The Cherusci were a Germanic tribe that inhabited parts of the plains and forests of northwestern Germany, in the area possibly near present-day Hanover, during the 1st century BC and 1st century AD. They led an important war against the Roman Empire, subsequently they were probably absorbed into the tribal confederations such as the Franks and Allemanni. The etymological origin of the name Cherusci is not known with certainty, according to the dominant opinion in scholarship, the name may derive from the ancient Germanic word *herut. The tribe may have named after the deer because it had a totemistic significance in Germanic symbolism. A different hypothesis, proposed in the 19th century by Jacob Grimm and others, derives the name from *heru-, hans Kuhn has argued that the derivational suffix -sk-, involved in both explanations, is otherwise not common in Germanic. He suggested that the name may therefore be a compound of ultimately non-Germanic origin, the first historical mention of the Cherusci occurs in Book 6.10 of Julius Caesars De Bello Gallico, which recounts events of 53 BC.
Caesar relates that he crossed the Rhine again to punish the Suebi for sending reinforcements to the Treveri and he mentions that the Bacenis forest separated the territory of the Cherusci from that of the Suebi. In 12 BC, the Cherusci and other Germanic tribes were subjugated by the Romans and they appear to have been living in the same homeland when Tacitus wrote,150 years later, describing them as living east of the Chauci and Chatti. This is generally interpreted to be an area between the rivers Weser and Elbe, as Rome tried to expand in northern Europe beyond the Rhine, it exploited divisions within the Cherusci, and for some time the tribe was considered a Roman ally. At this time the tribe was split between Arminius and Segestes, Arminius advocated breaking allegiance to Rome and declaring independence, while Segestes wanted to remain loyal. By about 8 AD, Arminius had gained the upper hand, Segestes repeatedly warned Publius Quinctilius Varus, the governor of Gaul, that rebellion was being planned, but Varus declined to act until the rebellion had broken out.
In the year 9, in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, the legions eagle standards, of great symbolic importance to the Romans, were lost. The numbers of three legions, Legio XVII, Legio XVIII, and Legio XIX, were never used again. After the mutinies of the German legions in the year 14, Germanicus decided, at the urging of his men, to march into Germany to restore their lost honor. In 15, after a raid on the Chatti, invaded the lands of the Marsi in 14 AD with 12,000 legionnaires,26 cohorts of auxiliaries. According to Tacitus, an area 50 Roman miles wide was laid to waste with fire and sword, No sex, a Legion eagle from Varuss defeat, either from the XVII or XVIII, was recovered. Then he began a campaign against the Cherusci and he received an appeal to rescue Segestes, who was besieged by Arminius. Segestes was rescued along with a group of relatives and dependents, including Thusnelda, Segestes daughter, Germanicus spared them and gave them land in Gaul
Archaeology of Northern Europe
The region entered the Mesolithic around the 7th millennium BCE. The transition to the Neolithic is characterized by the Funnelbeaker culture in the 4th millennium BCE, the Chalcolithic is marked by the arrival of the Corded Ware culture, possibly the first influence in the region of Indo-European expansion. The Nordic Bronze Age proper begins roughly one millennium later, around 1500 BCE, Northern Europe enters the protohistorical period in the early centuries CE, with the adoption of writing and ethnographic accounts by Roman authors. The following is a listing of Northern European archaeological periods, expanded from the basic three-age system with finer subdivisions. During the 6th millennium BCE, the climate of Scandinavia was generally warmer, the bearers of the Nøstvet and Lihult cultures and the Kongemose culture were mesolithic hunter-gatherers. The Kongemose culture was replaced by the Ertebølle culture, adapting to the changes and gradually adopting the Neolithic Revolution. During the 4th millennium BCE, the Funnelbeaker culture expanded into Sweden up to Uppland, the Nøstvet and Lihult cultures were succeeded by the Pitted Ware culture Early Indo-European presence likely dates to the late 3rd millennium BCE, introducing the Nordic Bronze Age.
