His Eminence is a style of reference for high nobility, still in use in various religious contexts. The style remains in use as the official style or standard of address in reference to a cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church, reflecting his status as a Prince of the Church. A longer, more formal, title is "His Most Reverend Eminence". Patriarchs of Eastern Catholic Churches who are cardinals may be addressed as "His Eminence" or by the style particular to Eastern Catholic patriarchs, His Beatitude; when the Grand Master of the Military Order of the Knights of Malta, the head of state of their sovereign territorial state comprising the island of Malta until 1797, made a Reichsfürst in 1607, became the most senior official after the most junior member of the cardinals in 1630, he was awarded the hybrid style His Most Eminent Highness to recognize his status as a type of prince of the Church. The Prince and Grand Master of the contemporary Sovereign Military Order of Malta is still styled His Most Eminent Highness.
Styles such as "His Grand Eminence" or "His Eminent Grace" amongst others were used as well, some formalized by the pope or other powers, such as monarchs. However, many others were the personal preference of the cardinal and by the merit of other earthly offices. While the term is shunned by many individuals of other faiths or denominations of Christianity, the title is maintained in international diplomacy without regard for its doctrinal and theological origins. Archbishops in the Eastern Orthodox Church are addressed with the styles of "Beatitude" or "Eminence"; the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople is styled "His All-Holiness", so is, the Metropolitan Bishop of Thessaloniki. The patriarchs of Alexandria and Jerusalem, as well as the Georgian, Serbian and Russian patriarchs are referred to as "His Holiness", while Romanian Patriarchs are referred to as "His Beatitude". In Oriental Orthodoxy bishops holding the rank of metropolitan are referred to as "His Eminence"; the Archbishop of Ohrid and Macedonia is addressed as "His Beatitude".
It is used, informally, in Islam for honorable religious leaders. For example, an Imam of the Sunni Barelwi school of thought, Moulana Syed Madani Mia, is addressed with this title, along with individuals such as Moulana Khushtar Siddiqi of Mauritius, although these titles are, in essence, unofficial. Beyond this, the traditional rulers of the sub-national states of the Fulani, Hausa and Kanuri peoples of Nigeria use the style as an alternative to the HRH style, used by the country's royal monarchs, highlighting by so doing their positions as spiritual as well as temporal leaders. Ecclesiastical address "Eminence". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911
October 1978 papal conclave
The papal conclave of October 1978 was triggered by the death of Pope John Paul I on 28 September just 33 days after his election on 26 August. The conclave to elect John Paul I's successor began on 14 October and ended two days on 16 October, after eight ballots; the cardinal electors elected Archbishop of Kraków, as the new pope. Resulting in the most recent Year of Three Popes, he accepted his election and took the pontifical name of John Paul II. Ten days after the funeral of Pope John Paul I, on 14 October, the doors of the Sistine Chapel were sealed and the conclave commenced, it was divided between two strong candidates for the papacy: Giuseppe Siri, the conservative Archbishop of Genoa, the liberal Giovanni Benelli, the Archbishop of Florence and a close associate of John Paul I. Inside the conclave were three non-Cardinals. One was future-Cardinal Donald Wuerl who, as secretary to the frail Cardinal John Wright, was allowed inside the Sistine Chapel to assist him. Supporters of Benelli were confident.
In early ballots, Benelli came within nine votes. But the scale of opposition to both papabili meant that neither was to receive the two-thirds plus one needed for election. Among the Italian contingent, Giovanni Colombo was the only viable compromise candidate, but when he started to receive votes, he announced that if elected he would decline to accept the papacy. Cardinal Franz König, the influential and respected Archbishop of Vienna, individually suggested to his fellow electors a compromise candidate: the Polish Cardinal Karol Józef Wojtyła, whom König knew and by whom he was impressed. Among those cardinals who rallied behind Wojtyła were supporters of Siri, Stefan Wyszyński, most of the American cardinals, other moderate cardinals. Wojtyła defeated Benelli on the eighth ballot on the third day with, according to the Italian press, 99 votes from the 111 participating electors, he accepted his election with these words: "With obedience in faith to Christ, my Lord, with trust in the Mother of Christ and the Church, in spite of great difficulties, I accept."
