An ethnic group or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, history, culture or nation. Ethnicity is an inherited status based on the society in which one lives. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be defined by a shared cultural heritage, origin myth, homeland, language or dialect, symbolic systems such as religion and ritual, dressing style, art or physical appearance. Ethnic groups, derived from the same historical founder population continue to speak related languages and share a similar gene pool. By way of language shift, acculturation and religious conversion, it is sometimes possible for individuals or groups to leave one ethnic group and become part of another. Ethnicity is used synonymously with terms such as nation or people. In English, it can have the connotation of something exotic related to cultures of more recent immigrants, who arrived after the dominant population of an area was established; the largest ethnic groups in modern times comprise hundreds of millions of individuals, while the smallest are limited to a few dozen individuals.
Larger ethnic groups may be subdivided into smaller sub-groups known variously as tribes or clans, which over time may become separate ethnic groups themselves due to endogamy or physical isolation from the parent group. Conversely separate ethnicities can merge to form a pan-ethnicity and may merge into one single ethnicity. Whether through division or amalgamation, the formation of a separate ethnic identity is referred to as ethnogenesis; the term ethnic is derived from the Greek word ἔθνος ethnos. The inherited English language term for this concept is folk, used alongside the latinate people since the late Middle English period. In Early Modern English and until the mid-19th century, ethnic was used to mean heathen or pagan, as the Septuagint used ta ethne to translate the Hebrew goyim "the nations, non-Hebrews, non-Jews"; the Greek term in early antiquity could refer to any large group, a host of men, a band of comrades as well as a swarm or flock of animals. In Classical Greek, the term took on a meaning comparable to the concept now expressed by "ethnic group" translated as "nation, people".
In the 19th century, the term came to be used in the sense of "peculiar to a race, people or nation", in a return to the original Greek meaning. The sense of "different cultural groups", in American English "racial, cultural or national minority group" arises in the 1930s to 1940s, serving as a replacement of the term race which had earlier taken this sense but was now becoming deprecated due to its association with ideological racism; the abstract ethnicity had been used for "paganism" in the 18th century, but now came to express the meaning of an "ethnic character". The term ethnic group was first recorded in 1935 and entered the Oxford English Dictionary in 1972. Depending on the context, used, the term nationality may either be used synonymously with ethnicity, or synonymously with citizenship; the process that results in the emergence of an ethnicity is called ethnogenesis, a term in use in ethnological literature since about 1950. Depending on which source of group identity is emphasized to define membership, the following types of groups can be identified: Ethno-linguistic, emphasizing shared language, dialect – example: French Canadians Ethno-national, emphasizing a shared polity or sense of national identity – example: Armenians Ethno-racial, emphasizing shared physical appearance based on genetic origins – example: African Americans Ethno-regional, emphasizing a distinct local sense of belonging stemming from relative geographic isolation – example: South Islanders Ethno-religious, emphasizing shared affiliation with a particular religion, denomination or sect – example: JewsIn many cases – for instance, the sense of Jewish peoplehood – more than one aspect determines membership.
Ethnography begins in classical antiquity. The Greeks at this time did not describe foreign nations but had developed a concept of their own "ethnicity", which they grouped under the name of Hellenes. Herodotus gave a famous account of what defined Greek ethnic identity in his day, enumerating shared descent, shared language shared sanctuaries and sacrifices shared customs. Whether ethnicity qualifies as a cultural universal is to some extent dependent on the exact definition used. According to "Challenges of Measuring an Ethnic World: Science and reality", in Challenges of Measuring an Ethnic World: Science and Reality: Proceedings of the Joint Canada-United States Conference on the Measurement of Ethni
The Republic of Bashkortostan historically known as Bashkiria, is a federal subject of Russia. It is located between the Ural Mountains, its capital is the city of Ufa. With a population of 4,072,292 as of the 2010 Census, Bashkortostan is the most populous republic in Russia. According to census 2018, the population of Republic was 4,063,293. Bashkortostan, the first ethnic autonomy in Russia, was established on 28 November 1917. On 20 March 1919, it was transformed into the Bashkir ASSR, the first Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in RSFSR. In accordance with the Constitution of Bashkortostan and Russian Federation Constitution, Bashkortostan is a state, but has no sovereignty. On 11 October 1990 Bashkortostan adopted the Declaration of State Sovereignty, but subsequently abandoned it. 11 October is Republic Day in Bashkortostan. The name "Bashkortostan" derives from the name of the Bashkir ethnic group known as Başqorts. While the root of the name is Turkic, they speak the Bashkir language. The first settlements in the territory of modern Bashkortostan date from the early Paleolithic period, but the Bronze Age spurred an upsurge in the population of this territory.
