Collectio canonum Wigorniensis
The Collectio canonum Wigorniensis is a medieval canon law collection originating in southern England around the year 1005. It exists in multiple recensions, the earliest of which — "Recension A" — consists of just over 100 canons drawn from a variety of sources, most predominantly the ninth-century Frankish collection of penitential and canon law known as the Collectio canonum quadripartita; the author of Recension A is unknown. Other recensions exist later in date than the first; these recensions are extensions and augmentations of Recension A, are known collectively as "Recension B". These recensions all bear the unmistakable mark of having been created by Wulfstan, bishop of Worcester and archbishop of York sometime around the year 1008, though some of them may have been compiled as late as 1023, the year of Wulfstan's death; the collection treats a range of ecclesiastical and lay subjects, such as clerical discipline, church administration and clerical penance and private penance, as well as a variety of spiritual and catechistic matters.
Several "canons" in the collection verge on the character of sermons or expository texts rather than church canons in the traditional sense. Cross and Hamer's edition, Wulfstan's canon law collection Thorpe's edition in vol. 2 of his Ancient laws and institutes Johnson's English translation in his A collection of all the ecclesiastical laws Spelman's editio princeps in his Concilia, leges, constitutiones Discussion on the Anglo-Saxon canon law Web site A comprehensive edition of the canonical material in Cambridge, Corpus 265 A comprehensive edition of the canonical material in the Oxford manuscript A comprehensive edition of the canonical material in the London manuscript A comprehensive edition of the canonical material in Cambridge, Corpus 190 P. Wormald, The making of English law: King Alfred to the twelfth century. Vol. I: legislation and its limits. Wulfstan’s canon law collection, eds J. E. Cross and A. Hamer, Anglo-Saxon texts 1. A Wulfstan manuscript, containing institutes and homilies, ed. H.
R. Loyn, Early English manuscripts in facsimile 17
Second Vatican Council
The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican known as the Second Vatican Council or Vatican II, addressed relations between the Catholic Church and the modern world. The council, through the Holy See, was formally opened under the pontificate of Pope John XXIII on 11 October 1962 and was closed under Pope Paul VI on the Solemnity of the Immaculate Conception on 8 December 1965. Several changes resulted from the council, including the renewal of consecrated life with a revised charism, ecumenical efforts towards dialogue with other religions, the universal call to holiness, which according to Pope Paul VI was "the most characteristic and ultimate purpose of the teachings of the Council". According to Pope Benedict XVI, the most important and essential message of the council is "the Paschal Mystery as the center of what it is to be Christian and therefore of the Christian life, the Christian year, the Christian seasons". Other changes which followed the council included the widespread use of vernacular languages in the Mass instead of Latin, the subtle disuse of ornate clerical regalia, the revision of Eucharistic prayers, the abbreviation of the liturgical calendar, the ability to celebrate the Mass versus populum, as well as ad orientem, modern aesthetic changes encompassing contemporary Catholic liturgical music and artwork.
Many of these changes remain divisive among the Catholic faithful. Of those who took part in the council's opening session, four have become popes: Cardinal Giovanni Battista Montini, who on succeeding John XXIII took the name Pope Paul VI. In the 1950s, theological and biblical studies in the Catholic Church had begun to sway away from the Neo-Scholasticism and biblical literalism which a reaction to Catholic modernism had enforced since the First Vatican Council; this shift could be seen in theologians such as Karl Rahner, Michael Herbert, John Courtney Murray who looked to integrate modern human experience with church principles based on Jesus Christ, as well as others such as Yves Congar, Joseph Ratzinger and Henri de Lubac, who looked to an accurate understanding of scripture and the early Church Fathers as a source of renewal. At the same time, the world's bishops faced challenges driven by political, social and technological change; some of these bishops sought new ways of addressing those challenges.
