The Persians are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran. They share a common cultural system and are native speakers of the Persian language, as well as related languages; the ancient Persians were a nomadic branch of the ancient Iranian population that entered the territory of modern-day Iran by the early 10th century BC. Together with their compatriot allies, they established and ruled some of the world's most powerful empires, well-recognized for their massive cultural and social influence covering much of the territory and population of the ancient world. Throughout history, the Persians have contributed to various forms of art and science, own one of the world's most prominent literatures. In contemporary terminology, people of Persian heritage native to present-day Afghanistan and Uzbekistan are referred to as Tajiks, whereas those in the eastern Caucasus, albeit assimilated, are referred to as Tats; however the terms Tajik and Persian were synonymous and were used interchangeably, many of the most influential Persian figures hailed from outside Iran's present-day borders to the northeast in Central Asia and Afghanistan and to a lesser extent to the northwest in the Caucasus proper.
In historical contexts in English, "Persians" may be defined more loosely to cover all subjects of the ancient Persian polities, regardless of ethnic background. The English term Persian derives from Latin Persia, itself deriving from Greek Persís, a Hellenized form of Old Persian Pārsa. In the Bible, it is given as Parás —sometimes Paras uMadai —within the books of Esther, Daniel and Nehemya. A Greek folk etymology connected the name to a legendary character in Greek mythology. Herodotus recounts this story, devising a foreign son, from whom the Persians took the name; the Persians themselves knew the story, as Xerxes I tried to use it to suborn the Argives during his invasion of Greece, but failed to do so. Although Persis was one of the provinces of ancient Iran, varieties of this term were adopted through Greek sources and used as an official name for all of Iran for many years. Thus, in the Western world, the term Persian came to refer to all inhabitants of the country; some medieval and early modern Islamic sources used cognates of the term Persian to refer to various Iranian peoples, including the speakers of the Khwarezmian language, the Mazanderani language, the Old Azeri language.
10th-century Iraqi historian Al-Masudi refers to Pahlavi and Azari as dialects of the Persian language. In 1333, medieval Moroccan traveler and scholar Ibn Battuta referred to the people of Kabul as a specific sub-tribe of Persians. Lady Mary Sheil, in her observation of Iran during the Qajar era, describes Persians and Leks to identify themselves as "descendants of the ancient Persians". On March 21, 1935, the former king of Iran, Reza Shah of the Pahlavi dynasty, issued a decree asking the international community to use the term Iran, the native name of the country, in formal correspondence. However, the term Persian is still used to designate the predominant population of the Iranian peoples living in the Iranian cultural continent; the earliest known written record attributed to the Persians is from the Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III, an Assyrian inscription from the mid-9th century BC, found at Nimrud. The inscription mentions Parsua as a tribal chiefdom in modern-day western Iran; the ancient Persians were a nomadic branch of the Iranian population that, in the early 10th century BC, settled to the northwest of modern-day Iran.
They were dominated by the Assyrians for much of the first three centuries after arriving in the region. However, they played a major role in the downfall of the Neo-Assyrian Empire; the Medes, another branch of this population, founded the unified empire of Media as the region's dominant cultural and political power in c. 625 BC. Meanwhile, the Persian dynasty of the Achaemenids formed a vassal state to the central Median power. In c. 552 BC, the Achaemenids began a revolution which led to the conquest of the empire by Cyrus II in c. 550 BC. They spread their influence to the rest of what is called the Iranian Plateau, assimilated with the non-Iranian indigenous groups of the region, including the Elamites and the Mannaeans. At its greatest extent, the Achaemenid Empire stretched from parts of Eastern Europe in the west, to the Indus Valley in the east, making it the largest empire the world had yet seen; the Achaemenids developed the infrastructure to support their growing influence, including the creation of Pasargadae and the opulent city of Persepolis.