The Pope, in tribute to his immediate predecessor took the name of John Paul II. He became the first non-Italian pope since the Dutch Adrian VI, who reigned from 1522 to 1523. At 6:18 p.m. local time, the white smoke rose from the chimney of the Sistine Chapel, announcing to the public that a new pope had been elected. The senior Cardinal Deacon, Pericle Felici, after checking the correct pronunciation of the new pope's Polish name with Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński, gave the traditional Latin announcement of Wojtyła's election from the balcony of St. Peter's Basilica. John Paul II appeared on the balcony at 7:15, while gripping the balustrade, broke precedent by delivering a brief speech before his first Urbi et Orbi blessing in Italian: Praised be Jesus Christ! Dear brothers and sisters, we are still all saddened by the death of the dear Pope John Paul I, and now the most eminent cardinals have called a new bishop of Rome. They called him from a far-away country...far, but always near in the communion of faith and the Christian tradition.
I was afraid in receiving this nomination, but I did it in the spirit of obedience to Our Lord and with total trust in his Mother, the Most Holy Madonna. I don't know, but if I make a mistake, you will correct me. And so I introduce myself to you all, to confess our common faith, our hope, our trust in the Mother of Christ and of the Church, to begin again on this path of history and of the Church with the help of God and with that of men. During the speech, a member of the Roman Curia requested that the new pope end his speech, but the pope ignored the admonition and continued talking; the speech made a good impression on Italian listeners who were nervous at the prospect of a foreign pope. This was due to an intentional mistake made by the newly elected Pope during this speech, given in Italian language, a mistake that won the applause of the crowd, releasing the tension of the event. John Paul II said: "...se mi sbaglio mi corigerete!". The rule Paul VI established in Ingravescentem aetatem and reiterated in Romano Pontifici Eligendo limited participation in the conclave to cardinals who had yet to reach the age of 80 on the first day of the conclave.
The August 1978 conclave was the first in which this rule applied and that of October 1978 the second. The 15 cardinals ineligible to participate in both 1978 conclaves were: Carlos Carmelo Vasconcellos Motta, Archbishop of Aparecida Josef Frings, Archbishop emeritus of Cologne Antonio Caggiano, Archbishop emeritus of Buenos Aires James Francis McIntyre, Archbishop emeritus of Los Angeles Alfredo Ottaviani, Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith Carlo Confalonieri, Dean of the College of Cardinals Antonio María Barbieri Archbishop emeritus of Montevideo Alberto di Jorio, retired curia official Paolo Marella, Vice Dean of the College of Cardinals Jozef Slipyj, Archbishop Major of Lviv of the Ukrainians Lawrence Joseph Shehan, Archbishop emeritus of Baltimore Patrick Aloysius O'Boyle, Archbishop emeritus of Washington Pietro Parente, theologian Miguel Darío Miranda y Gómez, Archbishop emeritus of Mexico City Ferdinando Giuseppe Antonelli, Secretary emeritus of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints Cardinal electors for the papal conclaves and October 1978 A "Foreign" Pope from Time Magazine, 30 October 1978.