The tripartite division of the Nordic Iron Age into Pre-Roman Iron Age, Roman Iron Age, the Pre-Roman Iron Age was the earliest part of the Iron Age in Scandinavia and North European Plain. Succeeding the Nordic Bronze Age, the Iron Age developed in contact with the Hallstatt culture in Central Europe, the Iron Age in northern Europe is markedly distinct from the Celtic La Tène culture south of it. Iron was extracted from bog iron in peat bogs and the first iron objects to be fabricated were needles and edged tools such as swords, Iron products were known in Scandinavia during the Bronze Age, but they were a scarce imported material. Similarly, imported bronze continued to be used during the Iron Age in Scandinavia, funerary practices continued the Bronze Age tradition of burning corpses and placing the remains in urns, a characteristic of the Urnfield culture. Archaeologists have found swords, shield bosses, scissors, pincers, needles, kettles, Bronze continued to be used for torcs and kettles, the style of which were continuous from the Bronze Age.
Some of the most prominent finds from the pre-Roman Iron Age in northern Europe are the Gundestrup cauldron, in Scandinavia, this period is often called the Findless Age due to the lack of archaeological finds. While the archaeological record from Scandinavia are consistent with a decline in population, the southern parts of the culture. It consequently appears that the climate played a important role in this southward expansion into continental Europe. The current view in the Netherlands hold that Iron Age innovations, starting with Hallstatt, did not involve intrusions, another Iron Age nucleus considered to represent a local development is the Wessenstedt culture. The bearers of this northern Iron Age culture were likely speakers of Germanic languages, the stage of development of this Germanic is not known, although Proto-Germanic has been proposed. The Roman Iron Age is the name gave to a part of the Iron Age
Agrippina the Younger
Agrippina the Younger has been described by ancient sources and modern scholars as ruthless, ambitious and domineering. She was a beautiful and reputable woman and according to Pliny the Elder, she had a canine in her upper right jaw. Many ancient historians accuse Agrippina of poisoning Emperor Claudius, though accounts vary, Agrippina was the first daughter and fourth living child of Agrippina the Elder and Germanicus. She had three brothers, Nero Caesar, Drusus Caesar and the future Emperor Caligula, and two younger sisters, Julia Drusilla and Julia Livilla. Agrippinas two elder brothers and her mother were victims of the intrigues of the Praetorian Prefect Lucius Aelius Sejanus and she was the namesake of her mother. Agrippina the Elder was remembered as a modest and heroic matron, who was the daughter and fourth child of Julia the Elder. Maternally, Agrippina descended directly from Augustus, Agrippinas father, was a very popular general and politician. His mother was Antonia Minor and his father was the general Nero Claudius Drusus and he was Antonia Minors first child.
Germanicus had two siblings, a sister, named Livilla, and a brother, the future Emperor Claudius. Claudius was Agrippinas paternal uncle and third husband, Antonia Minor was a daughter to Octavia the Younger by her second marriage to triumvir Mark Antony, and Octavia was the second eldest sister and full-blooded sister of Augustus. In the year 9, Augustus ordered and forced Tiberius to adopt Germanicus, Germanicus was a favorite of his great-uncle Augustus, who hoped that Germanicus would succeed his uncle Tiberius, who was Augustuss own adopted son and heir. This in turn meant that Tiberius was Agrippinas adoptive grandfather in addition to her paternal great-uncle, Agrippina was born on 6 November AD15 or possibly 14, at Oppidum Ubiorum, a Roman outpost on the Rhine River located in present-day Cologne, Germany. A second sister Julia Drusilla was born on 16 September AD16, as a small child, Agrippina travelled with her parents throughout Germany until she and her siblings returned to Rome to live with and be raised by their maternal grandmother Antonia.