The empire extended as far as the limits of the Greek city states in modern-day mainland Greece, where the Persians and Athenians influenced each other in what is a reciprocal cultural exchange. Its legacy and impact on the kingdom of Macedon was notably huge for centuries after the withdrawal of the Persians from Europe following the Greco-Persian Wars; the empire collapsed in 330 BC following the conquests of Alexander the Great, but reemerged shortly after as the Parthian Empire. During the Achaemenid era, Persian colonists settled in Asia Minor. In Lydia, near Sardis, there was the Hyrcanian plain, according to Strabo, got its name from the Persian settlers that were moved from Hyrcania. Near Sardis, there was the plain of Cyrus, which further signified the presence of numerous Persian settlements in
Ali ibn Abi Talib was the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad, the last prophet of Islam. He ruled as the fourth caliph from 656 to 661, but is regarded as the rightful immediate successor to Muhammad as an Imam by Shia Muslims. Born to Abu Talib and Fatimah bint Asad, Ali was born inside the sacred sanctuary of the Kaaba in Mecca, the holiest place in Islam. Ali was the first male who accepted Islam, according to some authors, the first Muslim. Ali protected Muhammad from an early age and took part in all the battles fought by the nascent Muslim community. After migrating to Medina, he married Muhammad's daughter Fatimah, he was appointed caliph by Muhammad's companions in 656, after Caliph Uthman ibn Affan was assassinated. Ali's reign saw civil wars and in 661, he was attacked and assassinated by a Kharijite while praying in the Great Mosque of Kufa, being martyred two days later. Ali is important to both Shias and Sunnis and spiritually; the numerous biographical sources about Ali are biased according to sectarian lines, but they agree that he was a pious Muslim, devoted to the cause of Islam and a just ruler in accordance with the Qur'an and the Sunnah.
While Sunnis consider Ali the fourth and final of the Rashidun caliphs, Shia Muslims regard Ali as the first Imam after Muhammad due to their interpretation of the events at Ghadir Khumm. Shia Muslims believe that Ali and the other Shia Imams are the rightful successors to Muhammad. Ali has received recognition from a variety of non-Muslim organizations, such as the United Nations and the World Organization for Human Rights, for his governance and social justice. Ali's father, Abu Talib, was the custodian of the Ka'bah and a sheikh of Banu Hashim, an important branch of the powerful Quraysh tribe, he was an uncle of Muhammad, had raised Muhammad after Abdul Muttalib died. Ali's mother, Fatima bint Asad belonged to Banu Hashim, making Ali a descendant of Ismā'īl the son of Ibrāhīm. Many sources Shi'i ones, attest that Ali was born inside the Kaaba in the city of Mecca, where he stayed with his mother for three days, his mother felt the beginning of her labour pain while visiting the Kaaba and entered it where her son was born.
Some Shia sources contain miraculous descriptions of the entrance of Ali's mother into the Kaaba. Ali's birth in the Kaaba is regarded as a unique event proving his "high spiritual station" among Shia, while Sunni scholars consider it a great, if not unique, distinction. According to a tradition, Muhammad was the first person whom Ali saw as he took the newborn in his hands. Muhammad named him Ali, meaning "the exalted one". Muhammad had a close relationship with Ali's parents; when Muhammad was orphaned and lost his grandfather Abdul Muttalib, Ali's father took him into his house. Ali was born three years after Muhammad married Khadijah bint Khuwaylid; when Ali was five years old, Muhammad took Ali into his home to raise him. Some historians say that this was because there was a famine in Mecca at the time and that Ali's father had a large family to support. While it is not disputed that Muhammad raised Ali, it was not due to any financial stress that Ali's father was going through. Many Shia Muslims celebrate Imam Ali's birth anniversary as Father's Day in Iran.
