The U interface or U reference point is a Basic Rate Interface in the local loop of an Integrated Services Digital Network. It is characterized by the use of a 2-wire transmission system that connects the network termination type 1 on the customer's premises and the line termination in the carrier's local exchange, it is not as distance sensitive as a service using an S T interface. In America, the NT1 is customer premises equipment, purchased and maintained by the user, which makes the U interface a User–network interface; the American variant is specified by the American National Standards Institute in T1.601. In Europe, the NT1 belongs to the network operator, so the user doesn't have direct access to the U interface; the European variant is specified by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute in recommendation ETR 080. The ITU-T has issued recommendations G.960 and G.961 with world-wide scope, encompassing both the European and American variants of the U interface. Like all other ISDN basic rate interfaces, the U interface carries two B channels at 64 kbit/s and one D channel at 16 kbit/s for a combined bitrate of 144 kbit/s.
While in a four-wire interface such as the ISDN S and T-interfaces one wire pair is available for each direction of transmission, a two-wire interface needs to implement both directions on a single wire pair. To that end, ITU-T recommendation G.961 specifies two duplex transmission technologies for the ISDN U interface, either of which shall be used: Echo cancellation and Time Compression Multiplex. When a transmitter applies a signal to the wire-pair, parts of the signal will be reflected as a result of imperfect balance of the hybrid and because of impedance discontinuities on the line; these reflections return to the transmitter as an echo and are indistinguishable from a signal transmitted at the far end. In the echo cancellation scheme, the transmitter locally simulates the echo it expects to receive, subtracts it from the received signal; the Time Compression Multiplex duplex method referred to as "burst mode", solves the echo problem indirectly. The line is operated at a rate at least twice the signal rate and both ends of the line take turns transmitting, in a time-division duplex fashion.
ITU-T G.961 specifies four line systems for the ISDN U interface: MMS43, 2B1Q, TCM, SU32. All line systems except TCM use echo cancellation for duplex operation; the American standard ANSI T1.601 specifies the 2B1Q line system, the European ETSI TR 080 recommendation specifies 2B1Q and MMS43. The Modified Monitoring State Code mapping 4 bits into 3 ternary symbols, referred to as 4B3T is a line system used in Europe and elsewhere in the world. 4B3T is a "block code". 4B3T converts each group of 4 data bits into 3 "ternary" line signal states. Echo cancellation techniques allow full-duplex operation on the line. MMS43 is defined in Appendix I of G.961, Annex B of ETR 080, other national standards, like Germany's 1TR220. 4B3T can be transmitted reliably at up to 4.2 km over 0.4 mm cable or up to 8.2 km over 0.6 mm cable. An internal termination impedance of 150ohms is presented to the line at each end of the U-interface. A 1 ms frame carrying 144 bits of 2B+D data is mapped to 108 ternary symbols.
These symbols are scrambled, with different scrambling codes for the two transmission directions, in order reduce correlation between transmitted and received signal. To this frame, an 11-symbol preamble and a symbol from the CL channel are added, yielding a frame size of 120 ternary symbols and a symbol rate of 120 kilobaud; the CL channel is used to request activation or deactivation of a loopback in either the NT1 or a line regenerator. In 4B3T coding, there are three states presented to line: a positive pulse, a negative pulse, or a zero-state. An analogy here is that operation is similar to B8ZS or HDB3 in T1/E1 systems, except that there is an actual gain in the information rate by coding 24=16 possible binary states to one of 33=27 ternary states; this added. One requirement for line transmission is that there should be no DC build-up on the line, so the accumulated DC build-up is monitored and the codewords are chosen accordingly. Of the 16 binary information words, some are always mapped to a DC-component free code word, while others can be mapped to either one of two code words, one with a positive and the other with a negative DC-component.
In the latter case, the transmitter chooses whether to send the code-word with negative or positive DC-component based on the accumulated DC-offset. 2B1Q coding is the standard used in North America and Switzerland. 2B1Q means. 2B1Q combines two bits at a time to be represented by one of four signal levels on the line. Echo cancellation techniques allow full-duplex operation on the line. 2B1Q coding is defined in Appendix II of G.961, ANSI T1.601, Annex A of ETR 080. It can operate at distances up to about 18,000 feet with loss up to 42dB. An internal termination impedance of 135 ohms is presented to the line at each end of the U-interface. A 1.5 ms frame carrying 216 scrambled. To this frame, a 9-symbol preamble and 3 symbols from the CL channel are added, yielding a frame size of 120 quaternary symbols and a symbol rate of 80 kilobaud; the CL channel is used for communication between LT and NT1, a 12-bit cyclic redundancy check, various other physical layer functions. The CRC covers one 12 ms multiframe.