In October AD19, Germanicus died suddenly in Antioch and she lived on the Palatine Hill in Rome. Her great-uncle Tiberius had already become emperor and the head of the family after the death of Augustus in 14. After her thirteenth birthday in 28, Tiberius arranged for Agrippina to marry her paternal first cousin once removed Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus, Domitius came from a distinguished family of consular rank. Through his mother Antonia Major, Domitius was a nephew of Augustus, first cousin to Claudius. He had two sisters, Domitia Lepida the Elder and Domitia Lepida the Younger, Domitia Lepida the Younger was the mother of the Empress Valeria Messalina
Gaius Julius Caesar, known as Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and notable author of Latin prose. He played a role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic. In 60 BC, Caesar and Pompey formed an alliance that dominated Roman politics for several years. Their attempts to power as Populares were opposed by the Optimates within the Roman Senate. Caesars victories in the Gallic Wars, completed by 51 BC, extended Romes territory to the English Channel, Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both the Channel and the Rhine, when he built a bridge across the Rhine and crossed the Channel to invade Britain. These achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse the standing of Pompey, with the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to step down from his military command and return to Rome. Caesar refused the order, and instead marked his defiance in 49 BC by crossing the Rubicon with the 13th Legion, leaving his province, Civil war resulted, and Caesars victory in the war put him in an unrivalled position of power and influence.
After assuming control of government, Caesar began a programme of social and governmental reforms and he centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed dictator in perpetuity, giving him additional authority. But the underlying political conflicts had not been resolved, and on the Ides of March 44 BC, a new series of civil wars broke out, and the constitutional government of the Republic was never fully restored. Caesars adopted heir Octavian, known as Augustus, rose to power after defeating his opponents in the civil war. Octavian set about solidifying his power, and the era of the Roman Empire began, much of Caesars life is known from his own accounts of his military campaigns, and from other contemporary sources, mainly the letters and speeches of Cicero and the historical writings of Sallust. The biographies of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are major sources, Caesar is considered by many historians to be one of the greatest military commanders in history. Caesar was born into a family, the gens Julia.
The cognomen Caesar originated, according to Pliny the Elder, with an ancestor who was born by Caesarean section. The Historia Augusta suggests three alternative explanations, that the first Caesar had a head of hair, that he had bright grey eyes. Caesar issued coins featuring images of elephants, suggesting that he favored this interpretation of his name, despite their ancient pedigree, the Julii Caesares were not especially politically influential, although they had enjoyed some revival of their political fortunes in the early 1st century BC. Caesars father, called Gaius Julius Caesar, governed the province of Asia and his mother, Aurelia Cotta, came from an influential family. Little is recorded of Caesars childhood, in 85 BC, Caesars father died suddenly, so Caesar was the head of the family at 16
The Proto-Indo-Europeans were the prehistoric people of Eurasia who spoke Proto-Indo-European, the ancestor of the Indo-European languages according to linguistic reconstruction. Knowledge of them comes chiefly from that reconstruction, along with evidence from archaeology. The Proto-Indo-Europeans likely lived during the late Neolithic, or roughly the 4th millennium BCE, mainstream scholarship places them in the forest-steppe zone immediately to the north of the western end of the Pontic-Caspian steppe in Eastern Europe. Some archaeologists would extend the depth of PIE to the middle Neolithic or even the early Neolithic. They had domesticated horses – *eḱwos, the cow played a central role, in religion and mythology as well as in daily life. A mans wealth would have been measured by the number of his animals, as for technology, reconstruction indicates a culture of the late Neolithic bordering on the early Bronze Age, with tools and weapons very likely composed of natural bronze. Silver and gold were known, but not silver smelting, thus suggesting that silver was imported, sheep were kept for wool, and textiles were woven.
The wheel was known, certainly for ox-drawn wagons and they practiced a polytheistic religion centered on sacrificial rites, probably administered by a priestly caste. Important leaders would have been buried with their belongings in kurgans, many Indo-European societies know a threefold division of priests, a warrior class, and a class of peasants or husbandmen. Georges Dumézil has suggested such a division for Proto-Indo-European society, if there was a separate class of warriors, it probably consisted of single young men. They would have followed a separate warrior code unacceptable in the society outside their peer-group, traces of initiation rites in several Indo-European societies suggest that this group identified itself with wolves or dogs. Researchers have made attempts to identify particular prehistoric cultures with the Proto-Indo-European-speaking peoples. The scholars of the 19th century who first tackled the question of the Indo-Europeans original homeland, had essentially only linguistic evidence and they attempted a rough localization by reconstructing the names of plants and animals as well as the culture and technology.
