Iskushuban is a small town in the northeastern Bari province of Somalia. A historical settlement, it is situated in the autonomous Puntland state, it lies along the 50th meridian east. Iskushuban is the centre of the Iskushuban District, it lies 80 km east of Qardho and 150 km south of Bosaso, the commercial capital of the Puntland region. In the Arie valley, midway between the town and Qardho, once lay a sizeable city that had considerable structures with thick walls. Iskushuban is renowned for its seasonal waterfalls, which are the second largest in the country after those at Lamadaya in the northern Sanaag region. Iskushuban has a population of around 7,000 inhabitants; the broader Iskushuban District has a total population of 45,027 residents. Iskushuban has a number of academic institutions. According to the Puntland Ministry of Education, there are 8 primary schools in the Iskushuban District. Among these are Timirshe, Meeladeen and Iskushuban Primary. Sites in Iskushuban: Iskushuban
Somalia the Federal Republic of Somalia (Somali: Jamhuuriyadda Federaalka Soomaaliya. Jumhūrīyah aṣ-Ṣūmāl al-Fīdirālīyah, is a country located in the Horn of Africa, it is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, Djabuti to the northwest, the Gulf of Aden to the north, the Guardafui Channel and Somali Sea to the east, Kenya to the southwest. Somalia has the longest coastline on Africa's mainland, its terrain consists of plateaus and highlands. Climatically, hot conditions prevail year-round, with periodic monsoon winds and irregular rainfall. Somalia has an estimated population of around 14.3 million. And has been described as the most culturally homogeneous country in Africa. Around 85% of its residents are ethnic Somalis, who have inhabited the northern part of the country. Ethnic minorities are concentrated in the southern regions; the official languages of are Arabic. Most people in the country are Muslim, with the majority being Sunni. In antiquity, Somalia was an important commercial centre, it is among the most probable locations of the fabled ancient Land of Punt.
During the Middle Ages, several powerful Somali empires dominated the regional trade, including the Ajuran Empire, the Adal Sultanate, the Warsangali Sultanate, the Sultanate of the Geledi. The toponym Somalia was coined by the Italian explorer Luigi Robecchi Bricchetti. In the late 19th century, the British and Italian empires established the colonies of British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland. In the interior, Mohammed Abdullah Hassan's Darwiish repelled the British four times, forcing a retreat to the coast, before succumbing in the Somaliland campaign. Italy acquired full control of the northeastern and southern parts of the area after waging the Campaign of the Sultanates against the ruling Majeerteen Sultanate and Sultanate of Hobyo. In 1960, the two regions united to form the independent Somali Republic under a civilian government; the Supreme Revolutionary Council seized power in 1969 and established the Somali Democratic Republic, which collapsed in 1991 as the Somali Civil War broke out.
During this period most regions returned to religious law. The early 2000s saw the creation of interim federal administrations; the Transitional National Government was established in 2000, followed by the formation of the Transitional Federal Government in 2004, which reestablished the military. In 2006, the TFG assumed control of most of the nation's southern conflict zones from the newly formed Islamic Courts Union; the ICU subsequently splintered into more radical groups such as Al-Shabaab, which battled the TFG and its AMISOM allies for control of the region. By mid-2012, the insurgents had lost most of the territory that they had seized, a search for more permanent democratic institutions began. A new provisional constitution was passed in August 2012; the same month, the Federal Government of Somalia was formed and a period of reconstruction began in Mogadishu. Somalia has maintained an informal economy based on livestock, remittances from Somalis working abroad, telecommunications, it is a member of the United Nations, the Arab League, African Union, Non-Aligned Movement and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
Somalia has been inhabited since at least the Paleolithic. During the Stone Age, the Doian and Hargeisan cultures flourished here; the oldest evidence of burial customs in the Horn of Africa comes from cemeteries in Somalia dating back to the 4th millennium BCE. The stone implements from the Jalelo site in the north were characterized in 1909 as important artefacts demonstrating the archaeological universality during the Paleolithic between the East and the West. According to linguists, the first Afroasiatic-speaking populations arrived in the region during the ensuing Neolithic period from the family's proposed urheimat in the Nile Valley, or the Near East; the Laas Geel complex on the outskirts of Hargeisa in northwestern Somalia dates back 5,000 years, has rock art depicting both wild animals and decorated cows. Other cave paintings are found in the northern Dhambalin region, which feature one of the earliest known depictions of a hunter on horseback; the rock art is in the distinctive Ethiopian-Arabian style, dated to 1,000 to 3,000 BCE.