Episcopal Conference of Italy
The Italian Episcopal Conference is the episcopal conference of the Italian bishops of the Catholic Church, the official assembly of the bishops in Italy. The conference was founded in 1971 and carries out certain tasks and has the authority to set the liturgical norms for the Mass. Episcopal conferences receive their authority under particular mandates, its president has been Angelo Bagnasco since his appointment by Pope Benedict XVI on 7 March 2007. It is the only episcopal conference for which the pope as Primate appoints the President and Secretary-General. In all other conferences the president is elected, while the secretary-general is elected in all others. Vatican sources suggested in August 2013 that Pope Francis, as part of a more general reform of the national bishops' conferences to promote collegiality, is considering allowing the Italian bishops to elect their own officers. A public domain version of the Bible in Italian is published by the Conferenza Episcopale Italiana. Ildefonso Schuster Adeodato Giovanni Piazza Maurilio Fossati Giuseppe Siri A temporary committee of cardinals with collective presidency: Giovanni Colombo, Ermenegildo Florit, Giovanni Urbani Giovanni Urbani Antonio Poma Anastasio Ballestrero Ugo Poletti Camillo Ruini Angelo Bagnasco Gualtiero Bassetti The official that deals with the day-to-day affairs of the Conference is the Secretary-General.
Camillo Ruini Dionigi Tettamanzi Ennio Antonelli Giuseppe Betori Mariano Crociata Nunzio Galantino Avvenire Catholic Church in Italy Official site
Omegna is a comune in the Province of Verbano-Cusio-Ossola in the Italian region Piedmont, located about 100 kilometres northeast of Turin and about 13 kilometres southwest of Verbania at the northernmost point of Lago d’Orta and traversed by the Nigoglia, the lake's sole outflow. A lively street market is held every Thursday morning along the lakeside boulevard. A daily ferry service connects Omegna with villages around the lake; the presence of ancient settlement in the area has been proved by excavations held in the frazione of Cireggio, archaeological findings dating from the late Bronze and Iron Ages. Omegna is mentioned in 1221 AD. In the 19th and early 20th century it became an industrial center and the population was increased by immigrants. In 1913 Omegna was connected with Pallanza by an electrical tramway line, it was declared a city in 1939. During World War II it was a center of partisan resistance against the German-Fascist occupation. Church of Sant'Ambrogio, it is a late-Romanesque building with two aisles, with side chapels.
The bell tower is still the medieval one. The interior is now in Baroque style, houses an altarpiece by Fermo Stella da Caravaggio and an urn with the relics of St. Vith, patron saint of Omegna. Ponte Antico, over the Strona river. Porta della Valle known as Porta Romana, it is the only surviving one among the five medieval gates of Omegna. Museum of Arts and Industry Forum. Lodi, Lombardy Official website
A gangster is a criminal, a member of a gang. Some gangs are considered to be part of organized crime. Gangsters are called mobsters, a term derived from mob and the suffix -ster. Gangs provide a level of organization and resources that support much larger and more complex criminal transactions than an individual criminal could achieve. Gangsters have been active for many years in countries around the world; some gangsters, such as Al Capone have become infamous. Gangsters are the subject of many novels and films from the period between 1920 and 1990; some contemporary criminals refer to themselves as "gangsta" in reference to non-rhotic black American pronunciation. In today's usage, the term "gang" is used for a criminal organization, the term "gangster" invariably describes a criminal. Much has been written on the subject of gangs, although there is no clear consensus about what constitutes a gang or what situations lead to gang formation and evolution. There is agreement that the members of a gang have a sense of common identity and belonging, this is reinforced through shared activities and through visual identifications such as special clothing, tattoos or rings.
Some preconceptions may be false. For example, the common view that illegal drug distribution in the United States is controlled by gangs has been questioned. A gang may be a small group of people who cooperate in criminal acts, as with the Jesse James gang, which ended with the leader's death in 1882, but a gang may be a larger group with a formal organization. The Chicago Outfit created by Al Capone outlasted its founder's imprisonment and death, survived into the 21st century. Large and well structured gangs such as the Mafia, drug cartels, Triads or outlaw motorcycle gangs can undertake complex transactions that would be far beyond the capability of one individual, can provide services such as dispute arbitration and contract enforcement that parallel those of a legitimate government; the term "organized crime" is not synonymous. A small street gang that engages in sporadic low-level crime would not be seen as "organized". An organization that coordinates gangs in different countries involved in the international trade in drugs or prostitutes may not be considered a "gang".