In the early 20th century, the question became associated with the expansion of a supposed Aryan race, a fallacy promoted during the expansion of European empires, the question remains contentious within some flavours of ethnic nationalism. A series of major advances occurred in the 1970s due to the convergence of several factors, the radiocarbon dating method had become sufficiently inexpensive to be applied on a mass scale. Through dendrochronology, pre-historians could calibrate radiocarbon dates to a higher degree of accuracy. The Kurgan hypothesis, as of 2017 the most widely held theory, depends on linguistic and archaeological evidence and it suggests PIE origin in the Pontic-Caspian steppe during the Chalcolithic. A minority of scholars prefer the Anatolian hypothesis, suggesting an origin in Anatolia during the Neolithic, other theories have only marginal scholarly support
The Bastarnae were an ancient people who between 200 BC and 300 AD inhabited the region between the Carpathian mountains and the river Dnieper, to the north and east of ancient Dacia. The Peucini, denoted a branch of the Bastarnae by Greco-Roman writers, the ethno-linguistic affiliation of the Bastarnae was probably Germanic, which is supported by ancient historians and modern archeology. However, some ancient literary sources imply Celtic or Scytho-Sarmatian influences, the most likely scenario is that they were originally a group of East Germanic tribes, originally resident in the lower Vistula river valley. In ca.200 BC, these tribes migrated, possibly accompanied by some Celtic elements, some elements appear to have become assimilated, to some extent, by the surrounding Sarmatians by the 3rd century. Although largely sedentary, some elements may have adopted a semi-nomadic lifestyle and it has not, so far, been possible to identify archaeological sites which can be conclusively attributed to the Bastarnae.
The archaeological horizons most often associated by scholars with the Bastarnae are the Zarubintsy, the Bastarnae first came into conflict with the Romans during the 1st century BC, when, in alliance with Dacians and Sarmatians, they unsuccessfully resisted Roman expansion into Moesia and Pannonia. Later, they appear to have maintained relations with the Roman empire during the first two centuries AD. 180, when the Bastarnae are recorded as participants in an invasion of Roman territory, in the mid-3rd century, the Bastarnae were part of a Gothic-led grand coalition of lower Danube tribes that repeatedly invaded the Balkan provinces of the Roman empire. Large numbers of Bastarnae were resettled within the Roman empire in the late 3rd century, the origin of the tribal name is uncertain. It is not even whether it was an exonym or an endonym. One possible derivation is from the proto-Germanic word *bastjan means binding or tie, in this case, Bastarnae may have had the original meaning of a coalition or bund of tribes.
It has suggested that the name is linked with the Germanic word bastard. But Batty considers this derivation unlikely, if the name is an endonym, this derivation is unlikely, as most endonyms have flattering meanings. The original homeland of the Bastarnae remains uncertain, babeş identifies the Sidoni, a branch of the Bastarnae which Strabo places north of the Danube delta with the Sidini located by Ptolemy in Pomerania. Batty argues that Greco-Roman sources of the 1st century AD locate the Bastarnae homeland on the side of the Northern Carpathian mountain range. Pliny locates the Bastarnae between the Suebi and the Dacians, the Peutinger Map shows the Bastarnae north of the Carpathian mountains and appears to name the Galician Carpathians as the Alpes Bastarnicae. From Galicia, the Bastarnae expanded into modern-day Moldavia and Bessarabia, Strabo describes the Bastarnae as inhabiting the territory between the Ister and the Borysthenes. He identifies three sub-tribes of the Bastarnae, the Atmoni and Peucini, the latter derived their name from Peuce, a large island in the Danube delta, which they had colonised
Roman Britain was the area of the island of Great Britain that was governed by the Roman Empire, from AD43 to 410. Julius Caesar invaded Britain in 55 and 54 BC as part of his Gallic Wars, the Britons had been overrun or culturally assimilated by other Celtic tribes during the British Iron Age and had been aiding Caesars enemies. He received tribute, installed a king over the Trinovantes. Planned invasions under Augustus were called off in 34,27, in AD40, Caligula assembled 200,000 men at the Channel, only to have them gather seashells. Three years later, Claudius directed four legions to invade Britain, the Romans defeated the Catuvellauni, and organized their conquests as the Province of Britain. By the year 47, the Romans held the lands southeast of the Fosse Way, control over Wales was delayed by reverses and the effects of Boudicas uprising, but the Romans expanded steadily northward. Around 197, the Severan Reforms divided Britain into two provinces, Britannia Superior and Britannia Inferior, during the Diocletian Reforms, at the end of the 3rd century, Britannia was divided into four provinces under the direction of a vicarius, who administered the Diocese of the Britains.