The Gregorian date for this changes every year: Ali had been living with Muhammad and Muhammad's wife Khadija since he was five years old. When Ali was nine, Muhammad announced himself as the Prophet of Islam, Ali became the first male to accept Islam, he was the second person, after Khadija. According to Sayed Ali Asgher Razwy in A Restatement of the History of Islam & Muslims, "Ali and Qur'an'grew up' together as'twins' in the house of Muhammad Mustafa and Khadija-tul-Kubra."The second period of Ali's life began in 610 when he declared Islam at the age of 9, ended with the Hijra of Muhammad to Medina in 622. When Muhammad reported that he had received a divine revelation, Ali only about nine years old, believed him and professed to Islam. Ali became the first male to embrace Islam. Shia doctrine asserts that in keeping with Ali's divine mission, he accepted Islam before he took part in any old Meccan traditional religion rites, regarded by Muslims as polytheistic or paganistic. Hence the Shia say of Ali that his face is honoured, as it was never sullied by prostrations before idols.
The Sunnis use the honorific Karam Allahu Wajhahu, which means "God's Favour upon his Face." The reason his acceptance is not called a conversion is because he was never an idol worshipper like the people of Mecca. He was known to have broken idols in the mould of Abraham and asked people why they worshipped something they made themselves. Ali's grandfather, along with some members of the Bani Hashim clan, were Hanifs, or followers of a monotheistic belief system prior to the emergence of Islam in Mecca. Muhammad invited people to Islam in secret for three years. In the fourth year of his preaching, when Muhammad was commanded to invite his close relatives to come to Islam, he gathered the Banu Hashim clan in a ceremony. At the banquet, he was about to invite them to Islam when Abu Lahab interrupted him, after which everyone left the banquet; the Prophet ordered Ali to invite the 40 people again. T
Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God, that Muhammad is the messenger of God. It is the world's second-largest religion with over 1.8 billion followers or 24% of the world's population, most known as Muslims. Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful and has guided humankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs; the primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, the teachings and normative example of Muhammad. Muslims believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith, revealed many times before through prophets including Adam, Abraham and Jesus. Muslims consider the Quran in its original Arabic to be the final revelation of God. Like other Abrahamic religions, Islam teaches a final judgment with the righteous rewarded paradise and unrighteous punished in hell. Religious concepts and practices include the Five Pillars of Islam, which are obligatory acts of worship, following Islamic law, which touches on every aspect of life and society, from banking and welfare to women and the environment.
The cities of Mecca and Jerusalem are home to the three holiest sites in Islam. Aside from the theological narrative, Islam is believed to have originated in the early 7th century CE in Mecca, by the 8th century the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate extended from Iberia in the west to the Indus River in the east; the Islamic Golden Age refers to the period traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 13th century, during the Abbasid Caliphate, when much of the Muslim world was experiencing a scientific and cultural flourishing. The expansion of the Muslim world involved various caliphates, such as the Ottoman Empire and conversion to Islam by missionary activities. Most Muslims are of one of two denominations. About 13 % of Muslims live in the largest Muslim-majority country. Sizeable Muslim communities are found in the Americas, the Caucasus, Central Asia, Europe, Mainland Southeast Asia, the Philippines, Russia. Islam is the fastest-growing major religion in the world. Islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root S-L-M which forms a large class of words relating to concepts of wholeness, submission and peace.
In a religious context it means "voluntary submission to God". Islām is the verbal noun of Form IV of the root, means "submission" or "surrender". Muslim, the word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the same verb form, means "submitter" or "one who surrenders"; the word sometimes has distinct connotations in its various occurrences in the Quran. In some verses, there is stress on the quality of Islam as an internal spiritual state: "Whomsoever God desires to guide, He opens his heart to Islam." Other verses connect Islam and religion together: "Today, I have perfected your religion for you. Still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God—more than just a verbal affirmation of faith. In the Hadith of Gabriel, islām is presented as one part of a triad that includes imān, ihsān. Islam was called Muhammadanism in Anglophone societies; this term has fallen out of use and is sometimes said to be offensive because it suggests that a human being rather than God is central to Muslims' religion, parallel to Buddha in Buddhism.