Additionally, between the towns of Las Khorey and El Ayo in northern Somalia lies Karinhegane, the site of numerous cave paintings of real and mythical animals. Each painting has an inscription below it, which collectively have been estimated to be around 2,500 years old. Ancient pyramidical structures, ruined cities and stone walls, such as the Wargaade Wall, are evidence of an old civilization that once thrived in the Somali peninsula; this civilization enjoyed a trading relationship with ancient Egypt and Mycenaean Greece since the second millennium BCE, supporting the hypothesis that Somalia or adjacent regions were the location of the ancient Land of Punt. The Puntites traded myrrh, gold, short-horned cattle and frankincense with the Egyptians, Babylonians, Indians and Romans through their commercial ports. An Egyptian expedition sent to Punt by the 18th dynasty Queen Hatshepsut is recorded on the temple reliefs at Deir el-Bahari, during the reign of the Puntite King Parahu and Queen Ati.
In 2015, isotopic analysis of ancient baboon mummies from Punt, brought to Egypt as gifts indicated that the specimens originated from an area encompassing eastern Somalia and the Eritrea-Ethiopia corridor. In the classical era, the Macrobians, who may have b
Puntland the Puntland State of Somalia, is a region in northeastern Somalia. Centred on the town of Garoowe in the Nugal province, its leaders declared the territory an autonomous state in 1998 but is internationally recognized as an autonomous region of Somalia. Puntland is bordered by Somaliland to its west, the Gulf of Aden in the north, the Guardafui Channel in the northeast, the Somali Sea in the southeast, the central Galmudug region in the south, Ethiopia in the southwest. There are several major geographical apexes in Puntland, including the Cape Guardafui which forms the tip of the Horn of Africa, Ras Hafun the easternmost place on the entire African continent, the beginning of the karkaar mountain range, it has the northernmost major city in Somalia, located at a line of latitude higher than 11° north. The name "Puntland" is derived from the Land of Punt mentioned in ancient Egyptian sources, although the exact location of the fabled territory is still a mystery. Many studies suggest that the Land of Punt was located in present-day Somalia, whereas others propose that it was situated elsewhere.
The Warsangali Sultanate was an imperial ruling house centred in northeastern and in some parts of southeastern Somalia. It was one of the largest sultanates established in the territory, and, at the height of its power, included the Sanaag region and parts of the northeastern Bari region of the country, an area known as Maakhir or the Maakhir Coast; the Sultanate was founded in the 13th century in northern Somalia by a group of Somalis from the Warsangali branch of the Darod clan, was ruled by the descendants of the Gerad Dhidhin. In the late 19th century, the influential Sultan Mohamoud Ali Shire governed the Sultanate, assuming control during some of its most turbulent years; the Majeerteen Sultanate was founded in the mid-18th century. It rose to prominence the following century, under the reign of the resourceful Boqor Osman Mahamuud. Centred in Aluula, it controlled much of northern and central Somalia in the 19th and early 20th centuries; the polity maintained a robust trading network, entered into treaties with foreign powers, exerted strong centralized authority on the domestic front.
The Majeerteen Sultanate was nearly destroyed in the mid-1800s by a power struggle between Boqor Osman and his ambitious cousin, Yusuf Ali Kenadid. After five years of battle, the young upstart was forced into exile in Yemen. A decade in the 1870s, Kenadid returned from the Arabian Peninsula with a band of Hadhrami musketeers and a group of devoted lieutenants. With their assistance, he managed to overpower the local clans and establish the Sultanate of Hobyo in 1878. In late 1889, Boqor Osman entered into a treaty with Italy, making his realm an Italian protectorate, his rival Sultan Kenadid had signed a similar agreement vis-a-vis his own Sultanate the year before. Both rulers had signed the protectorate treaties to advance their own expansionist objectives, with Boqor Osman looking to use Italy's support in his ongoing power struggle with Kenadid over the Majeerteen Sultanate. Boqor Osman and Sultan Kenadid hoped to exploit the conflicting interests among the European imperial powers that were looking to control the Somali peninsula, so as to avoid direct occupation of their territories by force.
With the gradual extension into northern Somalia of European colonial rule, all three sultanates were annexed to Italian Somaliland and British Somaliland in the early 20th century. The local commercial hub of Bosaso was represented in the parliament of the succeeding Trust Territory of Somaliland by the MPs Ugas Yasin Ugas Abdurahman and Haji Bashir Ismail Yusuf. Much of the northern sultanates' former domain is today co-extensive with the autonomous Puntland region in northeastern Somalia. Following the outbreak of the Somali Civil War in 1991, a home-grown constitutional conference was held in Garoowe in 1998 over a period of three months. Attended by the area's political elite, traditional elders, members of the business community and other civil society representatives, the autonomous Puntland State of Somalia was established to deliver services to the population, offer security, facilitate trade, interact with domestic and international partners. Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed served as the fledgling state's founding president.
As stipulated in Article 1 of the Transitional Federal Charter of the Somali Republic, Puntland is a part of the Federal State of Somalia. As such, the region adheres to a federal system of government. Unlike the secessionist region of Somaliland to its west, Puntland is not trying to obtain international recognition as a separate nation. However, both regions have one thing in common: they base their support upon clan elders and their organizational structure along lines based on clan relationships and kinship. Since 1998, Puntland has been in territorial disputes with Somaliland over the Sool and Sanaag regions; the legal structure of Puntland consists of the judiciary and the executive branches of government. Though peaceful, the region experienced political unrest in 2001 when President of Puntland, Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed, one of the founding fathers of the Puntland State and its first president, wanted his term extended. Ahmed and Jama Ali Jama fought for control of the region, with Ahmed emerging victorious the following year.