The First Vatican Council had been held nearly a century before but had been cut short in 1870 when the Italian Army entered the city of Rome at the end of Italian unification. As a result, only deliberations on the role of the papacy and the congruent relationship of faith and reason were completed, with examination of pastoral issues concerning the direction of the Church left unaddressed. Pope John XXIII, gave notice of his intention to convene the Council on 25 January 1959, less than three months after his election in October 1958; this sudden announcement, which caught the Curia by surprise, caused little initial official comment from Church insiders. Reaction to the announcement was widespread and positive from both religious and secular leaders outside the Catholic Church, the council was formally summoned by the apostolic constitution Humanae Salutis on 25 December 1961. In various discussions before the Council convened, John XXIII said that it was time to "open the windows and let in some fresh air".
He invited other Christians outside the Catholic Church to send observers to the Council. Acceptances came from both the Eastern Orthodox Church and Protestant denominations as internal observers, but these observers did not cast votes in the approbation of the conciliar documents. Pope John XXIII's announcement on 25 January 1959 of his intention to call a general council came as a surprise to the cardinals present; the Pontiff pre-announced the council under a full moon when the faithful with their candlelights gathered in St. Peter's square and jokingly noted about the brightness of the moon, he had tested the idea only ten days before with one of them, his Cardinal Secretary of State Domenico Tardini, who gave enthusiastic support to the idea. Although the Pope said the idea came to him in a flash in his conversation with Tardini, two cardinals had earlier attempted to interest him in the idea, they were two of the most conservative, Ernesto Ruffini and Alfredo Ottaviani, who had in 1948 proposed the idea to Pope Pius XII and who put it before John XXIII on 27 October 1958.
Actual preparations for the Council took more than two years, included work from 10 specialised commissions, people for mass media and Christian Unity, a Central Commission for overall coordination. These groups, composed of members of the Roman Curia, produced 987 proposed constituting sessions, making it the largest gathering in any council in church history. Attendance varied in sessions from 2,100 to over 2,300. In addition, a varying number of periti were available for theological consultation—a group that turned out to have a major influence as the council went forward. Seventeen Orthodox Churches and Protestant denominations sent observers. More than three dozen representatives of other Christian communities were present at the opening session, the number grew to nearly 100 by the end of the 4th Council Sessions. Pope John XXIII opened the Council on 11 October 1962 in a public session and read the declaration Gaudet Mater Ecclesia before the Council Fathers. What is needed at the present t
Sacrosanctum Concilium, the Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy, is one of the constitutions of the Second Vatican Council. It was approved by the assembled bishops by a vote of 2,147 to 4 and promulgated by Pope Paul VI on 4 December 1963; the main aim was to achieve greater lay participation in the Catholic Church's liturgy. The title is taken from the opening lines of the document and means "this Sacred Council"; the numbers given correspond to section numbers within the text. Introduction General Principles for the Restoration and Promotion of the Sacred Liturgy The Nature of the Sacred Liturgy and Its Importance in the Church's Life The Promotion of Liturgical Instruction and Active Participation The Reform of the Sacred Liturgy General Norms Norms Drawn from the Hierarchic and Communal Nature of the Liturgy Norms Based Upon the Didactic and Pastoral Nature of the Liturgy Norms for Adapting the Liturgy to the Culture and Traditions of Peoples Promotion of Liturgical Life in Diocese and Parish The Promotion of Pastoral-Liturgical Action The Most Sacred Mystery of the Eucharist The Other Sacraments and the Sacramentals The Divine Office The Liturgical Year Sacred Music Sacred Art and Sacred Furnishings Appendix: A Declaration of the Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican on Revision of the Calendar As is customary with Catholic documents, the name of this constitution, "Sacred Council" in Latin, is taken from the first line of the document: 1.
This sacred Council has several aims in view: it desires to impart an increasing vigor to the Christian life of the faithful. The Council therefore sees cogent reasons for undertaking the reform and promotion of the liturgy. One of the first issues considered by the council, the matter that had the most immediate effect on the lives of individual Catholics, was the renewal of the liturgy; the central idea was. Mother Church earnestly desires that all the faithful should be led to that conscious and active participation in liturgical celebrations, demanded by the nature of the liturgy; such participation by the Christian people as a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a redeemed people, is their right and duty by reason of their baptism. Popes Pius X, Pius XI, Pius XII asked that the people be taught how to chant the responses at Mass and that they learn the prayers of the Mass in order to participate intelligently. Now the bishops decreed that: "To promote active participation, the people should be encouraged to take part by means of acclamations, psalmody and songs."