Some authors, continue to use the term Muhammadanism as a technical term for the religious system as opposed to the theological concept of Islam that exists within that system. Faith in the Islamic creed is represented as the six articles of faith, notably spelled out in the Hadith of Gabriel. Islam is seen as having the simplest doctrines of the major religions, its most fundamental concept is a rigorous monotheism, called tawḥīd. God is described in chapter 112 of the Quran as: "He is God, the One and Only. Muslims repudiate polytheism and idolatry, called Shirk, reject the Christian doctrine of the Trinity. In Islam, God is beyond all comprehension and thus. God is described and referred to by certain names or attributes, the most common being Al-Rahmān, meaning "The Compassionate" and Al-Rahīm, meaning "The Merciful". Muslims believe that the creation of everything in the universe was brought into being by God's sheer command, "Be, it is" and that the purpose of existence is to worship or to know God.
He is viewed as a personal god who responds whenever a person in distress calls him. There are no intermediaries, such as clergy, to contact God who states, "I am nearer to him than jugular vein." God consciousness is referred to as Taqwa. Allāh is the term with no plural or gender used by Muslims and Arabic-speaking Christians and Jews to reference God, while ʾilāh is the term used for a deity or a god in general. Other non-Arab Muslims might use different names as much as Allah, for instance "Tanrı" in Turkish, "Khodā" in Persian or "Ḵẖudā" in Urdu. Belief in angels is fundamental
Battle of Khazir
The Battle of Khazir took place in August 686 near the Khazir River in Mosul's eastern environs, in modern-day Iraq. The battle occurred during the Second Muslim Civil War and was part of the larger struggle for control of Iraq between the Syria-based Umayyad Caliphate, the pro-Alid forces of Mukhtar al-Thaqafi and the Medina-based caliphate of Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr, it ended in the expansion of Mukhtar's rule into the region of Mosul. The Muslim civil war left the Umayyad realm restricted to Damascus and its environs after most of their territories came under Ibn al-Zubayr's orbit. However, an Umayyad resurgence began with the accession of Caliph Marwan I, who dispatched an army led by Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad to reconquer Iraq; this army's advance into Mosul precipitated the Battle of Khazir and its commander, Ubayd Allah, was an enemy of Mukhtar's pro-Alid partisans. Thus, al-Mukhtar moved to halt the Umayyad advance, sending his Persian mawali-dominated forces led by Ibrahim ibn al-Ashtar to confront the predominantly Syrian Arab army of the Umayyads.
During the initial combat, part of Ibn al-Ashtar's forces were put to flight, but regrouped under his command and charged against the Umayyad center. This resulted in heavy casualties on both sides and Ubayd Allah and several of his lieutenants were slain; the Umayyad commander Umayr ibn al-Hubab and his Sulaymi tribesmen deserted while the pro-Alids pursued the remaining Umayyad troops, scores of whom drowned in the Khazir River. Khazir was a major setback for the Umayyads, who did not launch another invasion of Iraq until 691. However, Mukhtar's victory was short-lived as he was killed a year when the Zubayrids took over Kufa. Meanwhile, the blood feud between the Qaysi and Yamani tribal elements of the Umayyad Caliphate intensified due to Umayr's mid-battle defection and subsequent spearheading of attacks against the tribes of Taghlib and Kalb. In these battles, the Kalb were led by Humayd ibn Hurayth al-Kalbi, an Umayyad commander who survived Khazir; the Umayyad Caliphate was shaken by the deaths of Caliph Yazid I and his successor Mu'awiya II in 683 and 684 amid the Second Muslim Civil War.
In the aftermath, they lost authority over Iraq while the governors of northern Syria and Palestine switched their allegiance to Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr, the anti-Umayyad claimant to the caliphate. These and other defections restricted Umayyad rule to the region of Damascus. After the Umayyad prince and governor of Iraq, Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad, was forced out of his province, he left for Damascus to prop up Umayyad rule; as a result of his efforts and the consensus of loyalist Arab tribes collectively known as the "Yaman", the Umayyad elder, Marwan ibn al-Hakam, became caliph in June 684. In August 684, the Umayyads and their tribal allies routed the pro-Zubayrid Qaysi tribes at the Battle of Marj Rahit; the Umayyad victory brought all of Syria under Marwan's authority, but led to the long-running feud between Qays and Yaman. Marwan dispatched an army led by Ubayd Allah to wrest back Iraq. Control of that region was split by a number of anti-Umayyad factions, including partisans of Mukhtar al-Thaqafi, other pro-Alids and Ibn al-Zubayr.
Marwan promised Ubayd Allah the governorship of all the territories. In early January 685, Ubayd Allah was mobilizing his troops at the Euphrates town of Jisr Manbij. Around that time, his second-in-command, Husayn ibn Numayr al-Sakuni, destroyed the Penitents, a pro-Alid band led by Sulayman ibn Surad, at the Battle of'Ayn al-Warda in modern-day Ras al-Ayn. Marwan died in the spring of 685, while Ubayd Allah's army was camped at Raqqa, Marwan's son Abd al-Malik succeeded him as caliph. In the eighteen months following the Umayyad victory at Ayn al-Warda, Ubayd Allah's troops were bogged down by struggles with the Qaysi tribes of Jazira led by the pro-Zubayrid Zufar ibn al-Harith al-Kilabi. In the summer of 686, Ubayd Allah's troops advanced toward Mosul, long controlled by a Kufan military elite, with the ultimate aim of conquering Iraq. Mukhtar, who in the weeks prior had seized Kufa from Ibn al-Zubayr's governor organized and dispatched a force under his commander, Ibrahim ibn al-Ashtar, to confront the Umayyad army.
Ubayd Allah defeated this force on 9–10 July 686. Meanwhile, Mus'ab ibn al-Zubayr and the ashraf of Kufa used the absence of Mukhtar's forces as an opportunity to recapture Kufa; the attempt failed as Mukhtar was able to recall his troops and defeat the pro-Zubayrid forces by the end of July. With Kufa secured, Mukhtar again dispatched Ibn al-Ashtar to confront Ubayd Allah's army; the ranks of Ubayd Allah's 60,000-strong army consisted of Arab tribesmen from Syria and as such was referred to in medieval sources as jumū' ahl al-Shām. At the time, according to one report cited by 9th-century historian al-Tabari, " Marwan's army was from Kalb and their commander was Ibn Bahdal", while "the whole of Qays was in al-Jazira and were opponents of Marwan and the family of Marwan". Historian Hugh N. Kennedy asserts that this "report is exaggerated" because Ubayd Allah recruited commanders from both Qays and Yaman, "but it does point to a general problem" regarding the effect of the Qaysi–Yamani rivalry on the Umayyad army.
Mukhtar's forces were smaller than Ubayd Allah's army, but the morale of his men was high due to their victory in Kufa and their desire to avenge Husayn ibn Ali and Ibn Surad's Penitents, whose deaths were attributed to Ubayd Allah. The report of Arab historian Abu Mikhnaf, cited by al-Tabari, has Ibn al-Ashtar's army as a well-organized, 20,000-strong cavalry force, while the acco
Husayn ibn Ali
Al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAlī ibn Abi Talib was a grandson of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a son of Ali ibn Abi Talib and the first Imam of Shia Islam and Muhammad's daughter Fatimah. He is an important figure in Islam as he was a member of the Bayt of Muhammad and the Ahl al-Kisā', as well as the third Shia Imam. Prior to his death, the Umayyad ruler Muawiya appointed his son Yazid as his successor in a clear violation of the Hasan-Muawiya treaty; when Muawiya died in 680 CE, Yazid demanded that Husain pledge allegiance to him. Husain refused to pledge allegiance to Yazid though it meant sacrificing his life; as a consequence, he left Medina, his hometown, to take refuge in Mecca in AH 60. There, the people of Kufah sent letters to him, asking his help and pledging their allegiance to him. So he traveled towards Kufah, he was killed and beheaded in the Battle of Karbala on 10 October 680 by Yazid, along with most of his family and companions, including Husayn's six month old son, Ali al-Asghar, with the women and children taken as prisoners.
Anger at Husayn's death was turned into a rallying cry that helped undermine the Umayyad caliphate's legitimacy, its overthrow by the Abbasid Revolution. Husayn is regarded by Shia Muslims for refusing to pledge allegiance to Yazid, the Umayyad caliph, because he considered the rule of the Umayyads unjust; the annual memorial for him and his children and companions occurs during Muharram, the first month of the Islamic calendar, the day he was martyred is known as Ashura. Husayn's actions at Karbala fueled Shia movements, the martyrdom of Husayn was decisive in shaping Islamic and Shia history; the timing of the Imam's life and martyrdom were crucial as they were in one of the most challenging periods of the seventh century. During this time, Umayyad oppression was rampant, the stand of Husain and his followers took became a symbol of resistance inspiring future uprisings against oppressors and injustice. Throughout history, many notable personalities, such as Nelson Mandela and Mahatma Gandhi, have cited Husain's stand against oppression as an example for their own fights against injustice.
Husayn's maternal grandmother was Khadijah bint Khuwaylid, his paternal grandparents were Abu Talib and Fatimah bint Asad. Hasan and Husayn were regarded by Muhammad as his own sons due to his love for them and as they were the sons of his daughter Fatima and he regarded her children as his own children and descendants, he said "Every mother's children are associated with their father except for the children of Fatimah for I am their father and lineage." Thus, the descendants of Fatimah are the descendants of Muhammad, are part of his family. Husayn had several children: Ali Zayn al-'Ābidīn Sakinah, Ali al-Akbar Fatimah as-Sughra Sukaynah Ali al-Asghar Husayn was born on 10 October CE 625. However, Shia Hadith state that He was born AH 3. Husayn and his brother Hasan were the last male descendants of Muhammad living during his lifetime and remaining after his death. There are many accounts of his love for them. Muhammad is reported to have said that "He who loves me and loves these two, their father and their mother, will be with me at my place on the Day of Resurrection." and that "Hussain is of me and I am of him.
Allah loves those. Hussain is a grandson among grandsons." A narration declares Hasan and Husain as the "Masters of the Youth of Paradise". The Shi'a maintain. "The theologians have defined the Imamate, saying: "Surely the Imamate is a grace from Allah, Who grants it to the most perfect and best of His servants to Him" Other traditions record Muhammad with his grandsons on his knees, on his shoulders, on his back during prayer at the moment of prostrating himself, when they were young. According to Wilferd Madelung, Muhammad loved them and declared them as people of his Bayt frequently, he has said: "Every mother's children are associated with their father except for the children of Fatima for I am their father and lineage." Thus, the descendants of Fatimah were descendants of Muhammad, part of his Bayt. According to popular Sunni belief, it refers to the household of Muhammad. Shia popular view is the members of Muhammad's family that were present at the incident of Mubahalah. According to Muhammad Baqir Majlisi who compiled Bihar al-Anwar, a collection of ahadith, Chapter 46 Verse 15 and Chapter 89 Verses 27-30 of the Qur'an are regarding Al-Husayn.
In the year AH 10 a Christian envoy from Najran came to Muhammad to argue which of the two parties erred in its doctrine concerning'Īsā. After likening Jesus' miraculous birth to Adam's creation,—who was born to neither a mother nor a father — and when the Christians did not accept the Islamic doctrine about Jesus, Muhammad was instructed to call them to Mubahalah where each party should ask God to destroy the false party and their families. "If anyone dispute with you in this matter [concern
The Alids are the dynasties descended from Ali ibn Abi Talib, son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Shia Muslims consider him the First Imam appointed by the first rightful caliph. Sunnis in the Arab world reserve the term sharif or "sherif" for descendants of Hasan ibn Ali, while sayyid is used for descendants of Husayn ibn Ali. Both Hasan and Husayn are grandchildren of Muhammad, through the marriage of his cousin Ali and his daughter Fatima; however since the post-Hashemite era began, the term sayyid has been used to denote descendants from both Hasan and Husayn. Arab Shiites use the terms habib to denote descendants from both Hasan and Husayn. To try to resolve the confusion surrounding the descendants of Muhammad, the Ottoman Caliphs during the 19th Century C. E. attempted to replicate the Almanach de Gotha to show verifiable lines of descent. Although not 100% complete in its scope the resulting "Kitab al-Ashraf", kept at the Topkapi Palace Museum in Istanbul is one of the best sources of evidence of descent from Muhammad.
There are several dynasties of Alid origin: Ali ibn Abi Talib Hasan ibn Ali Zayd ibn Hasan Hasan ibn Zayd of the Zaydid dynasty of Tabaristan Hasan ibn Hasan al-Mu'thannā Abd Allah al-Kāmil Musa al-Djawn Ibrahim Muhammad ibn Yusuf al-Ukhaidhir of the Ukhaydhirite dynasty of Al-Yamamah Daud ibn Hasan Sulayman ibn Daud of the Sulaymanid dynasty of Yemen Ibrahim ibn Hasan Ismail ibn Ibrahim Ibrahim Tabataba ibn Ismail Qasim al-Rassi of the Rassid dynasty of Yemen Abdallah ibn Hassan Djafar ibn Abdallah of the Sharifs of Sousse, Tunisia Muhammad ibn Abdallah of the Alaouite dynasty of Morocco Idris ibn Abdallah of the Idrisid dynasty of Morocco Hammudid dynasty of Algeciras, Málaga and Kingdom of Granada Sulayman ibn Abdallah of the Sulaymanid dynasty of, Archgoul, Tenes Musa ibn Abdallah Abdallah ibn Musa Musa ibn Abdallah ibn Musa Banu Qatadah/Hashemites Sharifs of Mecca Kings of Jordan Kings of Iraq Kings of Hejaz Kings of Syria Sulayman ibn Abdallah of the Sulaymanid Sharifs of Mecca Husayn ibn Ali of the Shia Imams Ismaili Imams Fatimids Nizari Imams The Safavid dynasty claims descent from Husayn ibn Ali, sharing the first five original rulers with the Fatimids.
Many scholars have cast doubt on this claim, there seems to be consensus among scholars that the Safavid family hailed from Persian Kurdistan. Al Qasimi dynasty of Sharjah and Ras al-Khaimah, claims descent from Ali al-Hadi; this is a table of the interrelationships between the different parts of the Alid dynasties: Below is a simplified family tree of Husayn ibn Ali. For the ancestors of ibn Ali see the family tree of Ali. People in italics are considered by the majority of Sunni Muslims to be Ahl al-Bayt. Twelver Shia see the 4th to 12th Imamah as Ahl al-Bayt; the Hashemites of Sharifs of Mecca, Kings of Jordan and Iraq are descended from the other brother Hasan ibn Ali: The Alaouites, Kings of Morocco, are descended from the other brother Hasan ibn Ali through Al Hassan Addakhil: Genealogoical chart of the descent from Muhammad of the Idrisid dynasty, rulers of Fez and Morocco, Kings of Tunis, the Senussi dynasty and heads of the Libyan Senussi Order and Kings of Libya are descended from the other brother Hasan ibn Ali through Al Hassan Addakhil.
Descendants of Ali ibn Abi Talib Family tree of Ali Family tree of Muhammad Family tree of Husayn ibn Ali Genealogy of Khadijah's daughters Kaysanites Shia Descendants of Ali ibn Abi Talib: Hasanid branch of the Alides: Idrisid branch of the Alides: Fatimid branch
The Amu Darya called the Amu or Amo River, known by its Latin name Oxus, is a major river in Central Asia. It is formed by the junction of the Vakhsh and Panj rivers, in the Tigrovaya Balka Nature Reserve on the border between Tajikistan and Afghanistan, flows from there north-westwards into the southern remnants of the Aral Sea. In ancient times, the river was regarded as the boundary between Greater Turan. Persian: آمودریا, translit. Âmudaryâ. Ôxos). In classical antiquity, the river was known as the Ōxus in Latin and Ὦξος in Greek — a clear derivative of Vakhsh, the name of the largest tributary of the river. In Vedic Sanskrit, the river is referred to as Vakṣu; the Brahmanda Purana refers to the river as Chaksu. The Avestan texts too refer to the River as Yakhsha/Vakhsha. In Middle Persian sources of the Sassanid period the river is known as Wehrōd; the name Amu is said to have come from the medieval city of Āmul, in modern Turkmenistan, with Darya being the Persian word for "river". Medieval Arabic and Islamic sources call the river Jayhoun, derived from Gihon, the biblical name for one of the four rivers of the Garden of Eden.