When people of the Abashevo culture started settling here they possessed high skills in manufacturing bronze tools and decorations. They were the first to establish permanent settlements in the Southern Urals. Bashkortostan takes its name from the Bashkirs; the Slavonic name of the country, formed at the end of the 16th century. It appeared in the forms Bashkir land, Bashkir’, Bashkirda and Bashkir horde; the ethnonym Bashkirs first became known in the 7th century. In the 10th century, Al-Balkhi wrote about Bashkirs as a people, divided into two groups, one of which inhabited the Southern Urals, while the other lived near the Danube river, close to the boundaries of Byzantium, his contemporary Ibn-Ruste described the Bashkirs as "an independent people, occupying territories on both sides of the Ural mountain ridge between Volga, Kama and upstream of Yaik river". After the early-feudal Mongolian state had broken down in the 14th century, the territory of modern Bashkortostan became divided between the Kazan and Siberia Khanates and the Nogai Horde.
The tribes that lived there were headed by bi. After Kazan fell to Ivan the Terrible in 1554–1555, representatives of western and northwestern Bashkir tribes approached the Tsar with a request to voluntarily join Muscovy. Starting from the second half of the 16th century, Bashkiria's territory began taking shape as a part of the Russian state. In 1798 the Spiritual Assembly of Russian Muslims was established, an indication that the tsarist government recognized the rights of Bashkirs and other Muslim nations to profess Islam and perform religious rituals. Ufa Governorate, with a center in Ufa, was formed in 1865— another step towards territorial identification. After the Russian Revolution of 1917 were All-Bashkir Qoroltays on which a decision on the need to create a national federal republic within Russia; as a result, 28 November 1917 Bashkir Regional Shuro proclaims the establishment in areas with a predominantly Bashkir population of Orenburg, Samara, Ufa provinces territorial and national autonomy Bashkurdistan.
In December 1917, delegates to the All-Bashkir Congress, representing the interests of the population edge of all nationalities, voted unanimously for the resolution of the Bashkir regional Shuro the proclamation of national-territorial autonomy Bashkurdistan. The congress formed the government of Bashkurdistan, the Pre-parliament - Kese-Qoroltay and other bodies of power and administration, decisions were made on how to proceed. In March 1919, based on the agreements of the Russian Government with the Bashkir Government was formed Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. During the Soviet period, Bashkiria was granted broad autonomous rights— the first among other Russian regions; the administrative structure of the Bashkir ASSR was based on principles similar to those of other autonomous republics of Russia. On 11 October 1990, the Supreme Soviet of the Republic adopted the Declaration on state sovereignty of the Bashkir ASSR. On 25 February 1992, the Bashkir ASSR was renamed the Republic of Bashkortostan.
On 31 March 1992, a Federative Compact "On separation of authorities and powers among federal organs of power of the Russian Federation and the organs of power of the Republic of Bashkortostan" was signed. On 3 August 1994, a Compact "On separation of authorities and mutual delegating of powers among the organs of power of the Russian Federation and the organs of power of the Republic of Bashkortostan" was signed. Bashkortostan contains part of the adjacent plains. Area: 143,600 square kilometers Borders: Bashkortostan borders with Perm Krai, Sverdlovsk Oblast, Chelyabinsk Oblast, Orenburg Oblast, the Republic of Tatarstan, the Udmurt Republic Highest point: Mount Yamantau Maximum North-South distance: 550 km Maximum East-West distance: over 430 km There are over 13,000 rivers in the republic. Many rivers
Perestroika was a political movement for reformation within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during the 1980s and 1990s and is associated with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and his glasnost policy reform. The literal meaning of perestroika is "restructuring", referring to the restructuring of the Soviet political and economic system. Perestroika is sometimes argued to be a significant cause of the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the revolutions of 1989 in Eastern Europe, the end of the Cold War. Perestroika allowed more independent actions from various ministries and introduced some market-like reforms; the goal of perestroika, was not to end the command economy but rather to make socialism work more efficiently to better meet the needs of Soviet citizens. The process of implementing perestroika arguably exacerbated existing political and economic tensions within the Soviet Union and is blamed for furthering the political ascent of nationalism and nationalist political parties in the constituent republics.