Composers should "produce compositions which... for the active participation of the entire assembly of the faithful."After centuries when, with the Mass in Latin, Catholic piety centred around popular devotions, the bishops decreed that "Popular devotions... should be so drawn up that they harmonize with the liturgical seasons, accord with the sacred liturgy, are in some fashion derived from it, lead the people to it, since, in fact, the liturgy by its nature far surpasses any of them."On 24 August 2017 Pope Francis emphasized that "the reform of the liturgy is irreversible" and called for continued efforts to implement the reforms, repeating what Pope Paul VI had said one year before he died: "The time has come, now, to leave aside the disruptive ferments pernicious in one sense or the other, to implement according to its right inspiring criteria, the reform approved by us in application of the decisions of the council." The council fathers established guidelines to govern the renewal of the liturgy, which included and encouraged greater use of the vernacular in addition to Latin for the biblical readings and other prayers.
Implementation of the council's directives on the liturgy was to be carried out under the authority of Pope Paul VI by a special papal commission incorporated in the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, and, in the areas entrusted to them, by national conferences of bishops, which, if they had a shared language, were expected to collaborate in producing a common translation. Magnum principium Mass of Paul VI Musicam sacram
Dictatus papae is a compilation of 27 statements of powers arrogated to the pope, included in Pope Gregory VII's register under the year 1075. The principles expressed in Dictatus papae are those of the Gregorian Reform, initiated by Gregory decades before he became pope; the axioms of the Dictatus advance the strongest case for papal infallibility. The axiom "That it may be permitted to him to depose emperors" qualified the early medieval balance of power embodied in the letter Famuli vestrae pietatis of Pope Gelasius I to the Eastern Roman Emperor Anastasius, which outlined the separation and complementarity of spiritual and temporal powers - auctoritas and potestas or imperium, the former being superior to the latter - under which the West had been ruled since Merovingian times. "None of the conflicts of the years 1075 and following can be directly traced to opposition to it". Medieval developments of the relationship between spiritual and secular power would come with Pope Boniface VIII, who famously formulated the image of the two swords in the papal bull Unam Sanctam.
Dictatus Papae is a heading in the letter-collection that implies that the pope composed the piece himself. It does not mean any kind of a manifesto, it was not published, in the sense of being copied and made known outside the immediate circle of the papal curia. Some historians believe that it was written or dictated by Gregory himself, others that it had a different origin and was inserted in the register at a date. In 1087 Deusdedit, a cardinal and ally of Gregory, published a collection of decretals, dedicated to Pope Victor III, that embodied the law of the Church – canon law – which he had compiled from many sources, both legitimate and false; the Dictatus papae agrees so with this collection that some have argued the Dictatus must have been based on it. The Roman Church was founded by God. Only the Pope can with right be called "Universal", he alone can reinstate bishops. All bishops are below his Legate in council if a lower grade, he can pass sentence of deposition against them; the Pope may depose the absent.
Among other things, we ought not to remain in the same house with those excommunicated by him. For him alone is it lawful, according to the needs of the time, to make new laws, to assemble together new congregations, to make an abbey of a canonry, and, on the other hand, to divide a rich bishopric and unite the poor ones, he alone may use the Imperial Insignia. All princes shall kiss the feet of the Pope alone, his name alone shall be spoken in the churches. This is the only name in the world, it may be permitted to him to depose emperors. It may be permitted to him to transfer bishops, he has the power to ordain the clerk of any parish. He, ordained by the Pope may preside over another church, but may not hold a subordinate position; such a person may not receive a higher clerical grade from any other bishop. No synod shall be called a'General Synod' without his order. No chapter and no book shall be considered canonical without his authority. A sentence passed by him may be retracted by no one, he alone may retract it.