Although gangs and gangsters have existed in many countries and at many times in the past, they have played more prominent roles during times of weakened social order or when governments have attempted to suppress access to goods or services for which there is a high demand. The Sicilian Mafia, or Cosa Nostra is a criminal syndicate that emerged in the mid-nineteenth century in Sicily, Italy, it is a loose association of criminal groups that share common organizational structure and code of conduct. The origins lie in the upheaval of Sicily's transition out of feudalism in 1812 and its annexation by mainland Italy in 1860. Under feudalism, the nobility owned most of the land and enforced law and order through their private armies. After 1812, the feudal barons sold off or rented their lands to private citizens. Primogeniture was abolished, land could no longer be seized to settle debts, one fifth of the land was to become private property of the peasants. Organized crime has existed in Russia since the days of Imperial Russia in the form of banditry and thievery.
In the Soviet period Vory v Zakone emerged, a class of criminals that had to abide by certain rules in the prison system. One such rule was. During World War II some prisoners made a deal with the government to join the armed forces in return for a reduced sentence, but upon their return to prison they were attacked and killed by inmates who remained loyal to the rules of the thieves. In 1988 the Soviet Union legalized private enterprise but did not provide regulations to ensure the security of market economy. Crude markets emerged, the most notorious being the Rizhsky market where prostitution rings were run next to the Rizhsky Railway Station in Moscow; as the Soviet Union headed for collapse many former government workers turned to crime, while others moved overseas. Former KGB agents and veterans of the Afghan and First and Second Chechen Wars, now unemployed but with experience that could prove useful in crime, joined the increasing crime wave. At first, the Vory v Zakone played a key role in arbitrating the gang wars that erupted in the 1990s.
By the mid-1990s it was believed that "Don" Semion Mogilevich had become the "boss of all bosses" of most Russian Mafia syndicates in the world, described by the British government as "one of the most dangerous men in the world". More criminals with stronger ties to big business and the government have displaced the Vory from some of their traditional niches, although the Vory are still strong in gambling and the retail trade; the Albanian Mafia is active in Albania, the United States, the European Union countries, participating in a diverse range of criminal enterprises including drug and arms trafficking. The people of the mountainous country of Albania have always had strong traditions of family and clan loyalty, in some ways similar to that of southern Italy. Ethnic Albanian gangs have grown since 1992 during the prolonged period of instability in the Balkans after the collapse of Yugoslavia; this coincided with large scale migration to the United States and Canada. Although based in Albania, the gangs handle international transactions such as trafficking in economic migrants and other contraband, weapons.
Other criminal organizations that emerged in the Balkans around this time are popularly called the Serbian Mafia, Bosnian Mafia, Bu
A papal conclave is a meeting of the College of Cardinals convened to elect a Bishop of Rome known as the pope. The pope is considered by Roman Catholics to be the apostolic successor of Saint Peter and earthly head of the Roman Catholic Church. Concerns around political interference led to reforms after the interregnum of 1268–1271 and Pope Gregory X's decree during the Second Council of Lyons in 1274 that the cardinal electors should be locked in seclusion cum clave and not permitted to leave until a new Bishop of Rome had been elected. Conclaves are now held in the Sistine Chapel of the Apostolic Palace. Since the Apostolic Age, the Bishop of Rome, like other bishops, was chosen by the consensus of the clergy and laity of the diocese; the body of electors was more defined when, in 1059, the College of Cardinals was designated the sole body of electors. Since other details of the process have developed. In 1970, Pope Paul VI limited the electors to cardinals under 80 years of age in Ingravescentem aetatem.
The current procedures were established by Pope John Paul II in his apostolic constitution Universi Dominici gregis as amended by Pope Benedict XVI in 2007 and 2013. A two-thirds supermajority vote is required to elect the new pope; the procedures relating to the election of the pope have undergone two millennia of development. Procedures similar to the present system were introduced in 1274 when Gregory X promulgated Ubi periculum following the action of the magistrates of Viterbo during the interregnum of 1268–1271; the process was further refined by Gregory XV with his 1621 bull Aeterni Patris Filius, which established the requirement of a two-thirds majority of cardinal electors to elect a pope. The Third Lateran Council had set the requirement that two-thirds of the cardinals were needed to elect a pope in 1179; this requirement had varied since depending on whether the winning candidate was allowed to vote for himself, in which cases the required majority was two-thirds plus one vote. Aeterni Patris Filius prohibited this practice and established two-thirds as the standard needed for election.
