USA-183 known as GPS IIR-14, GPS IIRM-1 and GPS SVN-53, is an American navigation satellite which forms part of the Global Positioning System. It was the first of eight Block IIRM satellites to be launched, the fourteenth of twenty one Block IIR satellites overall, it was built by Lockheed Martin. USA-183 was launched at 03:37:00 UTC on 26 September 2005, atop a Delta II carrier rocket, flight number D313, flying in the 7925-9.5 configuration. The launch took place from Space Launch Complex 17A at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, placed USA-183 into a transfer orbit; the satellite raised itself into medium Earth orbit using a Star-37FM apogee motor. By 25 November 2005, USA-183 was in an orbit with a perigee of 20,140 kilometres, an apogee of 20,222 kilometres, a period of 717.92 minutes, 55 degrees of inclination to the equator. It is used to broadcast the PRN 17 signal, operates in slot 4 of plane C of the GPS constellation; the satellite has a mass of 2,032 kilograms, a design life of 10 years.
As of 2012 it remains in service
NOAA-18, known before launch as NOAA-N, is a weather forecasting satellite run by NOAA. NOAA-N was launched on May 20, 2005, into a sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of 854 km above the Earth, with an orbital period of 102 minutes, it hosts the AMSU-A, MHS, AVHRR, Space Environment Monitor SEM/2 instrument and High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder instruments, as well as the SBUV/2 ozone-monitoring instrument. It is the first NOAA POES satellite to use MHS in place of AMSU-B. APT transmission frequency is 137.9125 MHz
A CubeSat is a type of miniaturized satellite for space research, made up of multiples of 10 cm × 10 cm × 10 cm cubic units. CubeSats have a mass of no more than 1.33 kilograms per unit, use commercial off-the-shelf components for their electronics and structure. CubeSats are put in orbit by deployers on the International Space Station, or launched as secondary payloads on a launch vehicle. Over 1000 CubeSats have been launched as of January 2019. Over 900 have been deployed in orbit and over 80 have been destroyed in launch failures. In 1999, California Polytechnic State University and Stanford University developed the CubeSat specifications to promote and develop the skills necessary for the design and testing of small satellites intended for low Earth orbit that perform a number of scientific research functions and explore new space technologies. Academia accounted for the majority of CubeSat launches until 2013, when more than half of launches were for non-academic purposes, by 2014 most newly deployed CubeSats were for commercial or amateur projects.
Uses involve experiments that can be miniaturized or serve purposes such as Earth observation or amateur radio. CubeSats are employed to demonstrate spacecraft technologies intended for small satellites or that present questionable feasibility and are unlikely to justify the cost of a larger satellite. Scientific experiments with unproven underlying theory may find themselves aboard CubeSats because their low cost can justify higher risks. Biological research payloads have been flown with more planned. Several missions to the Moon and Mars are planning to use CubeSats. In May 2018, the two MarCO CubeSats became the first CubeSats to leave Earth orbit, on their way to Mars alongside the successful InSight mission; some CubeSats became the first national satellites of their countries, being launched by universities, state, or private companies. The searchable Nanosatellite and CubeSat Database lists over 2,000 CubeSats that have been and are planned to be launched since 1998. Professors Jordi Puig-Suari of California Polytechnic State University and Bob Twiggs of Stanford University proposed the CubeSat reference design in 1999 with the aim of enabling graduate students to design, build and operate in space a spacecraft with capabilities similar to that of the first spacecraft, Sputnik.
The CubeSat, as proposed, did not set out to become a standard. The first CubeSats launched in June 2003 on a Russian Eurockot, 75 CubeSats had entered orbit by 2012; the need for such a small-factor satellite became apparent in 1998 as a result of work done at Stanford University's Space System Development Laboratory. At SSDL, students had been working on the OPAL microsatellite since 1995. OPAL's mission to deploy daughter-ship "picosatellites" had resulted in the development of a launcher system, "hopelessly complicated" and could only be made to work "most of the time". With the project's delays mounting, Twiggs sought DARPA funding that resulted in the redesign of the launching mechanism into a simple pusher-plate concept with the satellites held in place by a spring-loaded door. Desiring to shorten the development cycle experienced on OPAL and inspired by the picosatellites OPAL carried, Twiggs set out to find "how much could you reduce the size and still have a practical satellite"; the picosatellites on OPAL were 10.1 cm × 7.6 cm × 2.5 cm, a size, not conducive to covering all sides of the spacecraft with solar cells.