He himself may be judged by no one. No one shall dare to condemn any person; the more important cases of every church should be referred to the Apostolic See. The Roman Church has never erred. Nor will it err, to all eternity--Scripture being witness; the Roman Pontiff, if he has been canonically ordained, is undoubtedly made a saint by the merits of St. Peter, St. Ennodius Bishop of Pavia bearing witness, many holy fathers agreeing with him; as it is contained in the decrees of Pope St. Symmachus. By his command and consent, it may be lawful for subordinates to bring accusations, he may reinstate bishops without assembling a Synod. He, not at peace with the Roman Church shall not be considered'catholic', he may absolve subjects from their fealty to wicked men. Apostasy Heresy Libertas ecclesiae Das Register Gregors. VII, ed. E. Caspar, pp. 202–8: section translated by G. A. Loud
1917 Code of Canon Law
The 1917 Code of Canon Law referred to as the Pio-Benedictine Code, was the first official comprehensive codification of Latin canon law. It was promulgated on 27 May 1917 and took legal effect on 19 May 1918, it was in force until the 1983 Code of Canon Law took legal effect and abrogated it on 27 November 1983. It has been described as "the greatest revolution in canon law since the time of Gratian". Papal attempts at codification of the scattered mass of canon law spanned the eight centuries since Gratian produced his Decretum c. 1150. In the 13th century canon law became the object of scientific study, different compilations were made by the Roman Pontiffs; the most important of these were the five books of the Decretales Gregorii IX and the Liber Sextus of Boniface VIII. The legislation grew with time; some of it became obsolete, contradictions crept in so that it became difficult in recent times to discover what was of obligation and where to find the law on a particular question. Since the close of the ‘’Corpus Juris’’ numerous new laws and decrees had been issued by popes and Roman Congregations.
No complete collection of them had been published and they remained scattered through the ponderous volumes of the ‘’Bullaria’’ the ‘’Acta Sanctae Sedis’’, other such compilations, which were accessible to only a few and for professional canonists themselves and formed an unwieldy mass of legal material. Moreover, not a few ordinances, whether included in the ‘’Corpus Juris’’ or of more recent date, appeared to be contradictory. Great confusion was thus engendered and correct knowledge of the law rendered difficult for those who had to enforce it. In the Council of Trent the wish had been expressed in the name of the King of Portugal that a commission of learned theologians be appointed to make a thorough study of the canonical constitutions binding under pain of mortal sin, define their exact meaning, see whether their obligation should not be restricted in certain cases, determine how far they were to be maintained and observed; when the Vatican Council met in 1869 a number of bishops of different countries petitioned for a new compilation of church law that would be clear and studied.
The council never finished no attempt was made to bring the legislation up to date. By the 19th Century, this body of legislation included some 10,000 norms. Many of these were difficult to reconcile with one another due to changes in circumstances and practice; this situation impelled Pope St. Pius X to order the creation of the first Code of Canon Law, a single volume of stated laws. In response to the request of the bishops at the First Vatican Council, on 14 May 1904, with the motu proprio Arduum sane munus, Pope Pius X set up a commission to begin reducing these diverse documents into a single code, presenting the normative portion in the form of systematic short canons shorn of the preliminary considerations and omitting those parts, superseded by developments. Under the aegis of Cardinal Pietro Gasparri, the Commission for the Codification of Canon Law was completed under Benedict XV who promulgated the Code, effective in 1918; the work having been begun by Pius X and promulgated by Benedict XV, it is sometimes called the "Pio-Benedictine Code," but more the 1917 Code.
In its preparation centuries of material were examined, scrutinized for authenticity by leading experts, harmonized as much as possible with opposing canons and other codes, from the Codex of Justinian to the Napoleonic Code. Pope Pius X in a letter on 19 March 1904 announced his intention of revising the unwieldy mass of past legislation and appointed a commission of cardinals and learned consultors to undertake this difficult work; the Catholic universities of the world and the bishops of all countries were asked to cooperate. The scholars began a copy of the first draft was sent to the bishops for suggestions. In addition to the canon law experts brought to Rome to serve on the codification commission, all the Latin Church's bishops and superiors general of religious orders were periodically consulted via letter; every Latin bishop had the right to permanently keep a representative in Rome to give him voice at the meetings of the codification commission. By the winter of 1912, the "whole span of the code" had been completed, so that a provisional text was printed.
