercising exclusive control over financial policy and having formal authority in all other matters; the president, appointed by the board, was a link between the bodies to perform institutional leadership. UWinnipeg's current president and vice-chancellor is Annette Trimbee, succeeding Lloyd Axworthy, who served from 2004 to 2014. Maclean's magazine and The Globe and Mail newspaper rank the university in the top fifteen of all Canadian universities whose primary focus is undergraduate education in the category of student satisfaction.
In 2013 the U of W ranked 13th out of 19 undergraduate institutions. The U of W's founding colleges were Manitoba College, 1871, Wesley College, 1888, which merged to form United College in 1938. In 1967, United College became the University of Winnipeg. George Creeford Browne & S. Frank Peters designed Wesley Hall, now part of the University of Winnipeg; the University of Winnipeg was established on 1 July 1967. United College was formed in 1938 from the union of Manitoba College, founded in 1871, Wesley College, founded in 1888. Affiliated with the University of Manitoba, United College received its charter in 1967 and became the University of Winnipeg. Wesley Hall is a stone-clad brick structure built in 1894–95 and is on the Registry of Historic Places of Canada, it is located on 515 Portage Ave. near Portage Place Mall. The Buhler Centre was constructed to house the Faculty of Business and Economics, as well as PACE, a division of the University of Winnipeg; the doors to the Buhler Centre opened September 2010.
Designed by PSA+DPA+DIN collective a collaborative effort between Peter Sampson Architecture Studio inc, David Penner Architect, DIN Projects. The Buhler Centre houses the Plug In Institute of Contemporary Art and Stella's Cafe on the main floor; the Institute for stained glass in Canada has documented the stained glass at the University of Winnipeg. In 2008, the university announced that Raymond L. McFeetors, Chairman of The Great West Life Assurance Company, had donated $2.67 Million for a dormitory to be built on newly acquired property west of the campus. The money came from Great West Life. Campus development, by the University of Winnipeg, is headed by The University of Winnipeg Renewal Corporation, "a not-for-profit charitable corporation and manages campus development." The UWCRC is a not-for-profit subsidiary of the University of Winnipeg and works to achieve environmental, social and cultural sustainability. Their mandate is to "apply values, skills and experience to non-University specific economic development activities.
Is mandated to develop wholly owned or joint-venture real estate developments and to provide development, project management and property management services to other post-secondary institutions, non-profit organizations and First Nations clients."The university president sits as the chair of the corporation and participates in its business partnerships. The structure of the UWCRC is unique in Canada as it allows the corporation to avoid being governed by the strictures of university governance; the corporation serves as "a primary engine for the redevelopment of Winnipeg’s downtown", a task traditionally undertaken by government and the private sector, not educational institutions. Recent initiatives include the newly renovated Asper Centre for Theater and Film, Richardson College for the Environment and Science Complex, The Axworthy Health and RecPlex, McFeetors Hall and the UWSA Daycare. A new mixed use 14-story apartment complex for students and the community began construction in 2015.
The financial statements of the corporation are not publicly available under public disclosure legislation. The corporate draws its operating funds from the university budget. Students at the university are represented by the University of Winnipeg Students' Association. CKUW is the student radio station based at the University of Winnipeg; the Uniter is the campus newspaper. The Janitors are represented by AESES. Faculty of Arts Faculty of Business & Economics Faculty of Education Gupta Faculty of Kinesiology and Applied Health Faculty of Science Faculty of Graduate Studies Global College Menno Simons College Richardson College for the Environment Centre for Academic Writing Centre for Distributed / Distance Learning Centre for Forest Interdisciplinary Research Centre for Innovation in Teaching & Learning Centre for Learning and Secular Society Centre for Research in Young People's Texts and Cultures Centre for Rupert's Land Studies Centre for Sustainable Transportation Institute of Urban Studies Institute for Women's and Gender Studies India Centre for Academic and Community Excellence Masters of Arts in Cultural Studies Master of Arts in Indigenous Governance Master of Arts in Environmental and Developmental Economics Master of Arts in Criminal Justi
University of Wisconsin–Madison
The University of Wisconsin–Madison is a public research university in Madison, Wisconsin. Founded when Wisconsin achieved statehood in 1848, UW–Madison is the official state university of Wisconsin, the flagship campus of the University of Wisconsin System, it was the first public university established in Wisconsin and remains the oldest and largest public university in the state. It became a land-grant institution in 1866; the 933-acre main campus, located on the shores of Lake Mendota, includes four National Historic Landmarks. The University owns and operates a historic 1,200-acre arboretum established in 1932, located 4 miles south of the main campus. UW–Madison is organized into 20 schools and colleges, which enrolled 30,361 undergraduate and 14,052 graduate students in 2018, its comprehensive academic program offers 136 undergraduate majors, along with 148 master's degree programs and 120 doctoral programs. A major contributor to Wisconsin's economy, the University is the largest employer in the state, with over 21,600 faculty and staff.