Inspired by a 4-inch cubic plastic box used to display Beanie Babies in stores, Twiggs first settled on the larger 10-centimeter cube as a guideline for the new CubeSat concept. A model of a launcher was developed for the new satellite using the same pusher-plate concept, used in the modified OPAL launcher. Twiggs presented the idea to Puig-Suari in the summer of 1999 and at the Japan–U. S. Science and Space Applications Program conference in November 1999; the term "CubeSat" was coined to denote nanosatellites that adhere to the standards described in the CubeSat design specification. Cal Poly published the standard in an effort led by aerospace engineering professor Jordi Puig-Suari. Bob Twiggs, of the Department of Aeronautics & Astronautics at Stanford University, a member of the space science faculty at Morehead State University in Kentucky, has contributed to the CubeSat community, his efforts have focused on CubeSats from educational institutions. The specification does not apply to other cube-like nanosatellites such as the NASA "MEPSI" nanosatellite, larger than a CubeSat.
GeneSat-1 was NASA's first automated, self-contained biological spaceflight experiment on a satellite of its size. It was the first U. S.-launched CubeSat. This work, led by John Hines at NASA Ames Research, became the catalyst for the entire NASA CubeSat program; the CubeSat specification accomplishes several high-level goals. The main reason for miniaturizing satellites is to reduce the cost of deployment: they are suitable for launch in multiples, using the excess capacity of larger launch vehicles; the CubeSat design minimizes risk to the rest of the launch vehicle and payloads. Encapsulation of the launcher–payload interface takes away the amount of work that would be required for mating a piggyback satellite with its launcher. Unification among payloads and launchers enables quick exchanges of payloads and utilization of launch opportunities on short notice. Standard CubeSats
USA-165 or XSS-11 is a small, washing-machine-sized, low-cost spacecraft developed by the U. S. Air Force Research Laboratory’s Space Vehicles Directorate to test technology for proximity operations. In particular, the satellite was designed to demonstrate "autonomous rendezvous and proximity maneuvers." In other words, it would approach and photograph other spacecraft in Earth orbit. It would help test the feasibility of in-space repair; the spacecraft was designed to test systems that would allow the spacecraft to maneuver autonomously. USA-165 was built by Lockheed Martin and weighed 125 kg with an excess of 600 m/s delta-v. USA-165 was launched into Low Earth Orbit on April 11, 2005 on a Minotaur rocket and remained in its primary orbit for over eighteen months, but in December 2006 it was maneuvered into a disposal orbit and lost to satellite spotters. USA-165 was rediscovered by amateur satellite watcher Kevin Fetter; the satellite re-entered the atmosphere on November 11, 2013. The NASA GRAIL spacecraft design was based on XSS-11 design.
Space.com News XSS-11 micro satellite LOST AND FOUND: XSS-11 SPYSAT
Suzaku was an X-ray astronomy satellite developed jointly by the Institute of Space and Aeronautical Science at JAXA and NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center to probe high energy X-ray sources, such as supernova explosions, black holes and galactic clusters. It was launched on 10 July 2005 aboard the M-V-6 rocket. After its successful launch, the satellite was renamed Suzaku after the mythical Vermilion bird of the South. Just weeks after launch, on 29 July 2005 the first of a series of cooling system malfunctions occurred; these caused the entire reservoir of liquid helium to boil off into space by 8 August 2005. This shut down the X-ray Spectrometer, the spacecraft's primary instrument; the two other instruments, the X-ray Imaging Spectrometer and the Hard X-ray Detector, were unaffected by the malfunction. As a result, another XRS was integrated into the Hitomi X-ray satellite, launched in 2016. On 26 August 2015, JAXA announced that communications with Suzaku had been intermittent since 1 June, that the resumption of scientific operations would be difficult to accomplish given the spacecraft's condition.
Mission operators decided to complete the mission imminently, as Suzaku had exceeded its design lifespan by eight years at this point. The mission came to an end on 2 September 2015, when JAXA commanded the radio transmitters on Suzaku to switch themselves off. Suzaku carried high spectroscopic resolution wide energy band instruments for detecting signals ranging from soft X-rays up to gamma-rays. High resolution spectroscopy and wide-band are essential factors to physically investigate high energy astronomical phenomena, such as black holes and supernovae. One such feature, the broad iron K line, may be key to more direct imaging of black holes. X-ray Telescope X-ray Spectrometer X-ray Imaging Spectrometer Hard X-ray Detector Uses Gadolinium Silicate crystal, Gd2SiO5 Uses Bismuth Germanate crystal, Bi4Ge3O12 Suzaku was a replacement for ASTRO-E, lost in a launch failure; the M-V-4 carrier rocket launched on 10 February 2000 at 01:30:00 UTC but experienced a failure 42 seconds failing to achieve orbit and crashing with its payload into the ocean.