Ahmed served his second term as president until October 2004, when he was elected President of Somalia. He was succeeded in office by Mohamed Hashi, who se
Bosaso is a city in the northeastern Bari province of Somalia. It is the seat of the Bosaso District. Located on the southern coast of the Gulf of Aden, the municipality serves as the region's commercial capital and is a major seaport within the autonomous Puntland state, it has an estimated population of around 164,906 residents. The city has a diverse economy centred on education, banking, aviation, clothes, steel, health care, hospitality and technology; the area's many colleges and universities make it a regional hub of higher education, including law, medicine and business and entrepreneurship. The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea indicates that ancient Greek merchants sailed to Bosaso, providing notes about the strategic and geographical location of the current Bosaso area, known as Mosylon in ancient times. Bosaso was known as Bandar Qasim, a name derived from an Arab trader of the same name, said to have settled in the area during the 14th century. Bosaso has been a Dishiishe Darod stronghold.
Near Bosaso, at the end of the Baalade valley, lies a 2 km to 3 km long earthwork. Local tradition recounts, it is the largest such structure in the wider Horn region. Since centuries the city was among the areas ruled by the Dishiishe clan. Forming a part of Italian Somaliland, Bosaso was represented in the parliament of the succeeding Trust Territory of Somalia by the MPs Ugas Yasin Ugas Abdurahman and Haji Bashir Ismail Yusuf; the town would be administered through the official Bari region in the post-independence period. Barkhad Ali Salah served as first mayor of the town. With the start of the Somali Civil War and the subsequent formation of Puntland in the 1990s, Bosaso has become the business capital of the northeastern regions of Somalia. In recent years, it has served as a refueling station for maritime transport between the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf ports, has become an important commercial point of entry. Bosaso is situated on the Gulf of Aden coast. Nearby settlements include to the east Rehiss, to the northeast Mareroo, to the west Baalade, to the southwest Laas Geel, to the south Lasgoriga, to the southeast El Dhurre.
The largest cities in the country most proximate to Bosaso are Erigavo and Berbera. Shimbiris, the highest peak in Somalia, is located some 220 km to the southwest in the Cal Madow mountain range. In June 2014, the Puntland government launched a new tree-planting campaign in the state, with the regional Ministry of Environment and Tourism slated to plant 25,000 trees by the end of the year. Bosaso is among the seven cities and towns earmarked for the reforestation initiative, which include Garowe, Dhahar, Buuhoodle and Galkayo; the campaign is part of a broader partnership between the Puntland authorities and EU to set up various environmental protection measures in the region, with the aim of promoting reforestation and afforestation. Bosaso has a hot desert climate, it has a mean annual relative humidity of around 60%. The average daily mean temperature year-round is 30 °C, with an average annual high of 35 °C and an average annual low of 25 °C. Average low temperatures are coolest during the winter months of December to February, when thermometer readings level out at 20 °C.
The weather heats up in the spring, as the April rainy season begins. Average high temperatures peak during the summer months of June to August, when they exceed 40 °C. Come September, cooler weather starts to set in again. Rainfall reaches a high with an average precipitation of 7 mm in November. Total rainfall year-round is around 19 mm. Bosaso's total population is estimated at around 164,906 residents. An additional 50,000 registered internally displaced people from conflict-stricken parts of southern Somalia have sought refuge in camps on the outskirts of the city. Furthermore, Bosaso is a major port for boats carrying emigrants from within the country as well as adjacent territories across the Gulf of Aden to settle in the Persian Gulf states. While Bosaso today is a melting pot, with residents hailing from many different parts of Somalia, most of the city's population is from the Harti confederation of Darod sub-clans. Bosaso city affairs are managed by the Bosaso Municipality, its leadership is appointed by members of the area's 29 District Councils.
The municipal authority is led by Mayor Yasin Mire Mohamud, who succeeded Hassan Abdallah Hassan in office. Each of the city's various districts has its own municipal sub-authorities, complete with a mayor and civil servants. Bosaso is a city, experiencing a period of rapid growth. Prior to the Somali civil war, it had a population of under 50,000 inhabitants. Since the conflict, Somalis belonging to the Harti Darod sub-clans began migrating back to their ancestral areas of Puntland; as a consequence of these migrations, Bosaso's population and the local housing industry have grown tremendously. In December 2011, a new commercial market opened in Bosaso's northern Dayaha neighborhood, near the port. Half a kilometer in size, it was designed to ensure easy vehicle access; the market is the result of careful planning between Puntland government officials and civil society representatives. In September 2013, Puntland Minister of Fisheries Mohamed Farah Adan announced that the Ministry in conjunction with the FAO would ope