The TCM / AMI ISDN
Henry Martyn was an Anglican priest and missionary to the peoples of India and Persia. Born in Truro, Cornwall, he was educated at St John's College, Cambridge. A chance encounter with Charles Simeon led him to become a missionary, he was ordained a priest in the Church of England and became a chaplain for the British East India Company. Martyn arrived in India in April 1806, where he preached and occupied himself in the study of linguistics, he translated the whole of the New Testament into Urdu and Judaeo-Persic. He translated the Psalms into Persian and the Book of Common Prayer into Urdu. From India, he set out for Bushire, Shiraz and Tabriz. Martyn was seized with fever, though the plague was raging at Tokat, he was forced to stop there, unable to continue. On 16 October 1812 he died, he was remembered for his courage and his religious devotion. In parts of the Anglican Communion he is celebrated with a Lesser Festival on 19 October. Martyn was born in Truro, Cornwall, on 18 February 1781, his father, John Martyn, was mine-agent at Gwennap.
As a boy, he was educated at Truro grammar school under Dr. Cardew and he entered St John's College, Cambridge, in the autumn of 1797, was senior wrangler and first Smith's prizeman in 1801. In 1802, he was chosen as a fellow of his college, he had intended to go to the bar, but in the October term of 1802 he chanced to hear Charles Simeon speaking of the good done in India by a single missionary, William Carey, some time afterwards he read the life of David Brainerd, a missionary to the Native Americans. He resolved, accordingly. On 22 October 1803, he was ordained deacon at Ely, afterwards priest, served as Simeon's curate at the Church of Holy Trinity, taking charge of the neighbouring parish of Lolworth. Martyn wanted to offer his services to the Church Missionary Society, when a financial disaster in Cornwall deprived him and his unmarried sister of the income their father had left for them, it was necessary for Martyn to earn an income. He accordingly obtained a chaplaincy under the British East India Company and left for India on 5 July 1805.
On his voyage to the East, Martyn happened to be present at the British conquest of the Cape Colony on 8 January 1806. He was distressed by seeing the horrors of war, he would come away feeling. He wrote in his diary: I prayed that…England whilst she sent the thunder of her arms to distant regions of the globe, might not remain proud and ungodly at home. Martyn arrived in India in April 1806, for some months he was stationed at Aldeen, near Serampur. In October 1806, he proceeded to Dinapur, where he was soon able to conduct worship among the locals in the vernacular, established schools. In April 1809, he was transferred to Cawnpore, where he preached to British and Indians in his own compound, in spite of interruptions and threats from local non-Christians, he occupied himself in linguistic study, had during his residence at Dinapur, been engaged in revising the sheets of his Hindustani version of the New Testament. He now translated the whole of the New Testament into Urdu and into Persian twice.
His work for the Persian Bible included translating the Psalms into Persian, the Gospels into Judaeo-Persic, the Book of Common Prayer into Urdu, in spite of ill-health and "the pride and fury of his chief munshi Sabat." Ordered by the doctors to take a sea voyage, he obtained leave to go to Persia and correct his Persian New Testament. From there, he wanted to go to Arabia, there compose an Arabic version. On 1 October 1810, having seen his work at Cawnpore rewarded on the previous day by the opening of a church, he left for Calcutta, from where he sailed on 7 January 1811 for Bombay; the ship reached port on his thirtieth birthday. From Bombay he set out for Bushire, bearing letters from Sir John Malcolm to men of position there, as at Shiraz and Isfahan. After an exhausting journey from the coast he reached Shiraz, was soon plunged into discussion with the disputants of all classes, "Sufi, Muslim and Jewish Muslim Armenian, all anxious to test their powers of argument with the first English priest who had visited them."
