Ubiquitous computing is a concept in software engineering and computer science where computing is made to appear anytime and everywhere. In contrast to desktop computing, ubiquitous computing can occur using any device, in any location, in any format. A user interacts with the computer, which can exist in many different forms, including laptop computers and terminals in everyday objects such as a refrigerator or a pair of glasses; the underlying technologies to support ubiquitous computing include Internet, advanced middleware, operating system, mobile code, microprocessors, new I/O and user interfaces, computer networks, mobile protocols and positioning, new materials. This paradigm is described as pervasive computing, ambient intelligence, or "everyware"; each term emphasizes different aspects. When concerning the objects involved, it is known as physical computing, the Internet of Things, haptic computing, "things that think". Rather than propose a single definition for ubiquitous computing and for these related terms, a taxonomy of properties for ubiquitous computing has been proposed, from which different kinds or flavors of ubiquitous systems and applications can be described.
Ubiquitous computing touches on distributed computing, mobile computing, location computing, mobile networking, sensor networks, human–computer interaction, context-aware smart home technologies, artificial intelligence. Ubiquitous computing is the concept of using small internet connected and inexpensive computers to help with everyday functions in an automated fashion. For example, a domestic ubiquitous computing environment might interconnect lighting and environmental controls with personal biometric monitors woven into clothing so that illumination and heating conditions in a room might be modulated and imperceptibly. Another common scenario posits refrigerators "aware" of their suitably tagged contents, able to both plan a variety of menus from the food on hand, warn users of stale or spoiled food. Ubiquitous computing presents challenges across computer science: in systems design and engineering, in systems modelling, in user interface design. Contemporary human-computer interaction models, whether command-line, menu-driven, or GUI-based, are inappropriate and inadequate to the ubiquitous case.
This suggests that the "natural" interaction paradigm appropriate to a robust ubiquitous computing has yet to emerge – although there is recognition in the field that in many ways we are living in a ubicomp world. Contemporary devices that lend some support to this latter idea include mobile phones, digital audio players, radio-frequency identification tags, GPS, interactive whiteboards. Mark Weiser proposed three basic forms for ubiquitous computing devices: Tabs: a wearable device, a centimeter in size Pads: a hand-held device, a decimeter in size Boards: an interactive larger display device, a meter in sizeUbiquitous computing devices proposed by Mark Weiser are all based around flat devices of different sizes with a visual display. Expanding beyond those concepts there is a large array of other ubiquitous computing devices that could exist; some of the additional forms that have been conceptualized are: Dust: miniaturized devices can be without visual output displays, e.g. micro electro-mechanical systems, ranging from nanometres through micrometers to millimetres.
See Smart dust. Skin: fabrics based upon light emitting and conductive polymers, organic computer devices, can be formed into more flexible non-planar display surfaces and products such as clothes and curtains, see OLED display. MEMS device can be painted onto various surfaces so that a variety of physical world structures can act as networked surfaces of MEMS. Clay: ensembles of MEMS can be formed into arbitrary three dimensional shapes as artefacts resembling many different kinds of physical object. In Manuel Castells' book The Rise of the Network Society, Castells puts forth the concept that there is going to be a continuous evolution of computing devices, he states we will progress from stand-alone microcomputers and decentralized mainframes towards pervasive computing. Castells' model of a pervasive computing system, uses the example of the Internet as the start of a pervasive computing system; the logical progression from that paradigm is a system where that networking logic becomes applicable in every realm of daily activity, in every location and every context.