A fifth province, Valentia, is attested in the 4th century, for much of the period of the Roman occupation, Britannia was subject to barbarian invasions and often came under the control of imperial usurpers and imperial pretenders. The final Roman withdrawal from Britain occurred around 410, the kingdoms are considered to have formed Sub-Roman Britain after that. Following the conquest of the Britons, a distinctive Romano-British culture emerged as the Romans introduced improved agriculture, urban planning, industrial production, after the initial invasions, Roman historians generally only mention Britain in passing. Thus, most present knowledge derives from archaeological investigations and occasional epigraphic evidence lauding the Britannic achievements of an emperor, over the centuries Roman citizens settled in Britain from many parts of the Empire, such as Italy, Spain and Algeria. Britain was known to the Classical world, the Greeks and Carthaginians traded for Cornish tin in the 4th century BC, the Greeks referred to the Cassiterides, or tin islands, and placed them near the west coast of Europe.
The Carthaginian sailor Himilco is said to have visited the island in the 5th century BC, however, it was regarded as a place of mystery, with some writers refusing to believe it existed at all. The first direct Roman contact was when Julius Caesar undertook two expeditions in 55 and 54 BC, as part of his conquest of Gaul, believing the Britons were helping the Gallic resistance. The second invasion involved a larger force and Caesar coerced or invited many of the native Celtic tribes to pay tribute. A friendly local king, was installed, and his rival, hostages were taken, but historians disagree over whether any tribute was paid after Caesar returned to Gaul. Caesar conquered no territory and left no troops behind but he established clients, Augustus planned invasions in 34,27 and 25 BC, but circumstances were never favourable, and the relationship between Britain and Rome settled into one of diplomacy and trade. Strabo, writing late in Augustuss reign, claimed that taxes on trade brought in annual revenue than any conquest could
Rome is a special comune and the capital of Italy. Rome serves as the capital of the Lazio region, with 2,873,598 residents in 1,285 km2, it is the countrys largest and most populated comune and fourth-most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the center of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4.3 million residents, the city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio, along the shores of the Tiber. Romes history spans more than 2,500 years, while Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at only around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe. The citys early population originated from a mix of Latins, Etruscans and it was first called The Eternal City by the Roman poet Tibullus in the 1st century BC, and the expression was taken up by Ovid and Livy. Rome is called the Caput Mundi, due to that, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, and the birthplace of both the Baroque style and Neoclassicism.
Famous artists, painters and architects made Rome the centre of their activity, in 1871 Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, and in 1946 that of the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city, Rome ranked in 2014 as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, and the most popular tourist attraction in Italy. Its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site and museums such as the Vatican Museums and the Colosseum are among the worlds most visited tourist destinations with both locations receiving millions of tourists a year. Rome hosted the 1960 Summer Olympics and is the seat of United Nations Food, however, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was actually derived from Rome itself. As early as the 4th century, there have been alternate theories proposed on the origin of the name Roma. There is archaeological evidence of occupation of the Rome area from approximately 14,000 years ago. Evidence of stone tools and stone weapons attest to about 10,000 years of human presence, several excavations support the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built above the area of the future Roman Forum.