He next traveled to Tabriz to attempt to present the Shah with his translation of the New Testament, which proved unsuccessful. Sir Gore Ouseley, the British ambassador to the Shah, was unable to bring about a meeting, but did deliver the manuscript. Although Martyn could not present the Bible in person, the Shah wrote him a letter: In truth through the learned and unremitted exertions of the Reverend Henry Martyn it has been translated in a style most befitting sacred books, in an easy and simple diction... The whole of the New Testament is completed in a most excellent manner, a source of pleasure to our enlightened and august mind. At this time, he was seized with fever, after a temporary recovery, had to seek a change of climate, he set off for Constantinople, where he intended to return on furlough to England to regain his strength and recruit help for the missions in India. On 12 September 1812, he crossed the Aras River. Urged on from place to place by their Tatar guide, they rode from Tabriz to Erivan, from Erivan to Kars, from Kars to Erzurum.
The Cross of Anuradhapura or Anuradhapura cross is a form of the Christian cross symbol. It is the most ancient symbol of Christianity in Sri Lanka; the cross was discovered in 1912 during archaeological excavations in Anuradhapura. It is cut in sunk relief on the side of a smooth granite column. An immediate determination about the cross came from the Archaeological Commissioner of Ceylon, Edward R. Ayrton, who concluded that it was a Portuguese cross. In 1924, Ayrton's successor, Arthur Maurice Hocart, put more effort to clarify the cross and he described it in his publication, Memoirs of the Archaeological Survey of Ceylon, as being "a cross of a floret type standing on a stepped pedestal from which emanates two fronds on each side of the cross like horns". Hocart concluded it was a Portuguese cross. Both men considered that it was "Persian Cross" from the Portuguese era. A number of historical records suggest that Assyrian Church of the East may have been in Sri Lanka between the middle fifth and sixth centuries.
There, it is believed. Meanwhile, whilst it was considered as a Portuguese cross these claims are questionable given various historic facts, notably that the Portuguese did not have a presence in Anuradhapura at the time; the most conclusive determination of the cross's origins was made in 1926 by Humphrey Codrington, based on evidence contained in a 6th-century manuscript, Christian Topography, that a community of Persian Christians were known to reside in Taprobanê. Codrington wrote in his book, A Short History of Ceylon, that "about A. D. 500 we read of a Persian colony. In 1954 the assistant Archaeological Commissioner, Titus Devendra, dismissed the historical reliability of the Christian Topography and attributed the cross to the Portuguese dating it than 1547. Academics however have since concluded that the Christian Topography is accurate. In 1984 an archaeological find at Manthai confirmed the existence of Persian Christians in Sri Lanka, including a seal with a Nestorian cross, with similar stylistic features to the Anuradhapura cross.
The cross is considered as a variation of the St Thomas Cross due to its similar shape and possible links between the early Christian community in South India and Sri Lanka. The Anuradhapura cross however has unique features; the three main elements that the Anuradhapura cross has in common with Nestorian crosses are: the "leaves" at the base of the cross, which symbolize the "tree of life". Pearls played a central theme in iconography; the third element is the base, a three-stepped pedestal. The three tiers symbolise the three levels of paradise, the three decks of the ark, the three limits of ascent to Sinai; the Anuradhapura cross was featured in the official logo of Pope Francis' visit to Sri Lanka. The website of Archdiocese of Colombo mentions the cross as the Glorious Cross or the Cross of the Resurrection; the Diocese of Kurunegala has the cross on its emblem. Hocart, Arthur Maurice; the Ratana Pāsāda, the Western Monasteries of Anuradhapura, Excavations in the Citadel, The so-called Tomb of King Duttagamani, Privy Stones.
Asian Educational Services. ISBN 978-8-12-061093-4. Temporini, Hildegard. Politische Geschichte. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-007175-7. Persian Christians in the Anuradhapura Period Comparison images of the crosses – Anuradhapura cross, St. Thomas’ cross, Nestorian cross, Portuguese cross
Randy "Duke" Johnson Jr. is an American football running back for the Houston Texans of the National Football League. He was drafted by the Cleveland Browns in the third round of the 2015 NFL draft, he played college football at the University of Miami. Johnson attended Miami Norland Senior High School in Miami Gardens, where he played football and ran track; as a sophomore, Johnson ran for 25 touchdowns. In his junior year, he led Norland to a 13 -- state runner-up. After beating the Sammy Watkins-led South Fort Myers 44–28 in the semifinals, Norland lost 44–34 to the unbeaten Tampa Jefferson in the class 3A final. During his senior year, Johnson compiled 1,957 rushing yards and 29 touchdowns, 14 receptions for 232 receiving yards and three touchdowns, three kickoff returns and one punt return for scores, as he led Miami Norland to 15–0 finish and state Class 5A championship. In the championship game against Wakulla, he scored five touchdowns, he was on the school's track & field team, where he was a standout sprinter and long jumper.