The 1912 text was sent out to all Latin bishops and superiors general for their comment, their notations which they sent back to the codification commission were subsequently printed and distributed to all members of the commission, in order that the members might consider the suggestions. The new code was completed in 1916; the code was promulgated on 27 May 1917, Pentecost Sunday, as the Code of Canon Law by Pius' successor, Pope Benedict XV, who set 19 May 1918 as the date on which it came into force. For the most part, it applied only to the Latin Church except when "it treats of things that, by their nature, apply to the Oriental", such as the effects of baptism, it contained 2,414 canons. On 15 September 1917, by the motu proprio Cum Iuris Canonici, Pope Benedict XV made provision for a Pontifical Commission charged with interpreting the code and making any necessary modifications as legislation was issued. New laws would be appended to existing canons in new paragraphs or inserted between canons, repeating the number of the previous canon and adding bis, etc. so as not to subvert the
A nomocanon is a collection of ecclesiastical law, consisting of the elements from both the Civil law and the Canon law. Nomocanons form part of the Oriental canon law of the Eastern Catholic Churches, are used by the Eastern Orthodox Churches. Collections of this kind were found only in Oriental canon law; the Greek Church has two principal nomocanonical collections. The first nomocanon, in the sixth century, is ascribed, though without certainty, to John Scholasticus, whose canons it utilizes and completes, he had drawn up a purely canonical compilation in 50 titles, composed an extract from the Justinian's Novellae in 87 chapters that relate the ecclesiastical matters. To each of the 50 titles was added the texts of the imperial laws on the same subject, with 21 additional chapters, nearly all borrowed from John's 87 chapters, thus the Nomocanon of John Scholasticus was made. The second nomocanon dates from the reign of the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius, at which time Latin was replaced by Greek as the official language of the imperial laws.
It was made by fusion of Canonic syntagma. Afterwards, this collection would be known as Nomocanon in 14 titles; this nomocanon was long held in esteem and passed into the Russian Church, but it was by degrees supplanted by Nomocanon of Photios in 883. The great systematic compiler of the Eastern Church, who occupies a similar position to that of Gratian in the West, was Photius, Patriarch of Constantinople in the 9th century, his collection in two parts—a chronologically ordered compilation of synodical canons and a revision of the Nomocanon—formed and still forms the classic source of ancient Church Law for the Greek Church. It was Nomocanon in 14 titles with the addition of 102 canons of Trullan Council, 17 canons of the Council of Constantinople of 861, three canons substituted by Photios for those of the Council of Constantinople in 869. Nomocanon in 14 titles was completed with the more recent imperial laws; this whole collection was commentated about 1170 by Theodore Balsamon, Greek Patriarch of Antioch residing at Constantinople.
Nomocanon of Photios was supplemented by this commentary and became Pedalion, a sort of Corpus Juris of the Eastern Orthodox Church, printed in 1800 by Patriarch Neophytos VII. Nomocanon of Photios retained in the law of the Greek Church and it was included in Syntagma, published by Rallis and Potlis. Though called Syntagma, the collection of ecclesiastical law of Matthew Blastares in 1335) is the real nomocanon, in which the texts of the laws and the canons are arranged in alphabetical order; the Nomocanon of Saint Sava or was the first Serbian constitution and the highest code in the Serbian Orthodox Church, finished in 1219. This legal act was well developed. St. Sava's Nomocanon was the compilation of Civil law, based on Roman Law and Canon law, based on Ecumenical Councils and its basic purpose was to organize functioning of the young Serbian kingdom and the Serbian church. During the Nemanjić dynasty Serbian medieval state was flourishing in the spheres of politics and culture; as the state developed the industry developed, so the law had to regulate various number of relations.