Between the end of the age and the beginning of the Iron age. However, none of them had yet an urban quality, there is a wide consensus that the city was gradually born through the aggregation of several villages around the largest one, placed above the Palatine. All these happenings, which according to the excavations took place more or less around the mid of the 8th century BC. Despite recent excavations at the Palatine hill, the view that Rome has been indeed founded with an act of will as the legend suggests in the middle of the 8th century BC remains a fringe hypothesis. Traditional stories handed down by the ancient Romans themselves explain the earliest history of their city in terms of legend and myth
The Germanic peoples are an ethno-linguistic Indo-European group of Northern European origin. They are identified by their use of Germanic languages, which diversified out of Proto-Germanic during the Pre-Roman Iron Age, the term Germanic originated in classical times when groups of tribes living in Lower and Greater Germania were referred to using this label by Roman scribes. Tribes referred to as Germanic by Roman authors generally lived to the north, in about 222 BCE, the first use of the Latin term Germani appears in the Fasti Capitolini inscription de Galleis Insvbribvs et Germ. This may simply be referring to Gaul or related people, the term Germani shows up again, allegedly written by Poseidonios, but is merely a quotation inserted by the author Athenaios who wrote much later. Somewhat later, the first surviving detailed discussions of Germani and Germania are those of Julius Caesar, from Caesars perspective, Germania was a geographical area of land on the east bank of the Rhine opposite Gaul, which Caesar left outside direct Roman control.
This usage of the word is the origin of the concept of Germanic languages. In other classical authors the concept sometimes included regions of Sarmatia, also, at least in the south there were Celtic peoples still living east of the Rhine and north of the Alps. Caesar and others noted differences of culture which could be found on the east of the Rhine, but the theme of all these cultural references was that this was a wild and dangerous region, less civilised than Gaul, a place that required additional military vigilance. Caesar used the term Germani for a specific tribal grouping in northeastern Belgic Gaul, west of the Rhine. He made clear that he was using the name in the local sense and these are the so-called Germani Cisrhenani, whom Caesar believed to be closely related to the peoples east of the Rhine, and descended from immigrants into Gaul. Caesar described this group of both as Belgic Gauls and as Germani. Gauls are associated with Celtic languages, and the term Germani is associated with Germanic languages, but Caesar did not discuss languages in detail.
It has been claimed, for example by Maurits Gysseling, that the names of this region show evidence of an early presence of Germanic languages. The etymology of the word Germani is uncertain, the likeliest theory so far proposed is that it comes from a Gaulish compound of *ger near + *mani men, comparable to Welsh ger near, Old Irish gair neighbor, Irish gar- near, garach neighborly. Another Celtic possibility is that the name meant noisy, cf. Breton/Cornish garm shout, here the vowel does not match, nor does the vowel length ). Others have proposed a Germanic etymology *gēr-manni, spear men, cf. Middle Dutch ghere, Old High German Ger, Old Norse geirr. However, the form gēr seems far too advanced phonetically for the 1st century, has a vowel where a short one is expected. The term Germani, probably applied to a group of tribes in northeastern Gaul who may or may not have spoken a Germanic language
The largest city on the river Rhine is Cologne, with a population of more than 1,050,000 people. It is the second-longest river in Central and Western Europe, at about 1,230 km, with an average discharge of about 2,900 m3/s. The Rhine and the Danube formed most of the inland frontier of the Roman Empire and, since those days. The many castles and fortifications along the Rhine testify to its importance as a waterway in the Holy Roman Empire, in the modern era, it has become a symbol of German nationalism. The variant of the name of the Rhine in modern languages are all derived from the Gaulish name Rēnos, spanish is with French in adopting the Germanic vocalism Rin-, while Italian and Portuguese retain the Latin Ren-. The Gaulish name Rēnos belongs to a class of river names built from the PIE root *rei- to move, run, the grammatical gender of the Celtic name is masculine, and the name remains masculine in German and French. The Old English river name was variously inflected as masculine or feminine, the length of the Rhine is conventionally measured in Rhine-kilometers, a scale introduced in 1939 which runs from the Old Rhine Bridge at Constance to Hoek van Holland.