He placed 5th in the long jump event with a jump of 6.60 meters. In 2011, he placed 4th in the 100 meters at the 3rd Annual Miramar Invitational, recording a career-best time of 10.62 seconds. He finished 3rd in the 200 meters with a time of 22.31 seconds. He was considered the best all-purpose running back recruit by Rivals.com. Johnson attended and played college football at the University of Miami from 2012 to 2014. In his freshman season, he rushed for 947 yards on 139 carries with ten touchdowns and caught 27 passes for 221 yards and one touchdown, he threw an additional touchdown in a 41–40 loss to Virginia. He played a major role on special teams, where he returned 28 kicks for two touchdowns. In 2012, Johnson won both Offensive Rookie of the Year awards, he became the first Miami Hurricane to win both awards. In 2013, Johnson joined the Miami indoor track team, posting a personal-best time of 6.92 seconds in the 60 meters at New Mexico Classic. Johnson's sophomore campaign with the Hurricane's football team came to an abrupt end on November 2, 2013, when he broke his ankle against arch-rival Florida State.
Miami lost that game 41–14. Through eight games, Johnson rushed with six touchdowns, he had four catches for 77 yards. Johnson returned from the injury his junior season in 2014 to play in all 13 games. During the season, he passed Ottis Anderson to become the Hurricanes' all-time rushing yards leader, he ended the 2014 season with 10 touchdowns. After his junior season, Johnson decided to forego his senior season and declared for the 2015 NFL Draft, he finished his college career with 3,519 rushing yards on 526 carries with 26 touchdowns, had 69 receptions for 719 yards and four touchdowns. On December 28, 2014, Johnson announced his decision to forgo his remaining eligibility and enter the 2015 NFL Draft. Johnson attended the NFL Scouting Combine in Indianapolis and performed a few combine drills before sustaining a hamstring injury. Due to his hamstring, he skipped the three-cone drill and short shuttle and voluntarily chose to skip the bench press. On April 1, 2015, Johnson participated at Miami's pro day and chose to perform the majority of combine drills, but elected to skip the broad jump.
He improved his 40-yard dash, 20-yard dash, 10-yard dash, vertical jump and completed the bench press, short shuttle, three-cone drill. Scouts and team representatives from all 32 NFL teams attended Miami's pro day, including head coaches Mike Tomlin, Todd Bowles, Sean Payton, he attended private workouts and visits with the New York Giants and Atlanta Falcons. At the conclusion of the pre-draft process, Johnson was projected to be a second round pick by NFL draft experts and scouts, he was ranked as the fourth best running back prospect in the draft by DraftScout.com and NFL analyst Mike Mayock, was ranked the fifth best running back by Sports Illustrated and Scouts Inc. and was ranked the seventh best running back by NFL analyst Charles Davis. The Cleveland Browns selected Johnson in the third round of the 2015 NFL Draft. Johnson was the sixth running back drafted in 2015. On June 16, 2015, the Cleveland Browns signed Johnson to a four-year, $3.10 million contract that includes a signing bonus of $710,092.
On August 1, 2015, Johnson injured his hamstring on the first day of the Browns' training camp. He was sidelined for the next ten days, was inactive during the first preseason game against the Washington Redskins at FirstEnergy Stadium. During Johnson's first pre-season appearance, he was diagnosed with a concussion and was removed from the game. Throughout training camp, Johnson competed to be one of the primary running backs in the Browns' rotation against Isaiah Crowell, Terrance West, Shaun Draughn. Head coach Mike Pettine named Johnson the backup running back, behind Isaiah Crowell, to begin the regular season, he replaced Terrance West after West showed up to training camp overweight and was released as part of final roster cuts. He made his professional regular season debut and first career start in the Cleveland Browns' season-opener at the New York Jets and had seven carries for 22-yards in their 31–10 loss. On October 4, 2015, Johnson had eight carries for 31-yards and recorded a season-high nine receptions for 85-yards and scored his first career touchdown during a 30–27 loss at the San Diego Chargers in Week 4.