The UW is one of America's Public Ivy universities, which refers to top public universities in the United States capable of providing a collegiate experience comparable with the Ivy League. UW–Madison is categorized as a Doctoral University with the Highest Research Activity in the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. In 2012, it had research expenditures of more than $1.1 billion, the third highest among universities in the country. Wisconsin is a founding member of the Association of American Universities; as of October 2018, 25 Nobel laureates and 2 Fields medalists have been associated with UW–Madison as alumni, faculty, or researchers. Additionally, as of November 2018, the current CEOs of 14 Fortune 500 companies have attended UW–Madison, the most of any university in the United States. Among the scientific advances made at UW–Madison are the single-grain experiment, the discovery of vitamins A and B by Elmer McCollum and Marguerite Davis, the development of the anticoagulant medication warfarin by Karl Paul Link, the first chemical synthesis of a gene by Har Gobind Khorana, the discovery of the retroviral enzyme reverse transcriptase by Howard Temin, the first synthesis of human embryonic stem cells by James Thomson.
UW–Madison was the home of both the prominent "Wisconsin School" of economics and of diplomatic history, while UW–Madison professor Aldo Leopold played an important role in the development of modern environmental science and conservationism, articulating his philosophy of a "land ethic" in his influential book A Sand County Almanac. The Wisconsin Badgers compete in 25 intercollegiate sports in the NCAA Division I Big Ten Conference and have won 28 national championships. Wisconsin students and alumni have won 50 Olympic medals; the university had its official beginnings when the Wisconsin Territorial Legislature in its 1838 session passed a law incorporating a "University of the Territory of Wisconsin", a high-ranking Board of Visitors was appointed. However, this body never accomplished anything before Wisconsin was incorporated as a state in 1848; the Wisconsin Constitution provided for "the establishment of a state university, at or near the seat of state government..." and directed by the state legislature to be governed by a board of regents and administered by a Chancellor.
On July 26, 1848, Nelson Dewey, Wisconsin's first governor, signed the act that formally created the University of Wisconsin. John H. Lathrop became the university's first chancellor, in the fall of 1849. With John W. Sterling as the university's first professor, the first class of 17 students met at Madison Female Academy on February 5, 1849. A permanent campus site was soon selected: an area of 50 acres "bounded north by Fourth lake, east by a street to be opened at right angles with King street", "south by Mineral Point Road, west by a carriage-way from said road to the lake." The regents' building plans called for a "main edifice fronting towards the Capitol, three stories high, surmounted by an observatory for astronomical observations." This building, University Hall, now known as Bascom Hall, was completed in 1859. On October 10, 1916, a fire destroyed the building's dome, never replaced. North Hall, constructed in 1851, was the first building on campus. In 1854, Levi Booth and Charles T. Wakeley became the first graduates of the university, in 1892 the university awarded its first PhD to future university president Charles R. Van Hise.
Research and service at the UW is influenced by a tradition known as "the Wisconsin Idea", first articulated by UW–Madison President Charles Van Hise in 1904, when he declared "I shall never be content until the beneficent influence of the University reaches every home in the state." The Wisconsin Idea holds that the boundaries of the university should be the boundaries of the state, that the research conducted at UW–Madison should be applied to solve problems and improve health, quality of life, the environment, agriculture for all citizens of the state. The Wisconsin Idea permeates the university's work and helps forge close working relationships among university faculty and students, the state's industries and government. Based in Wisconsin's populist history, the Wisconsin Idea continues to inspire the work of the faculty and students who aim to solve real-world problems by working together across disciplines and demographics. During World War II, University