Perestroika and its associated structural ailments have been cited as major catalysts leading to the dissolution of the Soviet Union. In May 1985, Gorbachev gave a speech in Leningrad in which he admitted the slowing of economic development, inadequate living standards; this was the first time. The program was furthered at the 27th Congress of the Communist Party in Gorbachev's report to the congress, in which he spoke about "perestroika", "uskoreniye", "human factor", "glasnost", "expansion of the khozraschyot". During the initial period of Mikhail Gorbachev's time in power, he talked about modifying central planning but did not make any fundamental changes. Gorbachev and his team of economic advisors introduced more fundamental reforms, which became known as perestroika. At the June 1987 plenary session of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Gorbachev presented his "basic theses", which laid the political foundation of economic reform for the remainder of the existence of the Soviet Union.
In July 1987, the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union passed the Law on State Enterprise. The law stipulated that state enterprises were free to determine output levels based on demand from consumers and other enterprises. Enterprises had to fulfill state orders, but they could dispose of the remaining output as they saw fit. However, at the same time the state still held control over the means of production for these enterprises, thus limiting their ability to enact full-cost accountability. Enterprises bought input from suppliers at negotiated contract prices. Under the law, enterprises became self-financing. No longer was the government to rescue unprofitable enterprises; the law shifted control over the enterprise operations from ministries to elected workers' collectives. Gosplan's responsibilities were to supply general guidelines and national investment priorities, not to formulate detailed production plans; the Law on Cooperatives, enacted in May 1988, was the most radical of the economic reforms during the early part of the Gorbachev era.
For the first time since Vladimir Lenin's New Economic Policy was abolished in 1928, the law permitted private ownership of businesses in the services and foreign-trade sectors. The law imposed high taxes and employment restrictions, but it revised these to avoid discouraging private-sector activity. Under this provision, cooperative restaurants and manufacturers became part of the Soviet scene. Gorbachev brought perestroika to the Soviet Union's foreign economic sector with measures that Soviet economists considered bold at that time, his programme eliminated the monopoly that the Ministry of Foreign Trade had once held on most trade operations. It permitted the ministries of the various industrial and agricultural branches to conduct foreign trade in sectors under their responsibility, rather than having to operate indirectly through the bureaucracy of trade ministry organizations. In addition and local organizations and individual state enterprises were permitted to conduct foreign trade.
This change was an attempt to redress a major imperfection in the Soviet foreign trade regime: the lack of contact between Soviet end users and suppliers and their foreign partners. The most significant of Gorbachev's reforms in the foreign economic sector allowed foreigners to invest in the Soviet Union in the form of joint ventures with Soviet ministries, state enterprises, cooperatives; the original version of the Soviet Joint Venture Law, which went into effect in June 1987, limited foreign shares of a Soviet venture to 49 percent and required that Soviet citizens occupy the positions of chairman and general manager. After potential Western partners complained, the government revised the regulations to allow majority foreign ownership and control. Under the terms of the Joint Venture Law, the Soviet partner supplied labor, a large domestic market; the foreign partner supplied capital, entrepreneurial expertise, in many cases and services of world competitive quality. Gorbachev's economic changes did not do much to restart the country's sluggish economy in the late 1980s.
The reforms decentralised things to some extent, although price controls remained, as did the ruble's inconvertibility and
The Udmurts are a people who speak the Udmurt language. In the course of history, Russian-speakers have referred to them as Chud Otyatskaya, Wotyaks or Votyaks. Tatar-speakers call the Udmurts Ar; the name Udmurt comes from *odo-mort'meadow people,' where the first part represents the Permic root *od'meadow, turf, greenery'. This is supported by a document dated 1557, in which the Udmurts are referred to as lugovye lyudi'meadow people', alongside the traditional Russian name otyaki; the second part murt means'person' an early borrowing from an Iranian language: *mertä or *martiya'person, man', thought to have been borrowed from the Indo-Aryan term *maryá-'man', literally'mortal, one, bound to die', compare Old Indic márya ‘young warrior’ and Old Indic marut ‘chariot warrior’, both connected with horses and chariots. The Proto-Indo-European word roots *mer-, *moro-s and *mer are related to the derived word *marko, meaning ‘horse’, it is related to a suffixed form of a root found in Proto-Altaic *mórV, compare Proto-Mongolic *mori, Proto-Tungusic *murin, Proto-Korean *màr and also in Proto-Dravidian *mar-ai.