Therefore, with the development of economy, Roman Law was taken. In that time Serbia was not a tsarish empire, so its ruler could not create code of laws, which would regulate the relations in the state and church. Serbian rulers decrees. In order to overcome this problem and organize legal system, after acquiring religious independence, Saint Sava finished his Zakonopravilo in 1219. Zakonopravilo was accepted in Bulgaria and Russia, it was printed in Moscow in the 17th century. So, Roman-Byzantine law was transplanting among East Europe through Zakonopravilo. In Serbia, it was considered as the code of the divine law and it was implemented into Dušan's code, it was the only code among Serbs in the time of the Ottoman reign. During the Serbian Revolution priest Mateja Nenadović established Zakonopravilo as the code of the liberated Serbia, it was implemented in Serbian civil code. Zakonopravilo is still used in the Serbian Orthodox Church as the highest church code. Kormchaia Dušan's Code Serbian Empire Serbia in the Middle Ages Corpus Juris Civilis Constitution The entry of the Slavs into Christendom The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century Herbermann, Charles, ed..
"Nomocanon". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Nomocanon". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton
Plenitudo potestatis was a term employed by medieval canonists to describe the jurisdictional power of the papacy. In the thirteenth century, the canonists used the term plenitudo potestatis to characterize the power of the pope within the church, or, more the pope's prerogative in the secular sphere. However, during the thirteenth century the pope's plenitudo potestatis expanded as the Church became centralized, the pope's presence made itself felt every day in legislation, judicial appeals, finance. Although Plenitudo potestatis had been used in canonical writings since the time of Pope Leo I, Pope Innocent III was the first pope to use the term as a description of papal governmental power. Many historians have concluded; the pope was the highest judge in the Church. His decisions were absolute and could not be abrogated by inferior members of the ecclesiastical hierarchy. Hof, Hans, "Plenitudo potestatis und imitatio imperii zur Zeit Innocenz III", Zeitschrift für katholische Theologie, 77, 1954-1955, p. 39-71.
Watt, John A. "The Use of the Term plenitudo potestatis by Hostiensis", dans Proceedings of the Second International Congress of Medieval Canon Law, éd. S. Kuttner, J. J. Ryan, Cité du Vatican, BAV, 1965, p. 161-187. Benson, Robert L. "Plenitudo potestatis: Evolution of a Formula from Gregory VII to Gratian", dans Collectanea Stephan Kuttner. Studia Gratiana 14, 1967, p. 195-217. McCready, William D. "Papal Plenitudo Potestatis and the Source of Temporal Authority in Late Medieval Papal Hierocratic Theory", Speculum 48, 1973, p. 654-674. Marchetto, Agostino, "In partem sollicitudinis… non in plenitudinem potestatis: evoluzione di una formula di rapporto primato-episcopato", dans Studia in honorem eminentissimi cardinalis Alphonsi M. Stickler, éd. R. J. Castillo Lara, Libreria Ateneo Salesiano, 1992, p. 269-298. Kéry, Lotte, "De plenitudo potestatis sed non de jure. Eine inquisitio von 1209/1210 gegen Abt Walter von Corbie", dans Licet preter solitum. Ludwig Falkenstein zum 65. Geburtstag, éd. L. Kéry, D. Lohrmann, H. Müller, Aix-la-Chapelle, Shaker Verlag, 1998, p. 91-117.
Recchia, Alessandro, "L'uso della formula plenitudo potestatis da Leone Magno ad Uguccione da Pisa", Mursia, 1999. Schmidt, Hans-Joachim, "The Papal and Imperial Concept of plenitudo potestatis: the Influence of Pope Innocent III on Emperor Frederick II"", dans Pope Innocent III and his World, éd. J. C. Moore, Ashgate, 1999, p. 305-314. Julien Théry, « Innocent III et les débuts de la théocratie pontificale», dans Mémoire dominicaine, 21, p. 33-37. Julien Théry, « Le triomphe de la théocratie pontificale, du IIIe concile du Latran au pontificat de Boniface VIII », in Structures et dynamiques religieuses dans les sociétés de l’Occident latin, ed. by Marie-Madeleine de Cevins et Jean-Michel Matz, Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2010, p. 17-31, online. Rizzi, Marco "Plenitudo potestatis. Dalla teologia politica alla teoria dello stato assoluto", dans Images, liturgies. Les connotations politiques du message religieux, éd. P. Ventrone, L. Gaffuri, Paris, École Française de Rome, Publications de la Sorbonne, 2014, p. 49-60.
Julien Théry-Astruc, « Introduction », in Innocent III et le Midi, Privat, 2015, p. 11-35, online