Suzaku discovered "fossil" light from a supernova remnant. Special Issue: First Results from Suzaku. Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. Vol. 59, No. SP1. January 30, 2007. Retrieved 4 October 2010. X-ray Astronomy Satellite "Suzaku" JAXA/ISAS Suzaku mission overview JAXA/ISAS Suzaku Information for Researchers JAXA report presentation of failure analysis of XRS NASA Astronomy Picture of the Day: Launch of the Red Bird NASA ASTRO-EII mission description NASA/GSFC Suzaku Learning Center NASA/GSFC XRS-2 project page
Shenzhou 6 was the second human spaceflight of the Chinese space program, launched on October 12, 2005 on a Long March 2F rocket from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center. The Shenzhou spacecraft carried a crew of Fèi Jùnlóng and Niè Hǎishèng for five days in low Earth orbit, it launched three days before the second anniversary of China's first human spaceflight, Shenzhou 5. The crew were able to change out of their new lighter space suits, conduct scientific experiments, enter the orbital module for the first time, giving them access to toilet facilities; the exact activities of the crew were kept secret but were thought by some to include military reconnaissance, however this is untrue given that similar experiments in the US and USSR determined that humans are not suited for military reconnaissance. It landed in the Siziwang Banner of Inner Mongolia on October 16, 2005, the same site as the previous manned and unmanned Shenzhou flights; this is the first spaceflight for both crew members. The crew was introduced to the Chinese public and international media about five hours before the launch.
Niè Hǎishèng celebrated his 41st birthday in space. Huang Chunping, the chief designer of the Long March 2F rocket, was quoted in the Beijing Times as saying the crew members who would fly the mission were selected from a pool of three pairs. Five pairs of astronauts trained for the flight and about one month before launch the two pairs with the lowest performance were dropped; the Ta Kung Pao newspaper had reported that Zhai Zhigang and Nie Haisheng were the leading pair, after having been in the final group of three for Shenzhou 5. The crew arrived at the spacecraft about 2 hours and 45 minutes before the launch and the hatch closed 30 minutes after their arrival. At 01:00:05.583 UTC on October 12 Shenzhou 6 lifted off from the launch pad at Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center. The launch phase was reported to be normal with the escape rocket separating 120 seconds after launch when the rocket was travelling 1,300 m/s. Sixteen seconds the four booster rockets separated at an altitude of 52 km; the payload fairing and first stage detached 200 seconds after launch.
The second stage burned for a further 383 seconds and the spacecraft separated from the rocket 200 km above the Yellow Sea. The spacecraft used its own propulsion system to place it into a 211 km by 345 km orbit, with an inclination of 42.4 degrees, about 21 minutes after launch. At 01:39 UTC Chen Bingde, the Chief Commander of the Chinese space program, announced the launch was successful; the crew ate their first meal in space at 03:11 UTC. Before the flight, the launch time had been the object of speculation by the Chinese media. For several months before the planned launch its time was only given as mid-October, or late-September. On September 23 it was reported by the Hong Kong-based news agency China News Service that the launch was tentatively scheduled for 03:00 UTC on October 13; this launch time was confirmed two weeks by Jiang Jingshan, a member of the Chinese Academy of Engineering. But on October 10 an official from the technical department of the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center said the launch was scheduled for 01:00 UTC on October 12.
This new launch time could have been designed to dodge the cold weather, forecast to hit the area. Assembly of the rocket was reported complete on September 26. On October 4, the Shenzhou 6 spacecraft was attached to the CZ-2F rocket known as Shenjian. Unlike the unmanned Shenzhou flights, Shenzhou 5 and 6 were launched during daylight hours to provide greater safety in case of abort; the launch was televised live with China Central Television selling advertising for RMB¥2.56 million for five seconds, to RMB¥8.56 million for 30 seconds. A video camera had been added to the rocket and images of it were broadcast during the ascent and the separation of the Shenzhou spacecraft. Shortly after launch, recovery crews began searching a region from the Badain Jaran Desert in Inner Mongolia to Shaanxi for the launch escape tower, booster rockets, first stage and payload fairing. Of particular interest was the "black box" of the rocket, which contained telemetry that may not have been downlinked during the launch phase.
It was found 45 minutes after launch somewhere near Otog Banner. It was first sighted by Lian Hua, about 1.5 km from her home. Other wreckage from the launch was found and destroyed at its impact location or brought back to Jiuquan. General Secretary and President Hu Jintao was present at the Beijing Aerospace Control Center to watch the launch. Premier Wen Jiabao was present at the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center; the first of several orbit changing maneuvers happened as planned at 07:54:45, with a 63-second burn to circularize the orbit. Based on United States Space Command orbital elements, it was in a 332 by 336 km orbit. After about an hour and a half, the hatch between the re-entry and orbital modules was opened and, for the first time, crew were able to enter the second living compartment of the Shenzhou spacecraft. Fèi Jùnlóng was the first to enter, they would swap positions about three hours later. At 13:32 UTC, Niè and Fèi had a seven-minute conversation with their wives and children who were in Mission Control.
Niè's daughter sang "Happy Birthday to You", as his birthday is October 13. The activities of the crew were not revealed by the Chinese. Only vague references to experiments were made. One experiment involved the crew testing the reaction of the spacecraft to movement within the orbital and reentry modules, they moved between the modules and clos
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly