National Autonomous University of Mexico
The National Autonomous University of Mexico is a public research university in Mexico. It ranks in world rankings based on the university's extensive research and innovation. UNAM's campus is a UNESCO World Heritage site, designed by some of Mexico's best-known architects of the 20th century. Murals in the main campus were painted by some of the most recognized artists in Mexican history, such as Diego Rivera and David Alfaro Siqueiros. In 2016, it had an acceptance rate of only 8%. UNAM generates a number of strong research publications and patents in diverse areas, such as robotics, computer science, physics, human-computer interaction, philosophy, among others. All Mexican Nobel laureates are either alumni or faculty of UNAM. UNAM was founded, in its modern form, on 22 September 1910 by Justo Sierra as a liberal alternative to its predecessor, the Royal and Pontifical University of Mexico. UNAM obtained its autonomy from the government in 1929; this has given the university the freedom to define its own curriculum and manage its own budget without interference from the government.
This has had a profound effect on academic life at the university, which some claim boosts academic freedom and independence. UNAM was the birthplace of the student movement of 1968, which turned into a nationwide rebellion against autocratic rule and began Mexico's three-decade journey toward democracy; the university was founded on 22 September 1910 by Justo Sierra Minister of Education in the Porfirio Díaz regime, who sought to create a different institution from its 19th-century precursor, the Royal and Pontifical University of Mexico, founded on 21 September 1551 by a royal decree signed by Crown Prince Phillip on behalf of Charles I of Spain and brought to a definitive closure in 1865 by Maximilian I of Mexico. Instead of reviving what he saw as an anachronistic institution with strong ties to the Roman Catholic Church, he aimed to merge and expand Mexico City's decentralized colleges of higher education and create a new university, secular in nature and national in scope, that could reorganize higher education within the country, serve as a model of positivism and encompass the ideas of the dominant Mexican liberalism.
The project unified the Fine Arts, Political Science, Engineering, Medicine and the National Preparatory schools. The new university's challenges were political, due to the ongoing Mexican Revolution and the fact that the federal government had direct control over the university's policies and curriculum; this opposition led to disruptions in the function of the university when political instability forced resignations in the government, including that of President Díaz. Internally, the first student strike occurred in 1912 to protest examination methods introduced by the director of the School of Jurisprudence, Luis Cabrera. By July of that year, a majority of the law students decided to abandon the university and join the newly created Free School of Law. In 1914 initial efforts to gain autonomy for the university failed. In 1920, José Vasconcelos became rector. In 1921, he created the school's coat-of-arms: the image of an eagle and a condor surrounding a map of Latin America, from Mexico's northern border to Tierra del Fuego, the motto, "The Spirit shall speak for my race".
Efforts to gain autonomy for the university continued in the early 1920s. In the mid-1920s, the second wave of student strikes opposed a new grading system; the strikes included major classroom walkouts in the law school and confrontation with police at the medical school. The striking students were supported by many professors and subsequent negotiations led to autonomy for the university; the institution was no longer a dependency of the Secretariat of Public Education. During the early 1930s, the rector of UNAM was Manuel Gómez Morín; the government attempted to implement socialist education at Mexican universities, which Gómez Morín, many professors, Catholics opposed as an infringement on academic freedom. Gómez Morín with the support of the Jesuit-founded student group, the Unión Nacional de Estudiantes Católicos fought against socialist education. UNAM supported the recognition of the academic certificates by Catholic preparatory schools, which validated their educational function. In an interesting turn of events, UNAM played an important role in the founding of the Jesuit institution in 1943, the Universidad Iberoamericana in 1943.
However, UNAM opposed initiatives at the Universidad Iberoamericana in years, opposing the establishment of majors in industrial relations and communications. In 1943 initial decisions were made to move the university from the various buildings it occupied in the city center to a new and consolidated university campus; the first stone laid was that of the faculty of Sciences, the first building of Ciudad Universitaria. President Miguel Alemán Valdés participated in the ceremony on 20 November 1952; the University Olympic Stadium was inaugurated on the same day. In 1957 the Doctorate Council was created to organize graduate studies. Another major student strike, again over examination regulations, occurred in 1966. Students forced the rector to resign; the Board of Regents did not accept this resignation, so the professors went on
National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico
The National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico, abbreviated IPN, is one of the largest public universities in Mexico with 171,581 students at the high school and postgraduate levels. It is the second best university in Mexico in the technical and engineering domain according to the QS World University Rankings by Subject 2018, it was founded on 1 January 1936 during the administration of President Lázaro Cárdenas del Río as a response to provide professional education to the most disadvantaged social classes in that period, a practice, maintained because it is one of the few vocational schools in the world. The institute consists of 98 academic units offering 293 courses of study, it includes 80 undergraduate and 135 postgraduate programs. Its main campus, called'Unidad Profesional Adolfo López Mateos' or'Zacatenco', is on 530 acres north Mexico City; the IPN is based in Mexico City and its suburbs, but with several research institutes and facilities distributed over 22 states. The institute was founded on January 1, 1936 during the administration of President Lázaro Cárdenas in what had been known as the Ex hacienda Santo Tomás — a large estate owned by Spanish conqueror Hernán Cortés in the 16th century and donated by the federal government.
Prominent astronomer Luis Enrique Erro, former revolutionary Juan de Dios Bátiz Paredes and former minister of education Narciso Bassols were among its initial promoters. During the administration of former director Alejo Peralta sufficient lands were given to IPN. Expropriated lands of Santa Maria Ticomán and San Pedro Zacatenco were used; the construction of what is now the Professional Unit "Adolfo López Mateos" began in 1958. In 1959, former President Adolfo López Mateos, the former minister of education Jaime Torres Bodet, former director of IPN Eugenio Mendez Docurro, inaugurated the first four buildings of Zacatenco, which were occupied by the Superior School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering and the Superior School of Engineering and Architecture; the institute is organized around 98 academic units including 18 vocational high schools, 26 university colleges, 20 scientific and technical research centers, 17 continuing education centers, 4 units for educational support, 3 support units for education innovation, 8 support units for research and technological and enterprise foment, 2 units affiliated to science, enterprise research and development.
These schools are in Mexico City, although several extension and research facilities are distributed over 22 states. Some units enjoy a high degree of budgetary freedom; the institute as a whole is headed by a director-general appointed by the President of Mexico after some consultation with members of its academic community. Since November 2017, its director-general is Mario Alberto Rodríguez Casas. In addition to its academic endeavors, as part of its cultural promotion strategy, the institute operates'Canal Once', the oldest public broadcast service in Latin America featuring original cultural, scientific and entertainment programming, foreign shows and classic and non-commercial films from all over the world; the Institute offers 80 undergraduate programs leading to four- or five-year bachelor's degrees and 135 postgraduate programs leading to 29 postgraduate diplomas, 70 master's degrees and 36 doctorate degrees. Like most public universities in Mexico, in addition to its undergraduate and graduate schools the institute sponsors several vocational high schools called'Centros de Estudios Científicos y Tecnológicos', most of which are in Greater Mexico City.
Upon completion, they lead to a technician degree. For this level of study, the institute offers 78 technical careers. IPN fields 27 varsity teams in sports or activities such as archery, American football, baseball, body building, boxing, cycling, gymnastics, indoor soccer, karate, mountaineering, soccer, taekwondo, touch football, volleyball and wrestling; the university maintains a fierce rivalry with all the athletic teams from the National Autonomous University of Mexico but have a bitter competition with its football program, the "Pumas Dorados". Guillermo González Camarena: television pioneer. Jerzy Rzedowski: plant scientist. Esther Orozco: biology researcher, winner of the 1997 UNESCO/Institut Pasteur Medal and the 2006 L'Oréal-UNESCO Awards for Women in Science for her work on amoebiasis. Evangelina Villegas: biochemist laureated with the 2000 World Food Prize and whose work with maize led to the development of Quality Protein Maize. Pablo Rudomín: neuroscientist laureated with the Prince of Asturias Award.
Gilberto Calvillo Vives: president of the United Nations' Statistics Commission. Alberto Pérez Gómez: architectural historian and winner of the 1984 Alice Davis Hitchcock Award. Ruth Rivera Marin: architect, the first woman to study architecture at the College of Engineering and Architecture. Constantino Reyes-Valerio: chemist and art historian, discovered the recipe to create Maya blue and coined the term Arte Indocristiano. Raúl Rojas: professor of computer science and mathematics and a renowned specialist in artificial neural networks. Ernesto Zedillo: former President of Mexico. Josefina Vázquez Mota: former Secretary of Ed
Betty Fabila is a retired Mexican soprano opera singer and biologist. Born in Mexico City, she studied at Mexico's National Conservatory of Music and the National School of Music at the National Autonomous University of Mexico under the baritone David Silva. In 1950, she made her operatic debut as Musetta in La bohème at the Palacio de Bellas Artes in Mexico City and went on to sing leading roles there in operas including La traviata, Madama Butterfly, L'amico Fritz, Carmen, La serva padrona, Il segreto di Susanna and Don Giovanni With her husband, the Italian conductor and musicologist Uberto Zanolli, she developed programs for Mexican television, she became a biologist and ethnologist and taught at the Escuela Nacional Preparatoria where she was a founding member of the school's chamber orchestra and its soprano soloist from 1972 to 1994. In 1962 at the Castle of Chapultepec in Mexico City, Fabila she gave the first modern performances of solo cantatas by the Italian baroque composer Giacomo Facco, whose scores had been discovered by her husband in the National Library of Paris.
Zanolli and Fabila's daughter, Betty Zanolli Fabila, is a classical music teacher. Díaz Du-Pond, Carlos, La ópera en México de 1924 a 1984: testimonio operístico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 1986 Betty Fabila's blog Official website of Uberto Zanolli
Milan is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,372,810 while its metropolitan city has a population of 3,245,308. Its continuously built-up urban area has a population estimated to be about 5,270,000 over 1,891 square kilometres; the wider Milan metropolitan area, known as Greater Milan, is a polycentric metropolitan region that extends over central Lombardy and eastern Piedmont and which counts an estimated total population of 7.5 million, making it by far the largest metropolitan area in Italy and the 54th largest in the world. Milan served as capital of the Western Roman Empire from 286 to 402 and the Duchy of Milan during the medieval period and early modern age. Milan is considered a leading alpha global city, with strengths in the field of the art, design, entertainment, finance, media, services and tourism, its business district hosts Italy's stock exchange and the headquarters of national and international banks and companies.
In terms of GDP, it has the third-largest economy among European cities after Paris and London, but the fastest in growth among the three, is the wealthiest among European non-capital cities. Milan is considered part of the Blue Banana and one of the "Four Motors for Europe"; the city has been recognized as one of the world's four fashion capitals thanks to several international events and fairs, including Milan Fashion Week and the Milan Furniture Fair, which are among the world's biggest in terms of revenue and growth. It hosted the Universal Exposition in 1906 and 2015; the city hosts numerous cultural institutions and universities, with 11% of the national total enrolled students. Milan is the destination of 8 million overseas visitors every year, attracted by its museums and art galleries that boast some of the most important collections in the world, including major works by Leonardo da Vinci; the city is served by a large number of luxury hotels and is the fifth-most starred in the world by Michelin Guide.
The city is home to two of Europe's most successful football teams, A. C. Milan and F. C. Internazionale, one of Italy's main basketball teams, Olimpia Milano; the etymology of the name Milan remains uncertain. One theory holds that the Latin name Mediolanum planus. However, some scholars believe that lanum comes from the Celtic root lan, meaning an enclosure or demarcated territory in which Celtic communities used to build shrines. Hence Mediolanum could signify the central sanctuary of a Celtic tribe. Indeed, about sixty Gallo-Roman sites in France bore the name "Mediolanum", for example: Saintes and Évreux. In addition, another theory links the name to the boar sow an ancient emblem of the city, fancifully accounted for in Andrea Alciato's Emblemata, beneath a woodcut of the first raising of the city walls, where a boar is seen lifted from the excavation, the etymology of Mediolanum given as "half-wool", explained in Latin and in French; the foundation of Milan is credited to two Celtic peoples, the Bituriges and the Aedui, having as their emblems a ram and a boar.
Alciato credits Ambrose for his account. The Celtic Insubres, the inhabitants of the region of northern Italy called Insubria, appear to have founded Milan around 600 BC. According to the legend reported by Livy, the Gaulish king Ambicatus sent his nephew Bellovesus into northern Italy at the head of a party drawn from various Gaulish tribes; the Romans, led by consul Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus, fought the Insubres and captured the city in 222 BC. They conquered the entirety of the region, calling the new province "Cisalpine Gaul" – "Gaul this side of the Alps" – and may have given the site its Latinized Celtic name of Mediolanum: in Gaulish *medio- meant "middle, center" and the name element -lanon is the Celtic equivalent of Latin -planum "plain", thus *Mediolanon meant " in the midst of the plain". In 286 the Roman Emperor Diocletian moved the capital of the Western Roman Empire from Rome to Mediolanum. Diocletian himself chose to reside at Nicomedia in the Eastern Empire, leaving his colleague Maximian at Milan.