Aeterni Patris Filius did not eliminate the possibility of election by acclamation, but did require that a secret ballot take place first before a pope could be elected. As early Christian communities emerged, they elected bishops, chosen by the clergy and laity with the assistance of the bishops of neighbouring dioceses. St. Cyprian says that Pope Cornelius was chosen as Bishop of Rome "by the decree of God and of His Church, by the testimony of nearly all the clergy, by the college of aged bishops, of good men"; as in other dioceses, the clergy of the Diocese of Rome was the electoral body for the Bishop of Rome. Instead of casting votes, the bishop was selected by acclamation; the candidate would be submitted to the people for their general approval or disapproval. This lack of precision in the election procedures gave rise to rival popes or antipopes; the right of the laity to reject the person elected was abolished by a Synod held in the Lateran in 769, but restored to Roman noblemen by Pope Nicholas I during a Synod of Rome in 862.
The pope was subjected to oaths of loyalty to the Holy Roman Emperor, who had the duty of providing security and public peace in Rome. A major change came in 1059, when Pope Nicholas II decreed in In Nomine Domini that the cardinals were to elect a candidate, who would take office after receiving the assent of the clergy and laity; the cardinal bishops were to meet first and discuss the candidates before summoning the cardinal priests and cardinal deacons for the actual vote. The Second Council of the Lateran in 1139 removed the requirement for obtaining the assent of the lower clergy and the laity, while the Third Council of the Lateran in 1179 gave equal rights to the entire College of Cardinals when electing a new pope. Through much of the Middle Ages and Renaissance the Catholic Church had only a small number of cardinals at any one time, as few as seven under either Pope Alexander IV or Pope John XXI; the difficulty of travel further reduced the number arriving at conclaves. The small electorate magnified the significance of each vote and made it all but impossible to displace familial or political allegiances.
Conclaves lasted months and years. In his 1274 decree requiring the electors be locked in seclusion, Gregory X limited each cardinal elector to two servants and rationed their food progressively when a conclave reached its fourth and ninth days; the cardinals disliked these rules. Lengthy elections resumed and continued to be the norm until 1294, when Pope Celestine V reinstated the 1274 rules. Long interregna followed: in 1314–1316 during the Avignon Papacy, where the original conclaves were dispersed by besieging mercenaries and not reconvened for two years. In 1587 Pope Sixtus V limited the number of cardinals to 70, following the precedent of Moses, assisted by 70 elders in governing the Children of Israel: six cardinal bishops, 50 cardinal priests, 14 cardinal deacons. Beginning with the attempts of Pope John XXIII to broaden the representation of nations in the College of Cardinals, that number has increased. In 1970 Paul VI ruled that cardinals who reach the age of eighty before the start of a conclave are ineligible to participate.
In 1975 he limited the number of cardinal electors to 120. Though this remains the theoretical limit, John Paul II exceeded this for short periods of time, he changed the age limit sl
Pope John Paul I
Pope John Paul I was head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City from 26 August 1978 to his death 33 days later. He was the first pope to have been born in the 20th century, his reign is among the shortest in papal history, resulting in the most recent year of three popes, the first to occur since 1605. John Paul I remains the most recent Italian-born pope, the last in a succession of such popes that started with Clement VII in 1523, he was declared a Servant of God by his successor, John Paul II, on 23 November 2003, the first step on the road to sainthood. Pope Francis named him as Venerable. Before the papal conclave that elected him, he expressed his desire not to be elected, telling those close to him that he would decline the papacy if elected, upon the cardinals electing him, he felt an obligation to say yes, he was the first pontiff to have a double name, choosing "John Paul" in honour of his two immediate predecessors, John XXIII and Paul VI. He explained that he was indebted to John XXIII and to Paul VI for naming him a bishop and a cardinal, respectively.