Jeffrey Edward Sherman is an American musician. He is a founding member of the band Glass, as well as a solo artist who has released both under his own name and under the pseudonym Jeff Joad. Four years after Jeff Sherman was born in Seattle, his father an electrical engineer for Seattle City Light, moved his wife and family to the tiny Skagit Valley town of Diablo in the North Cascades of Washington; this wilderness town mentioned in Jack Kerouac's 1958 novel The Dharma Bums was built by Seattle City Light as part of the Skagit River Hydroelectric Project for their employees. Qualified engineers were needed so as an enticement, free rent and utilities were offered in addition to the opportunity to raise a family in a pristine natural setting. Jeff, his brother Greg and their sister Janis grew up in the wilderness of the Cascade Mountains. Jeff began his formal musical training in Diablo in the early ‘60s, taking accordion lessons from a family friend at age eight; when the Sherman family moved to Port Townsend in 1964, Jeff taught himself to play the electric guitar and, in the spirit of the times, soon formed the first of many bands.
When the bass player in one of these bands quit, Jeff switched to the bass guitar, which became his main composing tool for progressive music. In Port Townsend High School, Jeff played saxophone in the school concert band and cello in the school orchestra; as a senior he wrote “Euphoria 17,” an experimental avant-garde classical piece premiered by the school orchestra along with his keyboardist brother Greg, their childhood friend drummer Jerry Cook. Jeff had just turned 17. Jeff and Jerry were by this time performing as a rock and roll cover band called The Vaguest Notion. On September 6, 1968 they traveled to Seattle to attend a Jimi Hendrix concert. One of the opening acts; the Soft Machine was a trio but with an new sound. The boys left the concert determined to pursue a new direction. Not long after the concert and his bandmates resolved to play original music only; the profound effect that The Soft Machine's September 6 performance had on Jeff and the band can be found on page 145 of Graham Bennett's authorized Soft Machine biography Out-Bloody-Rageous.
In keeping with the spirit of re-invention, The Vaguest Notion changed their name to Glass. Over the next six years they performed all over Western Washington. In 1971 they relocated to Olympia, Washington to attend The Evergreen State College and became favorites on-campus for their spirited performances, they performed the first-ever live concert broadcast on the college’s new radio station, KAOS. In 1975 professional recordings were undertaken in Seattle, which the band shopped around to labels up and down the West Coast, around New York and in England; the mid-’70s were tough times for rehearsal-intensive progressive rock. Well-established rock acts were being dropped by their labels. Despite their well-honed musicianship, strong local reputation and enormous efforts to secure a record deal, Glass remained unsigned. Disillusioned, the band elected to break up rather than compromise. After Glass disbanded, Jeff returned to his roots of ‘60s rock and R&B, fronting a bar band called Changer; the band performed a month-long residency in Havre, Montana to rowdy cowboys in a scene straight out of The Blues Brothers.
In 1977 Changer toured Western Canada and became experts in learning the favorite songs of Canadian fur trappers. In the year personnel changes brought a name change to Straw Dogs; the band began a 6-week November residency in frozen Whitehorse, followed by more gigs in British Columbia. By 1978 the band had morphed once again to become The Sherman Brothers Band, began playing back in the States on the comparatively balmy Olympic Peninsula; when the Hood Canal Bridge sank during a windstorm, the band found themselves playing before a wildly appreciative captive audience. For the next two years the band gigged extensively and professionally recorded a single; the Sherman Brothers Band is considered by those who witnessed their reign, to be one of the most popular bands to come out of Port Townsend, Washington. Their popularity at the peak of their career can be exemplified by a story related by Sherman on their MySpace fan page: "I remember one of the most incredible things happened to me and the guitar player, Jack Scott.