Castells envisages a system where billions of miniature, ubiquitous inter-communication devices will be spread worldwide, "like pigment in the wall paint". Ubiquitous computing may be seen to consist of many layers, each with their own roles, which together form a single system: Layer 1: Task management layer Monitors user task and index Map user's task to need for the services in the environment To manage complex dependenciesLayer 2: Environment management layer To monitor a resource and its capabilities To map service need, user level states of specific capabilitiesLayer 3: Environment layer To monitor a relevant resource To manage reliability of the resources Mark Weiser coined the phrase "ubiquitous computing" around 1988, during his tenure as Chief Technologist of the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center. Both alone and with PARC Director and Chief Scientist John Seely Brown, Weiser wrote some of the earliest papers on the subject defining it and sketching out its major concerns. Recognizing that the extension of processing power into everyday scenarios would necessitate understandings of social and psychological phenomena beyond its proper ambit
The Manasse-Block Tanning Company was founded in 1900 by August Manasse and Roy Block, whose families had leather-related businesses in Napa and San Francisco, respectively. The Manasse-Block tannery was relocated in 1905 from Oakland to 4th and Gilman Streets, Berkeley, on a site used by the Deach Tannery. Manasse-Block remained in this location for 80 years, until it closed in 1986; the primary product of the tannery was shoe leather. Raw cow hides were processed from start to finish on the site. However, towards the end of the factory's productive years, hides, processed elsewhere were finished on the site; the site was designated a City of Berkeley Landmark on April 21, 1986. Utilizing the remaining seven structures, the property provides units for a small number of live/work spaces and various business establishments and remains one of the oldest intact industrial sites in the city. "The oldest buildings are on the south side of the property along Third Street and are heavy post-and-beam construction with six-over-six light windows and rustic overlapping wood siding."
List of Berkeley Landmarks, Structures of Merit, Historic Districts Tanning Leather
Joan Busquets is an internationally renowned Spanish architect and urban planner. He holds professorships at the Technical University of Catalonia and the Harvard Graduate School of Design, his firm BAU - B Arquitectura i Urbanisme SL- is based in Barcelona. He was awarded the 2011 Erasmus Prize, an annual award for a person who has made an exceptional contribution to European culture, society or social science, "in appreciation of his impressive and multifaceted oeuvre in the field of city planning." Joan Busquets was born in 1946 in a suburb of Barcelona. In 1969 he graduated from the School of Architecture, Escola Tecnica Superior d'Arquitectura de Barcelona, University of Technology of Catalonia. Busquets was Professor of Town Planning in the School of Architecture at the Polytechnic University of Barcelona from 1979 until 2002. Since 2002 he has been a professor at the Harvard Graduate School of Design and holds the chair of Martin Bucksbaum Professor in Practice of Urban Planning and Design.
In addition, he has been visiting professor at several universities. Joan Busquets headed the Planning Department of the Municipality of Barcelona between 1983 and 1989 and during the preparations for the Olympics in 1992. Below is a selection of Busquets' works: Masterplan for the city of A Coruña, Spain, 2008 Grotius Place, The Hague, 1992–2005 Forum Visue, Portugal, 2003–2005 Housing complex Maquinista and block H1-MAQ, Barcelona, 1998-2002 Community center and block E, Rotterdam, 2002 Centre Plan Helmond, 2005 Masterplan Spoorzone Delft, 1999 Fira de Barcelona - Pedrosa L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain, 1992–1996 Centre Plan Toulouse, 2012-2017 1992: Barcelona: Evolución urbanística de una ciudad compacta, ISBN 978-8476284582 1994: Barcelona, ISBN 978-8471005366 1999: La urbanización marginal, ISBN 978-8483013250 2008: Ciutat Vella de Barcelona: Un Passat amb futur, ISBN 978-8476095669 Below is a selection of prizes awarded to Joan Busquets: Erasmus Prize, 2011 Old seal of City of Trento, 2008 The Catedra Lluis Barragán, TECM.
Guadalajara Mexico, 2007 ICSS Price for building the Chiado in Lisbon, 2001 Premio Gubbio, European Prize, 2000 National Award 1996 for the redevelopment plan for Toledo, 1996 Spanish National Planning Award for a masterplan for Lerida, 1985 Spanish National Planning Award for urban design for Sant Josep, Barcelona, 1981 Bureau BAU Laboratori d'Urbanisme de Barcelona