Furthermore, he was the first pope to add the regnal number "I", designating himself "the First". His two immediate successors, John Paul II and Benedict XVI recalled the warm qualities of the late pontiff in several addresses. In Italy, he is remembered with the appellatives of "Il Papa del Sorriso" and "Il Sorriso di Dio". TIME magazine and other publications referred to him as The September Pope, he is known in Italy as "Papa Luciani". In his town of birth, Canale d'Agordo, there is a museum, made and named in his honour, dedicated to his life and his brief papacy. Albino Luciani was born on 17 October 1912 in Forno di Canale in Belluno, a province of the Veneto region in Northern Italy, he was the son of Giovanni Luciani, a bricklayer, Bortola Tancon. Albino was followed by two brothers and Edoardo, a sister, Antonia, he was baptised on the day he was born by the midwife because he was considered to be in danger of death, the solemn rites of baptism were formalised in the parish church two days later.
Luciani was a restless child, in 1922, aged 10, he was awestruck when a Capuchin friar came to his village to preach the Lenten sermons. From that moment he decided that he wanted to become a priest and went to his father to ask for his permission, his father agreed and said to him: "I hope that when you become a priest you will be on the side of the workers, for Christ Himself would have been on their side". Luciani entered the minor seminary of Feltre in 1923, where his teachers found him "too lively", went on to the major seminary of Belluno. During his stay at Belluno, he attempted to join the Jesuits but was denied by the seminary's rector, Bishop Giosuè Cattarossi. Ordained a priest on 7 July 1935, Luciani served as a curate in his native Forno de Canale before becoming a professor and the vice-rector of the Belluno seminary in 1937. Among the different subjects, he taught canon law and sacred art. In 1941, Luciani started to work on a Doctorate of Sacred Theology from the Pontifical Gregorian University.
This required at least one year's attendance in Rome. However, the Belluno seminary's superiors wanted him to continue teaching during his doctoral studies; the situation was resolved by a special dispensation by Pope Pius XII on 27 March 1941. His thesis attacked Rosmini's theology and earned him his doctorate magna cum laude in 1947. In 1947, he was named chancellor to OFM Cap, of Belluno. In 1954, he was named the vicar general for the Belluno diocese. Luciani was nominated for the position of Bishop several times but he was passed down each time due to his poor health and his resigned appearance. In 1949, he published; this book, his first, was about teaching the truths of the faith in a simple way and comprehensible to all people. On 15 December 1958, Luciani was appointed Bishop of Vittorio Veneto by Pope John XXIII, he received his episcopal consecration on the following 27 December from Pope John XXIII himself, with Bishops Bortignon and Gioacchino Muccin serving as the co-consecrators. In his first address to the people of his new diocese, Luciani stated: "I would like to be a bishop, a teacher and a servant".
As a bishop, he participated in all the sessions of the Second Vatican Council. In 1958, he had taken Humilitas as his episcopal motto, he took possession of the diocese on 11 January 1959. On 18 April 1962, Luciani issued a pastoral letter, entitled "Notes on the Council", in order to alert the faithful to the structure of the proceedings and the overall purpose of the Council, the doctrinal and practical issues. In 1966, he visited Burundi in East Africa. Between 1965 and 1969 he faced the schism of Montaner: all the residents of Montaner, a frazione of Sarmede, decided to renounce Catholicism and embrace the Orthodox religion, because they had great disagreement with their bishop Monsignor Luciani; the people did not agree with Luciani's decision to appoint John Gava as a new priest in 1966 since the people wanted their own choice, rather than the one Luciani had settled on. The people wanted a compromise: make their choice the parish's vice-rector if not parish priest, but Monsignor Luciani said the small village needed only one priest, that he was the sole authority