Maximian built several gigantic monuments, the large circus, the thermae or "Baths of Hercules", a large complex of imperial palaces and other services and buildings of which fewer visible traces remain. Maximian increased the city area surrounded by a new, larger stone wall encompassing an area of 375 acres with many 24-sided towers; the monumental area had twin towers. From Mediolanum the Emperor Constantine issued the Edict of Milan in 313 AD, granting tolerance to all religions within the Empire, thus paving the way for Christianity to become the dominant religion of Roman Europe. Constantine had come to Mediolanum to celebrate the wedding of his sister
Italian immigration to Mexico
An Italian-Mexican or Italo-Mexican is a Mexican citizen of Italian descent or origin. The ancestors of most Mexicans of Italian descent arrived in the country during the late 19th century, their descendants have assimilated into mainstream Mexican society. Dubb During the colonial era there was a small number of non-Spanish European entrants, in particular Catholic missionaries. There are mariners in early New Spain. Prominent among the Italians was Juan Pablos; the most important missionary was Eusebio Kino. Italo-Mexican identity rests on the common experience of migration from Italy in the late 19th century, a period characterized by a general Italian diaspora to the Americas. About 13,000 Italians emigrated to Mexico during this period, at least half returned to Italy or went on to the United States. Most Italians who came to Mexico were farmers or farm workers from the northern Italian regions of Veneto, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, Lombardy. Others, who arrived in the early 19th century, were from southern Italy.
Many Italian settlers arriving in the late 19th and early 20th centuries received land grants from the Mexican government. When Benito Mussolini came to power, thousands of Italian families left Italy for Mexico. In the state of Aguascalientes there is a large population of Mexicans of Italian descent, the result of the French incursion and the creation of the Second Mexican Empire; the regions with the greatest populations of Mexican Italians are Mexico City, Monterrey and Veracruz. Although Italo-Mexicans claim an Italian ethnic identity, they note that they are Mexican as well. In 1995, there were an estimated 30,000 Mexicans descended from Italian colonists. Population figures are uncertain because, unlike other countries, Mexico's census does not gather information on specific ethnic groups. Most Italian Mexicans speak Spanish, but in Italian communities Italian and its related languages and dialects are used to communicate among themselves. Many Italian-Mexicans live in cities founded by their ancestors in the states of Veracruz and San Luis Potosí.
Smaller numbers of Italian-Mexicans live in Guanajuato and the former haciendas of Nueva Italia, Michoacán and Lombardia in Michoacán, both founded by Dante Cusi from Gambar in Brescia. Playa del Carmen and Cancun in the state of Quintana Roo have received a significant number of immigrants from Italy. Several families of Italian-Mexican descent were granted citizenship in the United States under the Bracero program to address a labor shortage of labor. Italian companies have invested in Mexico in the tourism and hospitality industries; these ventures have sometimes resulted in settlements, but residents live in the resort areas of the Riviera Maya, Baja California, Puerto Vallarta and Cancun. Although they generate employment in restaurants and entertainment centers, most employees have not become permanent residents of Mexico and live as ex-pats. Most Italian immigration to Mexico occurred in the establishment of colonies. Dialects of Italian and languages of Italy which are still spoken include: Lower Bellunese, a dialect of the Venetian language from the Province of Belluno in Colonia Diez Gutierrez in San Luis Potosí The dialect of the Venetian language as spoken in the province of Treviso in the city of Chipilo, Puebla Lombard in Sinaloa, Colonia Manuel González, Nueva Italia and Colonia Lombardia in the state of Michoacán Trentino dialects of Lombard and Venetian in Colonia Manuel González and Tijuana, Baja California Piedmontese in Gutierrez Zamora, Veracruz and La Estanzuela, another Italian colony Sicilian in Mexico City and Monterrey Italy–Mexico relations Los que llegaron - Italianos from Canal Once