According to the linguist T. Mikhailova this Indo-European word has been adopted in Central Europe from Altaic; the Indo-Europeanists T. Gamkrelidze and V. Ivanov associate this word with horse-riding Altaic tribes in the Bronze Age. On the other hand, in the Russian tradition, the name'meadow people' refers to the inhabitants of the left bank of river in general; the most relevant is the version of V. V. Napolskikh and S. K. Belykh, they suppose that ethnonym was borrowed either from Indo-Iranian *anta'outside, last, limit, boundary' or Turkic-Altaic *anda/*ant'oath, friend'. Most Udmurt people live in Udmurtia. Small groups live in the neighboring areas of Kirov Oblast and Perm Krai of Russia, Bashkortostan and Mari El; the Udmurt population is shrinking. The 2010 census counted fewer Udmurts; the Udmurt language belongs to the Uralic family. The Udmurts have a national epic called Dorvyzhy, their national musical instruments include the krez zither and a pipe-like wind instrument called the chipchirghan.
A chapter in the French Description de toutes les nations de l'empire de Russie from 1776 is devoted to the description of the Wotyak people. James George Frazer mentions a rite performed by the people in his book The Golden Bough. Many Udmurt people have red hair, a festival to celebrate the red-haired people is held annually in Izhevsk since 2004. Udmurtology --, a site devoted to online resources. Udmurt language Wikipedia
Slavic Native Faith
The Slavic Native Faith known as Rodnovery, is a modern Pagan religion. Classified as a new religious movement, its practitioners harken back to the historical belief systems of the Slavic peoples of Central and Eastern Europe. "Rodnovery" is a accepted self-descriptor within the community, although there are Rodnover organisations which further characterise the religion as Orthodoxy, Old Belief and Vedism. Rodnovers regard their religion as a faithful continuation of ancient beliefs that survived as folk religion or as conscious "double belief" following the Christianisation of the Slavs in the Middle Ages. Rodnovery draws upon surviving historical and archaeological sources, folk religion and non-Slavic sources such as Hinduism. Rodnover theology and cosmology may be described as pantheism and polytheism—worship of the supreme God of the universe and of the multiple gods and spirits of nature identified through Slavic culture. Adherents meet together in groups to conduct religious ceremonies.
These entail the invocation of gods and the pouring of libations, dances and a communal meal. Rodnover ethical thinking emphasises the good of the collective over the rights of the individual; the religion is patriarchal, attitudes towards sex and gender are conservative. Rodnovery has developed distinctive strains of identitary philosophy. Rodnover organisations characterise themselves as ethnic religions, emphasising that the religion is bound to Slavic ethnicity; this manifests as ethnic nationalism, opposition to miscegenation and the belief in the fundamental difference of racial groups. Rodnovers glorify Slavic history, criticising the impact of Christianity in Slavic countries and arguing that these nations will play a central role in the world's future. Rodnovers share a strong feeling that their religion represents a paradigmatic shift which will overcome Western thought and what they call "mono-ideologies"; the contemporary organised Rodnovery movement arose from a multiplicity of sources and charismatic leaders just at the brink of the collapse of the Soviet Union and spread by the mid-1990s and the 2000s.
Antecedents are to be found in late 18th- and 19th-century Slavic Romanticism, which glorified the pre-Christian beliefs of Slavic societies. Active religious practitioners devoted to establishing Slavic Native Faith appeared in Poland and Ukraine in the 1930s and 1940s. Following the Second World War and the establishment of communist states throughout the Eastern Bloc, new variants were established by Slavic emigrants living in Western countries, being introduced in Central and Eastern European countries after the collapse of the Soviet Union. In recent times, the movement has been studied in academic scholarship. Scholars of religion regard Slavic Native Faith as a modern Pagan religion, they characterise it as a new religious movement. The movement has no overarching structure, or accepted religious authority, contains much diversity in terms of belief and practice; the sociologist of religion Kaarina Aitamurto suggests that Rodnovery is sufficiently heterogeneous that it could be regarded itself not as a singular religion but as "an umbrella term that gathers together various forms of religiosity".
The scholar of religion Alexey Gaidukov described "Slavic Neopaganism" as a term pertaining to "all quasi-religious, political and philosophical systems which are based on the reconstruction and construction of pre-Christian Slavic traditions". The scholar of religion Adrian Ivakhiv describes the religion as a movement which "harkens back to the pre-Christian beliefs and practices of ancient Slavic peoples", while according to the historian and ethnologist Victor A. Shnirelman, Rodnovers present themselves as "followers of some genuine pre-Christian Slavic, Russian or Slavic-Aryan Paganism"; some involved in the movement avoid calling their belief system either "paganism" or "religion". Many Rodnovers refer to their belief system as an "ethnic religion", Rodnover groups were involved in establishing the World Congress of Ethnic Religions; the usage of this term suggests. Some practitioners regard "ethnic religion" as a term synonymous with "Native Faith", but others perceive there as being a distinction between the two terms.