The river length is shortened from the rivers natural course due to a number of canalisation projects completed in the 19th and 20th century. The total length of the Rhine, to the inclusion of Lake Constance and its course is conventionally divided as follows, The Rhine carries its name without distinctive accessories only from the confluence of the Vorderrhein and Hinterrhein near Tamins-Reichenau. Above this point is the catchment of the headwaters of the Rhine. It belongs almost exclusively to the Swiss Canton of Graubünden, ranging from Gotthard Massif in the west via one valley lying in Ticino, Lake Toma near the Oberalp Pass in the Gotthard region is seen as the source of the Vorderrhein and the Rhine as a whole. The Hinterrhein rises in the Rheinwald valley below Mount Rheinwaldhorn, the Vorderrhein, or Anterior Rhine, springs from Lai da Tuma, near the Oberalp Pass and passes the impressive Ruinaulta formed by the largest visible rock slide in the alps, the Flims Rockslide. A multiday trekking route is signposted along the young Rhine called Senda Sursilvana, the Hinterrhein/Rein Posteriur, or Posterior Rhine, starts from the Paradies Glacier, near the Rheinwaldhorn.
One of its tributaries, the Reno di Lei, drains the Valle di Lei on politically Italian territory, after three main valleys separated by the two gorges and Viamala, it reaches Reichenau. The Vorderrhein arises from numerous source streams in the upper Surselva, one source is Lai da Tuma with the Rein da Tuma, which is usually indicated as source of the Rhine, flowing through it. Into it flow tributaries from the south, some longer, some equal in length, such as the Reno di Medel, the Rein da Maighels, and the Rein da Curnera. The Cadlimo Valley in the Canton of Ticino is drained by the Reno di Medel, all streams in the source area are partially, sometimes completely and sent to storage reservoirs for the local hydro-electric power plants. In its lower course the Vorderrhein flows through a gorge named Ruinaulta through the Flims Rockslide, the whole stretch of the Vorderrhein to the Rhine confluence near Reichenau-Tamins is accompanied by a long-distance hiking trail called Senda Sursilvana
Though living in Gaul, they were described as being both Belgae, and Germani. The Eburones played a role in Julius Caesars account of his Gallic Wars, as the most important tribe within the Germani cisrhenani group of tribes. Germani living west of the Rhine amongst the Belgae, Caesar claimed that the name of the Eburones was wiped out after their failed revolt against his forces during the Gallic Wars. Whether any significant part of the population lived on in the area as Tungri, Caesar is the primary source for the location of the Eburones. In the early medieval church this evolved into the church province of Cologne. This large area included parts of what are now the southern Netherlands, eastern Belgium. At one point Caesar reported that the greatest part of the Eburones settled between the Mosa and the Rhine, and on this basis German scholars place them in the northern Eifel. More generally Caesars description of a narrow defile to its west, suitable for ambush, is a type of landscape less common as one goes north in this region, towards the low-lying Campine.
In the same passage, Caesar describes the Segni and Condrusi as being south of the Eburones, between them and the Treviri, who lived near the Moselle. This is difficult to reconcile with a territory near the Eifel because the Condrusi are the origin of the name of the Condroz region in the Ardennes, south of the Meuse, and west of the Eifel. No cultural groupings can be isolated to suit the Eburones in the north Eifel according to Edith Mary Wightman, in contrast, she writes that Belgian archaeologists identify them with the cultural group in northern Limburg and Kempen which showed such strong continuity in Urnfield times. This would certainly account for the propinquity of Eburones and Menapii mentioned by Caesar and this is seen to indicate that at least part of the Eburones lived west of the Maas, closer to the river deltas. Neighbouring both the Nervii and the Eburones, possibly between them, were the Aduatuci. Caesar reported that Ambiorix had been forced to pay tribute to them before the Romans came, and it was with these two tribes, that the Eburones could quickly form a military alliance against Caesars forces.
Caesar reports that during his conflict with them, the Eburones had some sort of alliance, organized via their allies the Treveri, linguist Maurits Gysseling proposed that placenames such as Avendoren, Averdoingt and Avernas may be derived from the Eburones. Caesars forces clashed with an alliance of Belgic tribes in 57 BCE in the Battle of the Sabis, before that battle, information from the Remi, a tribe allied with Rome, stated that the Germani had collectively promised, they thought, about 40,000 men. The whole force was led by Galba, king of the Suessiones, the alliance did not work. The Suessiones and Bellovaci surrendered after the Romans defended the Remi, and after this the Ambiani offered no further resistance and the Nervii, along with the Atrebates and Viromandui, formed the most important force on the day of the battle