Western travelers in the 19th century mentioned that one of the names by which the river was known in Afghanistan was Gozan, that this name was used by Greek, Chinese, Persian and Afghan historians. However, this name is no longer used. "Hara and to the river of Gozan...""the Gozan River is the River Balkh, i.e. the Oxus or the Amu Darya...""... and were brought into Halah, Habor, Hara, to the river Gozan..." The river's total length is 2,400 kilometres and its drainage basin totals 534,739 square kilometres in area, providing a mean discharge of around 97.4 cubic kilometres of water per year. The river is navigable for over 1,450 kilometres. All of the water comes from the high mountains in the south where annual precipitation can be over 1,000 mm. Before large-scale irrigation began, high summer evaporation meant that not all of this discharge reached the Aral Sea – though there is some evidence the large Pamir glaciers provided enough melt water for the Aral to overflow during the 13th and 14th centuries.
Since the end of the 19th century there have been four different claimants as the true source of the Oxus: The Pamir River, which emerges from Lake Zorkul in the Pamir Mountains, flows west to Qila-e Panja, where it joins the Wakhan River to form the Panj River. The Sarhad or Little Pamir River flowing down the Little Pamir in the High Wakhan Lake Chamaktin, which discharges to the east into the Aksu River, which in turn becomes the Murghab and Bartang rivers, which joins the Panj Oxus branch 350 kilometres downstream at Roshan Vomar in Tajikistan. An ice cave at the end of the Wakhjir valley, in the Wakhan Corridor, in the Pamir Mountains, near the border with Pakistan. A glacier joins the Pamir River about 50 kilometres downstream. Bill Colegrave's expedition to Wakhan in 2007 found that both claimants 2 and 3 had the same source, the Chelab stream, which bifurcates on the watershed of the Little Pamir, half flowing into Lake Chamaktin and half into the parent stream of the Little Pamir/Sarhad River.
Therefore, the Chelab stream may be properly considered the true source or parent stream of the Oxus. The Panj River forms the border of Tajikistan, it flows west to Ishkashim where it turns north and north-west through the Pamirs passing the Tajikistan–Afghanistan Friendship Bridge. It subsequently forms the border of Afghanistan and Uzbekistan for about 200 kilometres, passing Termez and the Afghanistan–Uzbekistan Friendship Bridge, it delineates the border of Afghanistan and Turkmenistan for another 100 kilometres before it flows into Turkmenistan at Atamurat. It flows across Turkmenistan south to north, passing Türkmenabat, forms the border of Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan from Halkabat, it is split by the Tuyamuyun Hydro Complex into many waterways that used to form the river delta joining the Aral Sea, passing Urgench, Daşoguz, other cities, but it does not reach what is left of the sea any more and is lost in the desert. Use of water from the Amu Darya for irrigation has been a major contributing factor to the shrinking of the Aral Sea since the late 1950s.
Historical records state that in different periods, the river flowed into the Aral Sea, into the Caspian Sea, or both, similar to the Syr Darya. The 534,769 square kilometres of the Amu Darya drainage basin include most of Tajikistan, the southwest corner of Kyrgyzstan, the northeast corner of Afghanistan, a narrow portion of eastern Turkmenistan and the western half of Uzbekistan. Part of the Amu Darya basin divide in Tajikistan forms that country's border with China and Pakistan. About 61% of the drainage lies within Tajikistan and Turkmenistan, while 39% is in Afghanistan; the abundant water flowing in the Amu Darya comes entirely from glaci