According to Shnirelman, it was the Soviet Union's official "scientific" atheism, which weakened the infrastructure of universalist religions, combined with anti-Westernism and the research of intellectuals into an ancient "Vedic" religion of Russia, that paved the way for the rise of Rodnovery and other modern Paganisms in Eastern Europe. After the Soviet Union, the pursuit of Rodnovery matured into the spiritual cultivation of organic folk communities in the face of what Rodnovers consider as the alien cosmopolitan forces which drive global assimilation, chiefly represented by the Abrahamic religions. In the Russian intellectual milieu, Rodnovery presents itself as the ideology of "nativism", which in Rodnovers' own historical analysis is destined to supplant what they call the "mono-ideologies" whose final bankruptcy the world is now witnessing. Shnirelman states that—contrary to the beliefs of Rodnovers themselves—their religion does not constitute the "restoration of any pre-Christian religion as such".
Rather, he describes the movement as having been "built up artificially by urbanised intellectuals who use fragments of early pre-Christian local beliefs and rites in order to restore national spirituality". In this way, Slavic Native Faith has been understood—at least in part—as an invented tradition, or a form of Folklorismus. Simpson notes, studying the specific context of Poland, that u
In classical Roman religion, a genius loci was the protective spirit of a place. It was depicted in religious iconography as a figure holding attributes such as a cornucopia, patera or snake. Many Roman altars found throughout the Western Roman Empire were dedicated to a particular genius loci; the Roman imperial cults of the Emperor and the imperial house developed in part in connections with the sacrifices made by neighborhood associations to the local genius. These 265 local districts had their cult organised around the Lares Compitales, which the emperor Augustus transformed into Lares Augusti along with the Genius Augusti; the Emperor's genius is regarded as the genius loci of the Roman Empire as a whole. Roman examples of these Genii can be found, for example, at the church of St. Giles, Wiltshire where the genius locus is depicted as a relief in the wall of a Norman church built of Roman material; this shows "a youthful and curly-haired Roman Genius worked in high relief, holding a cornucopia in his left hand and a patera in his right", "erroneously identified as Asclepius".
The numinous spirits of places in Asia are still honored today in city pillar shrines, outdoor spirit houses and indoor household and business shrines. In contemporary usage, genius loci refers to a location's distinctive atmosphere, or a "spirit of the place", rather than a guardian spirit. An example of contemporary usage might be along the lines of "Light reveals the genius loci of a place." Alexander Pope made the Genius Loci an important principle in garden and landscape design with the following lines from Epistle IV, to Richard Boyle, Earl of Burlington: Pope's verse laid the foundation for one of the most agreed principles of landscape architecture. This is the principle that landscape designs should always be adapted to the context in which they are located. A priori and genius loci are the primary principals of Neo-Rationalism or New Rationalism. Pioneered by the Italian architect Aldo Rossi, Neo-Rationalism developed in the light of a re-evaluation of the work of Giuseppe Terragni, gained momentum through the work of Giorgio Grassi.
Characterized by elemental vernacular forms and an adaptation to the existing environment, the Neo-Rationalist style has adherents beyond architecture in the greater world of art. In the context of modern architectural theory, genius loci has profound implications for place-making, falling within the philosophical branch of "phenomenology"; this field of architectural discourse is explored most notably by the theorist Christian Norberg-Schulz in his book, Genius Loci: Towards a Phenomenology of Architecture. In modern works of fantasy, such as Dungeons and Dragons or The Dresden Files, a genius loci is an intelligent spirit or magical power that resides in a place. Few genius loci of this form are able to move from their native area, either because they are "part of the land" or because they are bound to it. Genius loci are portrayed as being powerful and also intelligent, though there is a great deal of variability on these points; some versions are nearly omnipotent and omniscient inside the area they inhabit, while others are vast, semi-sentient wellsprings of magical energy.
This power never extends beyond the border of the genius loci. Different settings give different explanations for the existence of genius loci. In most cases, the intelligent, magical entity develops from the named "spirit of place" over a great deal of time. In other settings, genius loci are formed by powerful magical events, in others they are the results of ley lines, mana pools, or an equivalent. Chenghuang, the Chinese urban equivalent Genius Jinn Landvættir Shekhinah Tomte Tudigong, the Chinese equivalent Tutelary deity Zashiki-warashi Zeitgeist Patterson, Barry; the Art of Conversation with the Genius Loci. Cappall Bann Books. ISBN 1-86163-169-3. Media related to Genius loci at Wikimedia Commons Essay on the Genius loci in landscape and garden design St. Giles, Wiltshire Relief in the wall