We were walking up from a little grocery store near the Port Townsend Junior High School which we had both attended as kids. There was a playfield right across the street from the store; some kid yells "Hey Look!! It's the Sherman Brothers!!!", this huge mob of kids started running towards us! It was something right out of'A Hard Days Night'". Though playing the occasional original The Sherman Brothers Band remained a covers band, so when the band evolved again in 1980, they took the name The Drive and concentrated on the large catalog of original songs Jeff had been writing; this band played around Seattle, Washington, Kingston and Port Townsend but did not achieve the acclaim of The Sherman Brothers Band. With the Hood Canal Bridge repaired Sherman contemplated a career move to Los Angeles; when he was offered the opportunity to come to Los Angeles and sleep on the couch of legendary songwriter Ron Davies a friend who had mentored him as a teenager, he jumped at the chance. Soon thereafter he was pounding the pavemen
The Surrey Commercial Docks were a large group of docks in Rotherhithe, South East London, located on the south bank of the River Thames. The docks operated in one form or another from 1696 to 1969. Most were subsequently filled in and redeveloped for residential housing, the area is now known as Surrey Quays, although the name Surrey Docks is retained for the electoral ward; the sparsely populated Rotherhithe peninsula was wet marshland alongside the river. It was unsuitable for farming, but its riverside location just downstream from the City of London made it an ideal site for docks; the area had long been associated with maritime activities: in July 1620 the Pilgrim Fathers' ship the Mayflower sailed from Rotherhithe for Southampton, to begin loading food and supplies for the voyage to New England, a major Royal Navy dockyard was located just down the river at Deptford. In 1696, Howland Great Wet Dock was dug out to form the largest dock of its time, able to accommodate 120 sailing ships.
By the mid-18th century the dock had become a base for Arctic whalers and was renamed Greenland Dock. However, by the 19th century an influx of commercial traffic from Scandinavia and the Baltic and Canada led to Greenland Dock being expanded and other docks being dug to accommodate the increasing number of vessels. 85% of the peninsula, an area of 460 acres, was covered by a system of nine docks, six timber ponds and a canal. Several of the docks were named after the origins of their customers' cargos, hence Canada Dock, Quebec Pond, Norway Dock and Russia Dock; the Grand Surrey Canal was opened in 1807 to link the docks with inland destinations, but proved a commercial failure and only 3½ miles of it were built. The docks evolved a distinctive working culture, quite different from that of the Isle of Dogs across the river. A characteristic sight of the docks were the "deal porters", dockers who specialised in carrying huge baulks of deal across their shoulders and wore special headgear to protect their heads from the rough wood.
The decline of the docks set in after World War II, when they suffered massive damage from German air raids. The South Dock was pumped dry and used for construction of some of the concrete caissons which made up the Mulberry Harbours used on D-Day; when the shipping industry adopted the container system of cargo transportation, the docks were unable to accommodate the much larger vessels needed by containerisation. They closed for lack of custom in 1969; the Grand Surrey Canal was subsequently drained and filled in. The area remained derelict for over a decade, with much of the warehousing demolished and over 90% of the docks filled in; the only surviving areas of open water were Greenland Dock, South Dock, remnants of Canada Dock, a basin renamed Surrey Water. In 1981, the Conservative government of Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher established the London Docklands Development Corporation to redevelop the former dockyard areas east of the City of London, including the Surrey Docks. During the 1980s and early 1990s, the Surrey Docks were extensively redeveloped, renamed Surrey Quays.
Over 5,500 new homes were built, ranging from individual detached housing to large apartment complexes. South Dock was converted into a marina - now the largest in London - and a watersports centre was constructed on Greenland Dock. Canada Water and the infilled Russia Dock became wildlife reserves, with a woodland planted on the latter site. Most of Norway Dock was re-excavated to form a water feature surrounded by residential development, another ornamental feature, the Albion Channel, was created along the eastern side of the former Albion Dock, linking Canada and Surrey Waters. Leisure facilities and a number of light industrial plants were built, notably a new printing works for Associated Newspapers, the publisher of the London Evening Standard and the Daily Mail. In July 1988, the Surrey Quays shopping centre was opened as the centrepiece of the redevelopment of the area; the nearby London Underground station was renamed as Surrey Quays a few months later. Fisher Athletic calls Surrey Docks home.
Surrey Docks is a ward of the London Borough of Southwark. The population of this ward at the 2011 Census was 13,435. Canada Water Greenland Dock Russia Dock Woodland South Dock Grand Surrey Canal LDDC Completion Booklet - Surrey Docks